The Hybrid Car
How does the car work?
•The Electrical engine
•Powered by rechargeable batteries
•Most used when in cities or neighborhoods or in stop and go traffic
•During coasting and slow-down phases when a driver lightly taps on the brak
es, the car's wheels are automatically engaged to an electrical generator. T
he generator creates an extra "load" to assist the brakes in slo
wing the car down
•it converts the car's mechanical energy back into electricity to recharge the ca
•The Combustion Engine
•Used at higher speeds as on the freeways
•computers automatically switch on the gas-burning engine, which then takes
over as the primary driving force of the car.
•Typically, the small engine is designed with variable valve timing intelligence a
nd other advances to ensure that the fuel is burned most efficiently and com
• More maintenance with the duel motor
– Engine light come on often indicating a problem when th
ere might not actually be a problem.
• Replacement Costs
The battery and other elements of the hybrid car engine that a
llow the transfer of power between the gas engine and the e
lectric battery can be expensive to fix or replace in cas
es where damage or a defect arises
– Cost of Work
• The cost of work on your Hybrid will be more than other cars
– Have to use a dealership of where you bought the car, us
ing a dealership will be more expensive than other cars
– Will have to call for mechanics to be skilled in the combu
stion engine and the electrical, and the both of them wor
king simultaneously. Calling for a workforce that
is limited at best.
– A mechanic who does not know how the hybrid works co
– mix up the wiring system and your life could be in danger
– Even a near dead battery could cause fatal accidents.
How long does the hybrid have?
• With the expanded and accelerated technolog
y hybrids will become passé.
• Current technicians and inventors will need to
move onto hyper-green (above and beyond
what we may have) vehicles.
Types of Batteries Used
Conventional cars use lead acid batterie
Today most hybrids use Nickel Metal
Lithium Ion batteries are the new
No one type of lithium ion battery
Most popular is cobalt dioxide
Lead Acid Batteries
Lead is an extremely toxic material
Batteries are significantly smaller than the
ir hybrid counterparts
Recycling programs are the most success
ful of any consumer product
Between 1999 and 2003, 99.2% of use
d battery lead was properly recycled
Recycling facilities are available in US
Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries
Nickel is mined in open cast mines.
Very bad for the environment
Recycling problems because nickel is semi-toxic
Most batteries are shipped to third world countries to be recycled becaus
e the EPA standards do not allow for those facilities to exist in the US
Lithium Ion Batteries
Primarily use Cobalt, which is very explosive
Also metallic lithium that is used reacts violently when it comes in contact
Very difficult to recycle because they use such dangerous materials
• Hybrid vehicles are very complex vehicles, requiring the use
of advanced technologies and high-tech components.
• It has two motors (gasoline and electric motors) and a lot of
computer management systems to control them.
• A more complex system means there are more things that c
an go wrong or break, meaning more trips to the repair sho
p and more pricey repair bills.
• Also, mechanics have to learn how to service the new type
of motor and corresponding system components.
• All of these technologically advanced components lead to a
mark-up in price compared to similarly-sized conventional
gas burning vehicles- An estimated $3,000-$6,000 price in
• CarGurus.com found that the average hybrid costs more tha
n $2,200 more to own and operate than comparable size
d gasoline vehicles.
• Another study by CarGurus.com shows that gas prices woul
d have to raise above $7 per gallon for the gas savings of
most hybrids to overcome the price mark-up.
• The study analyzed 43 hybrid cars that have similar non-hy
brid, gas-powered models, showed that on average the hyb
rid models cost 17% more to own and operate than their no
n-hybrid counterparts, even with gas prices factored in
at $4 per gallon.
• Hybrid batteries have an estimated life expectancy of
100,000 miles-Two to three times less than the life of
a well kept internal combustion engine.
• These batteries (like the nickel metal hydride battery i
n the Toyota Prius) require the mining of rare earth
elements like Neodymium and lanthanum.
• The world’s leading producer of these rare earth
elements is China, providing 91% of the U.S. demand
for rare earth elements.
Compared to Diesel
Hybrid vehicles have…
• Worse fuel efficiency
– ≈ 30% less efficient
• A shorter lifespan
– 100,000 miles vs. 400,000 miles
• Require more expensive initial investme
– $5,000 more than diesel cars
– Additional repairs such as new battery
• Estimated to be $3,000
• Are more difficult to resell
Projections by the EPA suggest PM
emissions will fall with
“highway diesel” http://www.scientificamerican.com/media/inline/why-european-diesel-cars_1.jpg
Hybrid vs. Diesel
Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD)
• As of December 1, 2010 all diesel fuel sold in the U.S.
had to be ULSD
– 15 parts per million or lower of sulfur content
• This is a much cleaner form of diesel
– 97% less sulfur than Low Sulfur Diesel (LSD)
• Diesel also have catalytic converters and particulate tra
ps to control emissions
• Actually the mileage reported by the hyb
rid motors is 10% less than claimed. It is
the same as a fuel efficient combustion
engine car, but the gasoline gar is less
• When hybrids use electricity to regenerat
e the battery, if the electricity comes fro
m hydropower or other renewable energ
ies, emissions are likely reduced and the
re might be an overall positive effect on
• Although “if the source is coal, overall e
missions may not be reduced, and the o
verall environmental benefits may not be
• In 2007 Cal-Trans cut the use of the
HOV/Fast Track lanes to the use of Hybr
ids. Incentive isn’t there!
• The amount of the tax credit is first redu
ced by 50% before disappearing altoget
her over several months. Honda's tax cr
edit, currently $525, will be phased out
by Dec. 31, according to the Internal Re
venue Service. The Civic credit had bee
n as high as $2,100 before the phase-o
Relieve our Dependence on oil
• How would it relieve our dependence on
oil when the hybrid car is still dependent
upon oil and gasoline?
• When test driving the Hybrid Toyota Priu
s Automotive Magazine reported, in the
city the hybrid performed exceptionally
well. On the road at high speeds the co
mputer of the Prius directed the car to u
se the gasoline engine, the researchers
noted that the gasoline engine worked s
• The noise reduction has been so great t
hat many people have been hit by hybrid
cars because they are too quiet.
• “When hybrid run solely on electric pow
er, blind people say they are a hazard to
those who rely on their ears to determin
e whether it is safe to cross the street or
walk through a parking lot.”
• Fire fighters have problem with Hybrid fir
es due to the electrical component.
• While the insurance discount might be ni
ce at first it doesn't supplement the amo
unt of money that you initially use to buy
the car and the future maintenance of th
“only gets better”
Researchers have found that a “misinformed
craze” surrounding hybrids has delayed oth
er technologies and is drawing a majority of
research dollars. This is stopping such new
er technologies such as:
oHydrogen Fuel Cells
oBetter all –electric cars
Proper ways of Disposing of Batteries
• There are proper ways to dispose of co
mputers, and e-waste but you still see p
eople carelessly throwing away electrical