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```					ADVANCED MANAGEMENT
ACCOUNTING

PPT 21 -1
Capital Investment
Decisions

PPT 21 -2
Learning Objectives

 Explain what a capital investment decision
is and distinguish between independent and
mutually exclusive capital investment
decisions.
 Compute the payback period and
accounting rate of return for a proposed
investment, and explain their roles in
capital investment decisions.
PPT 21 -3
Learning Objectives (continued)

 Use net present value analysis for capital
investment decisions involving independent
projects.
acceptability of an independent project.
 Explain why NPV is better than IRR for
capital investment decisions involving
mutually exclusive projects.
PPT 21 -4
Learning Objectives (continued)

 Convert gross cash flows to after-tax cash
flows.
 Describe capital investment for advanced
technology and environmental impact
settings.

PPT 21 -5
Capital Budgeting

Capital budgeting is the process of making capital
investment decisions.
Two types of capital budgeting projects:
Independent projects:        Projects that, if accepted or rejected, will
not affect the cash flows of another
project.
Mutually exclusive projects: Projects that, if accepted, preclude the
acceptance of competing projects.

PPT 21 -6
Payback Method: Uneven Cash Flows
Payback Period is the time required to recover a
project’s original investment.
Example: Investment = \$20,000
Cash flow pattern:
Year        1:          \$5,000
2:          10,000
3:          20,000
4:          20,000
Payback = 2.25 years.
\$5,000 (yr. 1) + \$10,000 (yr. 2) + \$5,000 (1/4 of yr. 3).

PPT 21 -7
Payback Method
Possible reasons for use

 To help control the risks associated with the
uncertainty of future cash flows
 To help minimize the impact of an investment on
firm’s liquidity problems
 To help control the risk of obsolescence

 To help control the effect of the investment on
performance measures

PPT 21 -8
Payback Method
Major deficiencies

 Ignores the time
value of money
 Ignores the
performance of the
investment beyond
the payback period

PPT 21 -9
Accounting Rate Of Return (ARR)

ARR = Average Income/Investment

Average income equals average annual net cash
flows, less average depreciation.

Example: Suppose that some new equipment requires an
initial outlay of \$80,000 and promises total cash
flows of \$120,000 over the next five years (the
life of the machine). What is the ARR?

PPT 21 -10
Accounting Rate Of Return (ARR)
(continued)

Answer: The average cash flow is \$24,000 (\$120,000/5) and
the average depreciation is \$16,000 (\$80,000/5).

ARR       = (\$24,000 - \$16,000)/\$80,000
= \$8,000/\$80,000
= 10%

PPT 21 -11
Accounting Rate Of Return (ARR)
Possible reasons for use

 A screening measure
to ensure that new
investment will not
income
 To ensure a favorable
effect on net income so
that bonuses can be
earned (increased)
PPT 21 -12
Accounting Rate Of Return (ARR)

The major
deficiency of the
accounting rate of
return is that it
ignores the time
value of money.

PPT 21 -13
Net Present Value (NPV)
Definition:
NPV = P - I
where:
P = the present value of the project’s future cash inflows
I = the present value of the project’s cost (usually the
initial outlay)

NPV IS A MEASURE OF THE PROFITABILITY
OF AN INVESTMENT, EXPRESSED IN
CURRENT DOLLARS.
PPT 21 -14
Net Present Value (NPV): Example

A project promises to return \$10,000 after one year and
\$20,000 after two years. The project also requires an initial
investment of \$22,000. Calculate its net present value
assuming a 12% discount rate.
Discount       Present
Year         Cash Flow            Factor        Value
0            \$(22,000)            1.000       \$(22,000)
1              10,000             0.893          8,930
2              20,000             0.797        15,940
\$2,870
===
PPT 21 -15
Decision Criteria for NPV (continued)

If the NPV >0 this indicates:
1. The initial investment has been recovered
2. The required rate of return has been recovered
3. A return in excess of 1. and 2. has been received

Thus, the project should be accepted.

PPT 21 -16
Decision Criteria for NPV (continued)

If NPV = 0, this indicates:
1. The initial investment has been recovered
2. The required rate of return has been recovered

Thus, break even has been achieved and we are

PPT 21 -17
Decision Criteria for NPV (continued)

If NPV < 0, this indicates:
1. The initial investment may or may not be recovered
2. The required rate of return has not been recovered

Thus, the project should be rejected.

PPT 21 -18
Reinvestment Assumption

The NPV model assumes
that all cash flows
generated by a project are
immediately reinvested to
earn the required rate of
return throughout the life
of the project.

PPT 21 -19
Internal Rate Of Return (IRR)

The internal rate of return (IRR) is the discount rate
that sets the project’s NPV at zero. Thus, P = I for
the IRR.

Example: A project requires a \$10,000 investment and
will return \$12,000 after one year. What is
the IRR?

\$12,000/(1 + i) = \$10,000
1 + I = 1.2
I = 0.20                                        PPT 21 -20
Internal Rate Of Return (IRR)

Decision criteria
 If the IRR > Cost of Capital, the project should be
accepted.
 If the IRR = Cost of Capital, acceptance or
rejection is equal.
 If the IRR < Cost of Capital, the project should be
rejected.
PPT 21 -21
Internal Rate Of Return (IRR)
Reinvestment Assumption

from the project are
immediately reinvested to
earn a return equal to the
IRR for the remaining life
of the project.

PPT 21 -22
NPV versus IRR

There are two major differences between the two
approaches:
 NPV assumes cash inflows are reinvested at the
required rate of return, whereas the IRR method
assumes that the inflows are reinvested at the internal
rate of return.
 NPV measures the profitability of a project in absolute
dollars, whereas the IRR method measures it as a
percentage.
PPT 21 -23
NPV versus IRR (continued)

Conflicting Signals (required rate of return) = 10%
Year           Project A      Project B
0             \$(10,000)      \$(10,000)
1               --------        6,000
2               13,924          7,200
IRR                18%            20%
NPV              \$ 1,501       \$ 1,401

PPT 21 -24
NPV versus IRR (continued)
Which project should be selected?
IRR signals Project B, whereas NPV signals Project A.
The terminal value of Project A is \$13,924.
To calculate the future value of B, assume that the \$6,000 received at
the end of year one is invested at the cost of capital. Thus, the future
value of B is \$7,200 + (1.1)\$6,000 = \$13,800.

Project A provides the most wealth and should be selected
(AS SIGNALED BY NPV). IRR assumes the \$6,000 can
be reinvested at 20% when in actuality it is reinvested at
10%.

PPT 21 -25
Discount Rate: The Cost Of Capital

The appropriate discount rate to
use for NPV computations is the
cost of capital. The cost of
capital is the weighted average
of the returns expected by the
different parties contributing
funds. The weights are
determined by the proportion of
funds provided by each source.
PPT 21 -26
Discount Rate: The Cost Of Capital

Example: A company is planning on financing a project by
borrowing \$10,000 and by raising \$20,000 by issuing capital
stock. The net cost of borrowing is 6% per year. The stock
carries an expected return of 9%. The sources of capital for
this project and their cost are in the same proportion and
amounts that the company usually experiences. Calculate the
cost of capital.
Source        Amount         Cost   Weight   Cost x Weight
Debt          \$10,000        6%      1/3         2%
Stock          20,000        9%      2/3         6%
Weighted-Average Cost of Capital                 8%
===
PPT 21 -27
An Illustrative Example
Assume that the rate of inflation is 6% per year.

Analysis Without Inflationary Adjustment (assumes a 12% discount rate)
Year                  CF                            DF         P
0              \$(10,000 )          1.000    \$(10,000 )
1-2                5,500            1.690       9,295
NPV                                            \$ (705 )
======
Year                  CF                            DF         P
0              \$(10,000 )          1.000    \$(10,000 )
1                 5,830          * 0.893       5,206
2                 6,180          **0.797       4,925
NPV                                            \$ 131
======
* 1.06 x \$5,500
** 1.06 x 1.06 x \$5,500
PPT 21 -28
Notice that adjustment for inflation can affect the decision.
After-Tax Operating Cash Flows
The Income Approach

After-tax cash flow = After-tax net income + Noncash expenses
Example:
Revenues                                            \$1,000,000
Less: Operating expenses*                              600,000
Income before taxes                                 \$ 400,000
Less: Income taxes                                     136,000
Net income                                          \$ 264,000
========
* \$100,000 is depreciation
After-tax cash flow =   \$264,000 + \$100,000
=   \$364,000                                    PPT 21 -29
After-Tax Flows
Decomposition Approach
After-tax cash revenues            = (1 - Tax rate) x Cash revenues
After-tax cash expense             = (1 - Tax rate) x Cash expenses
Tax savings (noncash expenses)     = (Tax rate) x Noncash expenses
Total operating cash is equal to the after-tax cash revenues, less the after-
tax cash expenses, plus the tax savings on noncash expenses.
Example: Revenues = \$1,000,000, cash expenses = \$500,000, and
depreciation = \$100,000. Tax rate = 34%.
After-tax cash revenues       (1 - .34) (\$1,000,000) = \$660,000
Less: After-tax cash expenses (1 - .34) (\$500,000) = (330,000)
Add: Tax savings (noncash exp.) .34 (\$100,000) = 34,000
Total                                                  \$364,000
=======
PPT 21 -30
Depreciation
Tax-Shielding Effect
Depreciation is a noncash expense and is not a cash flow. Depreciation,
however SHIELDS revenues from being taxed and, thus, creates a cash
inflow equal to the tax savings.
Assume initially that tax laws DO NOT allow depreciation to be deducted
to arrive at taxable income. If a company had before-tax operating cash
flows of \$300,000 and depreciation of \$100,000, we have the following
statement:
Net operating cash flows                            \$ 300,000
Less: Depreciation                                           0
Taxable income                                      \$ 300,000
Less: Income taxes (@ 34%)                           (102,000)
Net income                                          \$ 198,000

========                                                       PPT 21 -31
Depreciation
Tax-Shielding Effect
Now assume that the tax laws allow a deduction for depreciation:
Net operating cash flows                              \$300,000
Less: Depreciation                                      100,000
Taxable income
\$200,000
Less: Income taxes (@ 34%)                             (68,000)
Net income                                            \$132,000

=======
Notice that the taxes saved are \$34,000 (\$102,000 - \$68,000). Thus, the
firm has additional cash available of \$34,000.
This savings can be computed by multiplying the tax rate by the amount
of depreciation claimed:
.34 x \$100,000 = \$34,000                                         PPT 21 -32
Tax Laws: Depreciation
The tax laws classify most assets into the following
three classes (class = Allowable years):
Class       Types of Assets
3      Most small tools
5      Cars, light trucks, and computer equip.
7      Most equip, machinery, office equip.

Assets in any of the three classes can be depreciated
using either straight-line or MACRS (Modified
Accelerated Cost Recovery System) with a half-year
convention.
PPT 21 -33
Tax Laws: Depreciation (continued)

Half-year convention: (1) Half the depreciation for
the first year can be claimed regardless of when the
asset is actually placed in service; (2) the other half
year of depreciation is claimed in the year following
the end of the asset’s class life; (3) if the asset is
disposed of before the end of its class life, only half of
the depreciation for that year can be claimed.

PPT 21 -34
Tax Laws: Depreciation

Example (straight-line): A company acquired a five-
year property for \$100,000
Depreciation
Year                     Allowed
1                       \$10,000
2                        20,000
3                        20,000
4                        20,000
5                        20,000
6                        10,000
PPT 21 -35
Tax Laws: Depreciation

MACRS uses double-declining balance with a half-year
convention. This method also switches to straight-line
depreciation whenever the straight-line amount exceeds the
double-declining balance amount. EXHIBIT 21-11 provides
the MACRS depreciation rates for three-, five- and seven-year
assets.

PPT 21 -36
Tax Laws: Depreciation
Example (MACRS): Assume five-year property costing \$100,000:
Depreciation
Year                              Allowed
1                               \$20,000
2                                32,000
3                                19,200
4                                11,520
5                                11,520
6                                  5,760

Example:   Suppose the asset was disposed of in Year 2.
How much depreciation can be claimed?
Answer:    Only half for that year:
0.5 x \$32,000 = \$16,000
PPT 21 -37
Capital Rationing
NPV
NPV index =
Investment

A company has \$45,000 of capital available for the following investment
opportunities:

Project       Investment              NPV            NPV Index
A              \$10,000            \$ 3,000               0.30
B               20,000              4,000               0.20
C               25,000             10,000               0.40
D               15,000              5,000               0.33
\$70,000
=====
NPV index ranking (greatest to least): C, D, A, B

Investment decision: Invest in C, D, and one-half of A.               PPT 21 -38
Capital Budgeting: Salvage Value

Assume that a company is considering investing in a
automated system (estimated life of ten years) that has the
following after-tax cash flows:

From tangible benefits                        \$100,000/year
From intangible benefits                       \$60,000/year
Salvage value                                     \$150,000
Initial outlay                                   \$1,000,000

The company’s cost of capital is 10% but an 18% required
rate is used for capital budgeting decisions.
PPT 21 -39
Capital Budgeting: Salvage Value
(continued)
NPV Analysis:
18% Rate          10% Rate
Tangible only:
4.494 x \$100,000 - \$1,000,000             \$(550,600 )
6.145 x \$100,000 - \$1,000,000                               \$(385,500 )
Tangible & Intangible:
4.494 x 160,000 - \$1,000,000               (280,960 )
6.145 x 160,000 - \$1,000,000                                  (16,800 )
Tangible, Intangible, & Salvage Value:
(280,960) + (.191 x \$150,000)              (252,310 )
(16,800) + (.386 x \$150,000)                                   41,100
Notice how the NPV for the 10% rate eventually becomes positive as all inputs are
considered. This emphasizes the importance of using the correct discount rate
and the importance of considering all factors that affect cash flows.

PPT 21 -40
Sensitivity Analysis
An Illustrative Example
Initial Data:
Investment                                                            \$(55,000)
Annual cash flow                                                        20,000
Discount rate                                                             12%
Expected life of project                                               4 years

NPV Analysis:
Scenario               CF         DF            P              I      NPV
\$20,000      3.037     \$60,740      \$(55,000)    \$ 5,740

10% less cash         18,000      3.037      54,666       (55,000)        (334)
1 year less           20,000      2.402      48,040       (55,000)      (6,960)
Rate = 14%            20,000      2.914      58,280       (55,000)       3,280
Combination           18,000      2.322      41,796       (55,000)     (13,204)

Before investing, further assessment of the expected life of the project is needed. The
likelihood of earning 10% or less of the projected cash flows should also be assessed.
PPT 21 -41
Future Value: Time Value of Money

Let:
F =     future value
i   =   the interest rate
P =     the present value or original outlay
n =     the number of periods
Future value can be expressed by the following formula:
F = P(1 + i)n

PPT 21 -42
Future Value: Example

Assume the investment is
\$1,000. The interest rate
is 8%. What is the future
value if the money is
invested for one year?
Two? Three?

PPT 21 -43
Future Value (continued)

F = \$1,000(1.08)    = \$1,080.00 (after one year)
F = \$1,000(1.08)2   = \$1,166.40 (after two years)
F = \$1,000(1.08)3   = \$1,259.71 (after three years)

PPT 21 -44
Present Value

P = F/(1 + i)n
The discount factor, 1/(1 + i) , is computed for
various combinations of I and n. See Exhibit 21B-1.
Example: Compute the present value of \$300 to be received
three years from now. The interest rate is 12%.
Answer:  From Exhibit 18 B-1, the discount factor is
0.712. Thus, the present value (P) is:
P =      F(df)
= \$300 x 0.712
= \$213.60                                            PPT 21 -45
Present Value (continued)

Example: Calculate the present value of a \$100 per year annuity, to be
received for the next three years. The interest rate is 12%.

Discount            Present
Year                Cash            Factor              Value
1                  \$100             0.893            \$ 89.30
2                   100             0.797              79.70
3                   100             0.712              71.20
2.402 *          \$240.20
======

* Notice that it is possible to multiply the sum of the individual discount
factors (.40) by \$100 to obtain the same answer. See Exhibit 21 B-2 for
these sums which can be used as discount factors for uniform series.
PPT 21 -46
End of Week

PPT 21 -47

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