The Hybrid Car

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The Hybrid Car Powered By Docstoc
					The Hybrid Car
      Thomas Christia
      Julie Richardson
      Justin Vertonge
      Nicole Zambrus
 How does the car work?
•The Electrical engine
    •Powered by rechargeable batteries
    •Most used when in cities or neighborhoods or in stop and go traffic
    •During coasting and slow-down phases when a driver lightly taps on the brak
    es,      the car's wheels are automatically engaged to an electrical generator. T
    he                  generator creates an extra "load" to assist the brakes in slo
    wing the car down
    •it converts the car's mechanical energy back into electricity to recharge the ca
    r's       batteries.
•The Combustion Engine
    •Used at higher speeds as on the freeways
    •computers automatically switch on the gas-burning engine, which then takes
    over as the primary driving force of the car.
    •Typically, the small engine is designed with variable valve timing intelligence a
    nd other advances to ensure that the fuel is burned most efficiently and com
– Maintenance
   • More maintenance with the duel motor
        – Engine light come on often indicating a problem when th
          ere     might not actually be a problem.
   • Replacement Costs
     The battery and other elements of the hybrid car engine that a
     llow the transfer of power between the gas engine and the e
     lectric        battery can be expensive to fix or replace in cas
     es where damage or a defect arises
– Cost of Work
   • The cost of work on your Hybrid will be more than other cars
        – Have to use a dealership of where you bought the car, us
          ing a dealership will be more expensive than other cars
        – Will have to call for mechanics to be skilled in the combu
          stion engine and the electrical, and the both of them wor
          king           simultaneously. Calling for a workforce that
          is limited at best.
        – A mechanic who does not know how the hybrid works co
        – mix up the wiring system and your life could be in danger
        – Even a near dead battery could cause fatal accidents.
How long does the hybrid have?
 • With the expanded and accelerated technolog
   y hybrids will become passé.
 • Current technicians and inventors will need to
   move onto hyper-green (above and beyond
   what we may have) vehicles.
Types of Batteries Used

  Conventional cars use lead acid batterie
  Today most hybrids use Nickel Metal
  Hydride Batteries
  Lithium Ion batteries are the new
    No one type of lithium ion battery
    Most popular is cobalt dioxide
Lead Acid Batteries

   Lead is an extremely toxic material
   Batteries are significantly smaller than the
   ir hybrid counterparts
   Recycling programs are the most success
   ful of any consumer product
       Between 1999 and 2003, 99.2% of use
       d battery lead was properly recycled
       Recycling facilities are available in US
Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries
 Nickel is mined in open cast mines.
    Very bad for the environment
 Recycling problems because nickel is semi-toxic
    Most batteries are shipped to third world countries to be recycled becaus
    e the EPA standards do not allow for those facilities to exist in the US
Lithium Ion Batteries
    Primarily use Cobalt, which is very explosive
    Also metallic lithium that is used reacts violently when it comes in contact
    with moisture
    Very difficult to recycle because they use such dangerous materials
   Economic Issues
   Increased Complexity
• Hybrid vehicles are very complex vehicles, requiring the use
  of advanced technologies and high-tech components.
• It has two motors (gasoline and electric motors) and a lot of
  computer management systems to control them.
• A more complex system means there are more things that c
  an go wrong or break, meaning more trips to the repair sho
  p and more pricey repair bills.
• Also, mechanics have to learn how to service the new type
  of motor and corresponding system components.
 Price Mark-up

• All of these technologically advanced components lead to a
  mark-up in price compared to similarly-sized conventional
  gas burning vehicles- An estimated $3,000-$6,000 price in
• found that the average hybrid costs more tha
  n     $2,200 more to own and operate than comparable size
  d           gasoline vehicles.
• Another study by shows that gas prices woul
  d have to raise above $7 per gallon for the gas savings of
  most        hybrids to overcome the price mark-up.
• The study analyzed 43 hybrid cars that have similar non-hy
  brid, gas-powered models, showed that on average the hyb
  rid models cost 17% more to own and operate than their no
  n-hybrid       counterparts, even with gas prices factored in
  at $4 per gallon.
Battery Life
 • Hybrid batteries have an estimated life expectancy of
   100,000 miles-Two to three times less than the life of
   a well kept internal combustion engine.
 • These batteries (like the nickel metal hydride battery i
   n the Toyota Prius) require the mining of rare earth
   elements like Neodymium and lanthanum.
 • The world’s leading producer of these rare earth
   elements is China, providing 91% of the U.S. demand
   for rare earth elements.
    Compared to Diesel

Hybrid vehicles have…

•    Worse fuel efficiency
      –   ≈ 30% less efficient

•    A shorter lifespan
      –   100,000 miles vs. 400,000 miles

•    Require more expensive initial investme
      –   $5,000 more than diesel cars
      –   Additional repairs such as new battery
           •   Estimated to be $3,000

•    Are more difficult to resell

Projections by the EPA suggest PM
emissions will fall with
 “highway diesel”                        
Hybrid vs. Diesel

Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD)
 • As of December 1, 2010 all diesel fuel sold in the U.S.
   had to be ULSD
    – 15 parts per million or lower of sulfur content

 • This is a much cleaner form of diesel
    – 97% less sulfur than Low Sulfur Diesel (LSD)

 • Diesel also have catalytic converters and particulate tra
   ps to control emissions
More Mileage

  • Actually the mileage reported by the hyb
    rid motors is 10% less than claimed. It is
    the same as a fuel efficient combustion
    engine car, but the gasoline gar is less
Lower Emission

  • When hybrids use electricity to regenerat
    e the battery, if the electricity comes fro
    m hydropower or other renewable energ
    ies, emissions are likely reduced and the
    re might be an overall positive effect on
    the environment.
  • Although “if the source is coal, overall e
    missions may not be reduced, and the o
    verall environmental benefits may not be
    as strong.”
Tax incentive

   • In 2007 Cal-Trans cut the use of the
     HOV/Fast Track lanes to the use of Hybr
     ids. Incentive isn’t there!
   • The amount of the tax credit is first redu
     ced by 50% before disappearing altoget
     her over several months. Honda's tax cr
     edit, currently $525, will be phased out
     by Dec. 31, according to the Internal Re
     venue Service. The Civic credit had bee
     n as high as $2,100 before the phase-o
Relieve our Dependence on oil

   • How would it relieve our dependence on
     oil when the hybrid car is still dependent
     upon oil and gasoline?
   • When test driving the Hybrid Toyota Priu
     s Automotive Magazine reported, in the
     city the hybrid performed exceptionally
     well. On the road at high speeds the co
     mputer of the Prius directed the car to u
     se the gasoline engine, the researchers
     noted that the gasoline engine worked s
Noise reduction

   • The noise reduction has been so great t
     hat many people have been hit by hybrid
     cars because they are too quiet.
   • “When hybrid run solely on electric pow
     er, blind people say they are a hazard to
     those who rely on their ears to determin
     e whether it is safe to cross the street or
     walk through a parking lot.”
   • Fire fighters have problem with Hybrid fir
     es due to the electrical component.
Insurance Discounts

   • While the insurance discount might be ni
     ce at first it doesn't supplement the amo
     unt of money that you initially use to buy
     the car and the future maintenance of th
     e car.
“only gets better”

      Researchers have found that a “misinformed
       craze” surrounding hybrids has delayed oth
       er technologies and is drawing a majority of
       research dollars. This is stopping such new
       er technologies such as:
      oHydrogen Fuel Cells
      oBetter all –electric cars
Proper ways of Disposing of Batteries

   • There are proper ways to dispose of co
     mputers, and e-waste but you still see p
     eople carelessly throwing away electrical

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