The Nature of Science (PowerPoint download) by dfhdhdhdhjr

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									Welcome to Physical Science!
The Nature of Science

  The Methods of Science
       Ch. 1 Sec. 1
            What is Science?
• Science is a process
• Science helps explain the natural world
• Science covers three main categories:
   – Life Science
   – Earth Science
   – Physical Science
           What is Science?
• Science uses observation
  and investigation
  – Observations are recorded
  – Experiments are
    conducted
  – Models are tested
• Investigations follow a
  general pattern called the
  SCIENTIFIC METHOD
The Scientific Method
           • Our scientific
             method has six
             steps

           • Steps can be
             repeated many
             times

           • New steps can be
             added
           Scientific Method

• Step 1. What’s the
  Problem?

• Someone observes
  a natural event

• Then asks “why?”
  or “how?”
    2. Research
• Gather as much
  information as
  possible
  – Has this been tested?
  – Are there tests that will
    be helpful?
    3. Hypothesize
• HYPOTHESIS: a possible
  explanation for a problem
  – Uses what you know
  – Uses what you observed
             4. Test It
• Test by:
   – Making observations
   – Building a model
   – Perform an experiment


• An EXPERIMENT
  tests the effect of one
  thing on another
  thing, using controlled
  conditions
      Experiment Vocabulary
• An experiment contains variables and
  controls
  – A VARIABLE is something that can have
    more than one value. It changes, or varies.
  – A CONSTANT is something that does not
    change.
  – A CONTROL is something to which the
    variable is not applied. Results are compared
    to the control.
    Experiment Vocabulary
• Dependent variable: factor that changes
  because of changes in another variable
• Independent variable: the variable you
  change to see how it affects the
  dependent variable
   5. Analyze Data
• Information is recorded
  and organized
  – All data, including
    results, are recorded
  – Data is displayed in
    tables and graphs
      6. Make a Conclusion
• Do the results
  support the
  hypothesis?
  – The hypothesis is
    valid if the results
    support it every time
  – If the results do not
    support the
    hypothesis, revise
    the hypothesis or
    the experiment
    Your Homework – Design an
           Experiment
• Create an experiment using the 6 steps of
  the scientific method
  – State a problem, or a question
  – Research: what do you know already?
  – Hypothesize: guess your answer
  – Test it: just explain what you would do, you
    don’t have to do it… yet.
  – Analyze: how would you graph your results?
  – Conclude: explain what you would do if your
    results supported the hypothesis. What if they
    didn’t support it?

								
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