Coronary Artery Disease

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					Coronary Artery Disease
                                 What is coronary
                                 artery disease?




A narrowing of the coronary arteries that prevents adequate
blood supply to the heart muscle. Usually caused by
atherosclerosis, it may progress to the point where the heart
muscle is damaged due to lack of blood supply. Such
damage may result in infarction, arrhythmias, and heart
failure.
                      Causes

   CAD has many risk factors, including:
    – Smoking,
    – Radiotherapy to the chest,
    – Hypertension,
    – Diabetes,
    – Hyperlipidemia.
               Signs & Symptoms
   Coronary heart disease may be
    asymptomatic. If not, symptoms can
    include:
    – Chest heaviness
    – Dyspnea
    – Fatigue
    – Chest pain
    – Angina
    – Myocardial infarction
                     Pathophysiology

   coronary artery disease occurs when part of the smooth, elastic
    lining inside a coronary artery (the arteries that supply blood to
    the heart muscle) develops atherosclerosis.

   With atherosclerosis, the artery's lining becomes hardened,
    stiffened, and swollen with all sorts of "grunge" - including
    calcium deposits, fatty deposits, and abnormal inflammatory
    cells - to form a plaque. Deposits of calcium phosphates
    (hydroxyapatites) in the muscular layer of the blood vessels
    appear to play not only a significant role in stiffening arteries but
    also for the induction of an early phase of coronary
    arteriosclerosis.
               Diagnosis
 Electrocardiograms
 Echocardiograms
 Stress Tests
 Nuclear Imaging
 Angiography
Electrocardiograms (ECGs or EKGs)

   provide a record of the heart's electrical
    activity.
   This simple test records any abnormal
    findings in the heart's electrical impulses.
    Electrodes are placed on the arms and
    chest to monitor electrical activity.
       Echocardiograms (ECHOs)

   It is may be ordered if your doctor
    suspects a problem with the heart muscle
    or one of the valves that channel blood
    through the heart.
                 Stress tests

   They are used to show how the heart
    reacts to physical exertion. Exercise stress
    tests are usually performed on a treadmill
    or exercise bicycle.
        Nuclear cardiac imaging
 involves the use of small amounts of short-
  lived radioactive material, which is injected
  into the bloodstream.
 A special camera (live-motion x-ray)
  detects the radioactivity of these materials,
  and the images displayed show how your
  heart pumps blood.
 This is useful in identifying any areas of
  abnormal motion or for assessing the
  blood supply to the heart muscle.
                 Angiography
   Is the most accurate means by which to
    examine the coronary arteries.
    It requires a surgical procedure called
    cardiac catheterization. During the
    procedure, catheters (small thin plastic
    tubes) are placed in the artery of the leg or
    arm, and directed using an x-ray machine
    to the opening of each of the coronary
    arteries
                     Treatment
   Lifestyle changes:
       Lifestyle changes that may be useful in
    coronary disease include:

    – Weight control
    – Smoking cessation
    – Exercise
    – Healthy diet
               Treatment (cont..)
   Medications to treat coronary disease
    – Cholesterol lowering medications, such as
        statins, are useful to decrease the amount
        of "bad" (LDL) cholesterol.
    –   Nitroglycerin
    –   ACE inhibitors, which treat hypertension
        and may lower the risk of recurrent
        myocardial infarction
    –   Calcium channel blockers
    –   Aspirin
               Treatment (cont..)

   Surgical intervention
    – Angioplasty
    – Stents
    – Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
      PCI Procedural refinements: Stents




Expandable metal mesh tubes that buttresses the
dilated segment, limit restenosis.
Drug eluting stents: further reduce cellular
proliferation in response to the injury of dilatation.
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
CABG
  Procedural refinements:
    – arterial rather than vein
      grafts
    – avoid the cardiopulmonary
      bypass machine
    – smaller thoracotomy
      incision rather than
      sternotomy

				
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posted:3/2/2012
language:English
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