Support and Movement - PowerPoint

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					    Support and Movement




March 1, 2012              1
What are tissues?
      A group of cells that look alike and work
       together make up a tissue.
      Tissues form from stem cells that
       differentiate during development.




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      Tissues are named
       for the job they do.
       There are 4 main
       kinds: muscle
       tissue, covering
       tissue, connective
       tissue and nerve
       tissue
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1. Muscle Tissue
          Muscle tissue makes up muscles
          Muscle tissue is made up of cells that can
           become shorter
          There are several types of muscle tissue:
           Skeletal, Smooth and cardiac.




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Skeletal Muscle      Skeletal muscle is a
                      type of striated
                      muscle, usually
                      attached to the
                      skeleton.
                     Skeletal muscles are
                      used to create
                      movement, by
                      applying force to
                      bones and joints .
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       They generally contract voluntarily.




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Smooth Muscle
      Smooth muscle
       is a type of non-
       striated muscle.
      Smooth muscle
       fibers are spindle
       shaped, and like
       all muscle, can
       contract and
       relax.
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      Smooth muscle is usually found within the
       "walls" of hollow organs and elsewhere like
       the bladder and abdominal cavity, the uterus,
       male and female reproductive tracts, the
       gastrointestinal tract, and the respiratory tract.




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Cardiac Muscle
                   'Cardiac muscle' is a type
                    of involuntary striated
                    muscle found within the
                    heart.
                    Its function is to "pump"
                    blood through the
                    circulatory system by
                    contracting.
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2. Covering Tissue
      The skin that covers your body is made
       up of epithelial tissue. Epithelial tissues
       is made up of cells that join tightly
       together.
      Epithelial tissue also covers many parts
       inside the body. It is your first line of
       defense against many disease and
       bacteria
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                   EPITHELIAL TISSUE
                    is a tissue composed of a
                    layer of cells.. The
                    outermost layer of our
                    skin is composed of dead
                    epithelial cells.



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Functions of epithelial cells
      Functions of epithelial cells include secretion,
       absorption, protection, transcellular transport,
       sensation detection, and selective
       permeability.




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3. Connective Tissue
      Tissue that holds some parts of the body
       together is called connective tissue.
      Connective tissue supports and protects
       the body.
      There are 4 types: Bone, ligaments,
       tendons and blood


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                   Bones are rigid connective
Bones               organs that make up the
                    skeleton of vertebrates.
                   Bones are primarily
                    comprised of osseous tissue
                    which may also be referred
                    to as bone or bone tissue.




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Ligaments
      Ligaments connect bones to one another.




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Tendons
      Tendons connect muscle to bones.




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Blood
      Blood is a liquid connective tissue.
      It has blood cells that float in a yellow
       liquid, known as blood plasma. .
      Blood carries food, gases, and other
       important substances to and from all the
       cells in the body.


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4. Nerve Tissue
      Nerve Tissue is made up of nerve cells,
       or neurons.
      Nerve tissue carries messages.
      It causes muscles to expand and
       contract, controls breathing, digestion
       and heart rhythms.
      Your brain and spinal cord are made
       mostly of nerve tissue.
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    What are
    Organs and
    Organ
    Systems?
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Organs
      A group of tissues that
       works together to do a
       special job is called an
       organ.
      Examples --
      Heart - function is to
       pump blood into the
       blood vessels.
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      Nerve tissue – carry impulses to the heart
       and control the heartbeat.
      Blood vessels – surround the heart and
       supply its cells with oxygen and nutrients.




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                       Glands
                   Organs or groups of
                    cells that give off
                    substances used by
                    the body are called
                    glands.




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Organ Systems
      A group of organs that work together is
       called an organ system.
      All the organs in an organ system work
       together to carry out certain life
       processes.
      There are 11 major organ systems


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Skeletal system
      Major structures –
       Bones
      Function –
       Provides structure
       and supports the
       internal organs.


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Muscular system
                     Major structures -
                      muscles (skeletal,
                      cardiac and
                      smooth)
                     Function – Provides
                      structure; supports
                      and moves trunk
                      and limbs
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Circulatory System
      Major structures
       – Heart, blood
       vessels, Blood
      Function –
       Transports
       nutrients and
       wastes to and
       from all body
       tissues.
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Respiratory System
                   Major structures - Air
                    passages, lungs
                   Function – Carries air
                    into and out of lungs,
                    where gases (oxygen
                    and carbon dioxide)
                    are exchanged.

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Immune system
      Major structures – Lymph nodes and
       vessels, white blood cells
      Function – Provides protection against
       infection and disease.




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Integumentary System
•      Major Structures: skin,
       hair, nails, sweat and oil
       glands.
•      Function: Serves a barrier
       against infection and
       injury: helps to regulate
       body temperature;
       provides protection against
       ultraviolet radiation from
November 17, 2009

       the sun.
Digestive system
      Major structures – mouth,
       esophagus, stomach, liver,
       pancreas, small and large
       intestines
      Function – Stores and
       digests food; absorbs
       nutrients; eliminates
       wastes
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Excretory System
      Major structures –
       kidneys, bladder,
       ureters, urethra,
       skin, lungs
      Function –
       Eliminates waste;
       maintain water and
       chemical balance
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Nervous system
      Major structures – brain, spinal cord,
       nerves, sense organs, receptors
      Function – controls and coordinates body
       movements and senses; controls
       consciousness and creativity; helps
       monitor and maintain other body systems


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Endocrine system
                   Major structures – Glands
                    (such as adrenal, thyroid,
                    and pancreas),
                    hypothalamus
                   Function – Maintains
                    homeostasis, regulates
                    metabolism, water and
                    mineral balance, growth
                    and sexual development,
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                    and reproduction.        37
Reproductive system
      Major structures – ovaries, uterus,
       mammary glands (in females), testes (in
       males)
      Function – produces offspring




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• Anatomy – the structure of body parts (also
  called Morphology)
• Physiology – the function of the body parts, what
  they do and how they do it
 • Axial Portion - head, neck, trunk
 • Appendicular Portion - arms & legs




1. Several body cavities
2. Layers of membranes within cavities
3. Variety of organs and organ systems within cavities
(VISCERA = internal organs. "Visceral organs")
Popular in horror movies and games
Homework: Organ Systems Concept Map
Homework: Fill out the
chart on the body regions
    What is the Skeletal System?




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Three Types of Skeletons
      1. Hydrostatic (water)
        - like a starfish
      2. Exoskeleton (arthropods)
        - tough, hard , outer covering.
        - Protects the animal
      3. Endoskeleton (vertebrates) - skeleton
       inside the body

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      The Skeleton of
       Humans is
       composed of a
       special connective
       tissue called
       BONE
      There are 206
       bones in the
       human body
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                   The skeleton is
                    divided into two
                    groups: the axial
                    skeleton and the
                    appendicular
                    skeleton, each
                    with it's own
                    purpose.


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Axial

      The axial skeleton, making up 80 of your 206
       bones, encompasses all your upper body
       bones.
      It is subdivided into three groups: the skull,
       the vertebral column, and the bony thorax.




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      It's main purposes are to protect your vital
       organs, such as the brain, heart, and lungs,
       and to provide an efficient structure to
       perform a variety of work.




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The Appendicular Skeleton
      The appendicular skeleton refers to your arms
       and legs.
      They are called appendicular (from "append")
       because they are attached by girdles, which
       bridge each with the main body




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Jobs of the Skeleton
                           Support, shape
                           and protect the
                           body
                          The spine also
                           allows for
                           movement


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                   The backbone is
                    made up of separate
                    bones called –
                    vertebrae.
                   These bones are
                    hollow and allow us
                    to bend and twist.

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Other jobs of the skeleton
      Work with muscles to move the body
      Protect important organs
      Store minerals like calcium
      Make blood




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Bones are classified by their shape -
      1. Long bones (humerus,
       femur)
       2. Flat bones (skull)
       3. Short bones (fingers)
       4. Irregular bones (vertebrae )




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Cartilage
                   Cartilage is a tough, but
                    flexible connective tissue.
                   All of our bones are made of
                    cartilage first, but during the
                    2nd and 3rd months of
                    embryonic development,
                    they slowly turn into bone.

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Bone Formation
      Over time, cartilage is replaced by hard, living bone
       tissue
      Specialized cells produce calcium – enriched
       material that makes up bone.
      Other cells break down bone tissue during the
       growth and remodeling stage of bone development.
      The size and shape of bones change as a person
       matures

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What are bones?




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Bones
      The bones of the ear are the smallest bones in
       the body.




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Structure of Bones
                   Bones are made up of
                    living and non living
                    material
                   Each bone is covered by a
                    periosteum - thin
                    membrane that contains
                    blood vessels that carry
                    blood and oxygen to the
                    living bone cells.
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      The hardest part of bone is called compact
       bone.
      It is made up of living bone cells, protein
       fibers, and nonliving materials.




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      EPIPHYSIS – expanded ends of bone.
       ARTICULATES (forms a joint) with another
       bone.
      DIAPHYSIS – shaft of the bone
      ARTICULAR CARTILAGE – hyaline
       cartilage covering the ends of bones
      Synovial fluid – fills spaces between bones

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The role of calcium
      Calcium is an important part of your diet. It
       helps make bones hard.
      Osteoporosis can result from bones that are
       not calcium rich.




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      The ends of
       bones are soft
       and spongy.
      Spongy bone is
       very porous,
       with many holes
       in it.
      Spongy bone
       gives bone its
       strength.
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Marrow
                   Bone marrow is
                    soft connective
                    tissue that fills the
                    spaces in spongy
                    bone.
                   Bone marrow is
                    usually red or
                    yellow in color.
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      Spongy bone contains red bone marrow.
      This is where new red blood cells are made.
      Adults only have red bone marrow in certain
       bones, such as the femur and the hips.




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      Long bones contain yellow marrow
      Yellow marrow contains mostly fat.




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Bone Marrow Transplants
      Used to treat disorders such as leukemia and
       anemia
      Needed when a person’s blood cells produce
       abnormal cell




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      Radiation is
       given to a
       person with
       abnormal
       bone marrow
       and cells
       from a
       healthy donor
       are inserted
       into the
       patient’s
       bloodstream.
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2 drawbacks to bone marrow
transplants
                   The patient’s body can
                    accept or reject the new
                    bone marrow.
                   High risk of infection




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How do Joints Work?




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Joints
      The place where two or more bones meet is
       called a joint.
      Some bones are connected directly to other
       bones at the joint.
      Most bones are held together by ligaments.



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3 Main Kinds of joints
       Fixed (fibrous)
        joints – do not
        allow any
        movement
       The joints in your
        skull are fixed.



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                   Cartilaginous joints -
                    Partly movable joints
                    – allow a little bit of
                    movement.
                   The joints between
                    your ribs and your
                    breastbone move a
                    little bit.
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                   Synovial joints -
                    Movable joints – allow a
                    lot of movement.
                   Your arms and legs are
                    movable joints.




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4 major kinds of movable joints
      Ball and socket joints
       allow bones to move in
       most directions.
      Joint between upper
       arm and shoulder
       allows your arm to
       move around in a
       circle.
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      Gliding joints allow
       some movement in all
       directions. The bones
       slide along each other.
      Your wrist is a gliding
       joint.


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                   Hinge joints allow
                    bones to backward
                    and forward in one
                    direction.
                   Elbows and knees




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      Pivotal Joints allow
       bones to move side
       to side and up and
       down.
      The joint between
       your skull and your
       neck is a pivotal
       joint.
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Cartilage and bones
      Cartilage is usually found in the joints.
      It cushions bones and prevents them from
       rubbing against one another.
      It also acts as a shock absorber for the spinal
       vertebrae.



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Bones you must know!




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cranium
      the bones of the
       skull surrounding
       the brain, not
       including the face
       bones; the bone just
       above/in front of the
       ear is the temporal
       bone
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mandible
      the jaw bone, so the
       hinge of the jaw is
       the temporo-
       mandibular joint,
       and problems with
       malfunctioning of
       this joint are known
       as TMJ
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vertebrae
                   bones which
                    make up the
                    spine




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      Cervical vertebrae - the vertebrae in the neck
       region
      Thoracic Vertebrae - the vertebrae with ribs
       attached
      Lumbar vertebrae - the vertebrae in the lower
       back
      Sacrum - five fused vertebrae which are
       joined to the pelvis
      Coccyx - four fused vertebrae which comprise
       the tailbone
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Ribs
      bones protecting
       the chest cavity
       (we all have
       twelve pairs)




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Sternum
      the breastbone




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Clavicle
      the collar bone




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Scapula
      the shoulder blade




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humerus
      the top of the arm




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Ulna
      the little
       finger side
       of the lower
       arm which
       also forms
       the elbow



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Radius
                   the thumb side of the
                    lower arm; the
                    Radius Rotates
                    around




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Carpals
      the wrist bones




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Metacarpals
      the palm of the hand




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Phalanges
      the fingers and toes




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Os (Coxa)
      the hip bones




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Ileum
      the big bone on top that we think of as the hip
       bone




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Ischium
      the bones on which you sit




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Pubis
      the lower front hip bone




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Femur
      the thigh bone




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Patella
      the kneecap




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Tibia
      the thick, inside (big-
       toe side) shinbone




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Fibula
      the thin, outer (little-toe side) shinbone




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Tarsals
      the heel bones




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Metatarsals
      the arch of the foot, the sole




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Phalanges
      the fingers and toes




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What is the muscular system?




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Muscles
      More than 600
       muscles make up
       the muscular
       system
      Muscles are tissues
       that can shorten
       along their length

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      Muscles are attached to
       bones by tendons.
      A tendon is a strong
       elastic band of tissue.
       When a muscle contracts,
       it pulls on the tendon,
       which makes the bone
       move
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Muscle Fibers
      A muscle is composed of
       many fibers (or cells).
      Individual muscles are
       separated from each other
       and held in place by a
       covering called the fascia.


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3 types of connective tissue found in
muscles
1.       Epimysium – outermost layer – surrounds
         entire muscle
2.       Perimysium – separated and surrounds the
         bundles of muscle fibers
3.       Endomysium - surrounds each individual
         muscle fiber.


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Muscle actions
      Muscles only move bones when they contract,
      Muscles can only pull bones, they cannot
       push bones.




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Flexors
                   Muscles that bend
                    or flex your joints




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extensors
      Muscles that
       straighten, or
       extend your
       joints.




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Teamwork
                   Muscles must work in
                    teams of 2.
                   Example- biceps are
                    flexors, triceps are
                    extensors.
                   Flexion and extension are
                    opposite movements

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Types of muscle movement
      Abduction - Movement of muscle away from
       the center of the body
      Adduction - Movement of muscle towards the
       center of the body
      Circumduction – circular movement of a limb



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3 kinds of muscles
      There are three main kinds of muscles,
       skeletal, smooth and cardiac




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Skeletal Muscle


      Skeletal muscle is striated muscle, meaning it
       has stripes or dark bands.
      Skeletal muscle is attached directly to the
       skeleton - they make your body move.
      Skeletal muscles are usually voluntary –
       meaning you can control their movements.
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Smooth muscle
      Muscle tissue found in
       the walls of blood
       vessels, the stomach and
       other internal organs.
      It is involuntary muscle
       because you cannot
       control its movements.


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Cardiac muscle
      Found only in the heart and major blood
       vessels. It is very strong and striated.
      Cardiac muscle is involuntary.




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Functions of muscle
      Movement
      Posture
      Stabilize joints
      Generate heat
      Protect organs



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Types of Joint Movement
        Nonaxial joints
               - Allow only slipping or gliding movements
                   – also known as plane joints
        Uniaxial joints –
               permit flexion and extension only –
                   Examples: elbow and interphalangeal joints




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        Biaxial joints
               permit all angular motions
               Examples: radiocarpal (wrist) joints, and
                metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints
        Multiaxial joints
               permit the most freely moving synovial joints
               Examples: shoulder and hip joints


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Major muscles you must know




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Heart
      Contractile muscle responsible for circulating
       blood throughout the body




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Diaphragm
                   Responsible for
                    inflating and
                    deflating our
                    lungs




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Biceps and Triceps
      Arm muscles




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Deltoid
      Shoulder
       muscle




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Trapezius
      Muscle of
       the upper
       back




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Obliques
      To the left
       and right of
       our
       abdominal
       muscles.
      Help us
       develop a 6-
       pack
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Gluteus maximus
      Butt muscle - we sit on it!




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Hamstrings
      Muscles to
       the rear of
       the thigh




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Soleus
      Calf muscle




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Temporalis
      Used for
       chewing and
       crushing




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Frontalis
      Thin muscle - the forehead




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Nervous System
Parts of the Nervous System
   Brain
   Spinal Cord
   Nerves
Vocabulary to Know
   Homeostasis
       The regulation of steady, life-maintaining
        conditions inside an organism, despite changes in
        its environment
Nerve Cells
   Neurons
       Basic
        functioning
        units of the
        nervous
        system
http://35.9.122.184/images/40-AnimalStructureAndFunction/
Neurons
   Made up of a cell body and branches called
    dendrites and axons
       Dendrites receive messages from other neurons
        and send them to the cell body
       Axons carry messages away from the cell body
Neurons
  A message carried by a neuron is called an
                    impulse
Types of Neurons
   Sensory
   Motor
   Interneuron
Sensory Neurons
   Receive information
   Send impulses to the brain or spinal cord
Interneurons
   Send impulses from sensory neurons to motor
    neurons
Motor Neurons
   Conduct impulses from the brain or spinal
    cord to muscles or glands throughout your
    body
Synapse
   Small space across which an impulse moves
    from an axon to the dendrites or cell body of
    another neuron
Synapse
     An impulse reaches the end of an axon
     Axon releases a chemical
     Flows across the synapse
     Stimulates the impulse in the dendrite of
      the next neuron
     Impulse moves from neuron to neuron
http://www.med.harvard.edu/publications/On_The_Brain/Volume7/Number1/images/Neuron.jpg
Two Parts
   Central (CNS)
   Peripheral (PNS)
http://inside.salve.edu/walsh/cns_pns.jpg
Central Nervous System
   Brain
   Spinal cord
The Brain
   Coordinates body activities
   Made up of approximately 100 billion
    neurons
   Divided into three major parts-
       the cerebrum
       the cerebellum
       the brain stem.
Cerebrum
   Largest part of the brain
   Thinking
   Memory is stored
   Movements are controlled
   Impulses from the senses are interpreted.
Cerebellum
   Interprets stimuli from eyes, ears, muscles
   Controls voluntary muscle movements
   Maintains muscle tone
   Helps maintain balance
Brain Stem
   Connects brain to spinal cord
   Made up of the midbrain, the pons,
       Act as pathways connecting various parts of the
        brain with each other
   Medulla
       controls involuntary actions
http://www.cbituk.org/GRAPHICS/brain.gif
      The Spinal Cord
           Extension of the brain stem
        Bundles of neurons that carry impulses from
                parts of the body of the brain and from the brain
            allthat carry impulses from all partsto the body to the brain andfrom the to all pa
dles of neurons
            brain to all parts of your body
The
Peripheral
Nervous
System
Your brain
Somatic and
and spinal
Autonomic
cord are
Systems
connected to
The
the rest of
peripheral
your body
nervous
by the
system has
peripheral
two major
nervous
divisions.
system. The
The somatic
PNS is
system
made up of
controls
12 pairs of
voluntary
nerves from
actions. It is
your brain
made up of
called
the cranial
cranial
and spinal
nerves, and
nerves that
31 pairs
go from the
from your
central
spinal cord
nervous
called spinal
system to
nerves.
your skeletal
Spinal
muscles.
nerves are
The
made up of
autonomic
bundles of
system
sensory and
controls
motor
involuntary
neurons
actions-
bound
those not
together by
under
connective
conscious
tissue. For
control-such
Research
this reason,
as your
a single
Visit the
heart rate,
spinal nerve
Glencoe
breathing,
can have
Science
digestion,
impulses
Web site at
and
tx.science.gl
going to and
glandular
from the
encoe.com
functions.
brain at the
for more
These two
information
same time.
divisions,
Some
about the
along with
nerves
nervous
the central
system. only
contain
nervous
sensory
Make a
system,
neurons,
brochure
make up
and some
outlining
your body's
contain
recent only
nervous
medical
motor
system.
neurons,
advances.but
most nerves
contain both
types of
neurons.
Peripheral Nervous System
   Connects body to brain & spinal cord
   12 pairs of nerves from your brain (cranial
    nerves)
   31 pairs from your spinal cord (spinal nerves)
       Bundles of sensory and motor neurons held
        together by connective tissue
http://www.christopherreeve.org/Research/Research.cfm?ID=178&c=21
Peripheral Nervous System
   Two divisions
       Somatic
       Autonomic
http://abdellab.sunderland.ac.uk/lectures/Parmacology/Pics/anatomy/PNS.GIF
Somatic Nervous System
   Controls voluntary actions
   Made up of the cranial and spinal nerves that
    go from the central nervous system to your
    skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
   Controls involuntary actions-those not under
    conscious control-such as your heart rate,
    breathing, digestion, and glandular functions
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/autonomic.gif
Reflexes
   Involuntary, automatic response to a stimulus
   Involves a simple nerve pathway called a
    reflex arc

				
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