final report by 115T4Mp

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									                                          CHAPTER III


                                   FIELD DATA ANALYSES


3.1 GULF OF MEXICO PLATFORM CASES


West Delta 133D, GOM, Louisiana
   For West Delta 133D, Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Louisiana, Table 3.X shows the related
information on this case. Water depth is 280 ft. The formation is mainly clay varying in firmness
from very soft at the mudline to very stiff below 278 ft. There were silt stringers throughout. This
platform has main piles. Two hammers were used to drive piles A-1, A-2, B-1, and B-3, while one
hammer was used to drive piles A-3, A-4, B-2, and B-4 to a depth of 300 feet.




  Table 3.1 - SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE DATA FOR WEST DELTA 133D, GOM,
LOUISIANA

   Platform data:
         location                West Delta 133, GOM, Louisiana
         water depth             280 ft
         design penetration      300 ft for corners
         number of piles         4 corners, 4 interiors

   Soil data:
         top, ft    bottom, ft   type of formation
           0          68         very soft dark gray clay
           68         93         laminated gray clay, silty clay, sand, and silt
           93         118        firm gray clay with traces of organic matter
           118        138        laminated gray sand, silt and silty clay
           138        158        stiff gray clay, flocculated
           158        178        stiff gray silty clay with some sandy silt seams
           178        200        laminated gray silt, silty clay and clay
           200        340        stiff gray clay, flocculated, with silt seams and pockets

   Pile and Hammer data (piles A-1, A-2, B-1, and B-3):
             depth        pile         pile average pile
         from, ft to, ft length, ft    OD, in. ID, in.   hammer   pile cap wt, kips
           0       100      375         48      46.20    MKT-OS-2      10.0
            100      180        455        48       46.17      MKT-OS-2           10.0
            180      230        535        48       46.14      MKT-OS-2           10.0
            230      260        535        48       46.14      Vulcan 040         31.3
            260      290        605        48       46.13      Vulcan 040         31.3
            290      300        605        48       46.13      MKT-OS-2           10.0

    Pile and Hammer data (piles A-3, A-4, B-2, and B-4):
              depth        pile         pile average pile
          from, ft to, ft length, ft    OD, in. ID, in.        hammer   pile cap wt, kips
            0       100      375         48      46.20         MKT-OS-2      10.0
            100     180      455         48      46.17         MKT-OS-2      10.0
            180     260      535         48      46.14         MKT-OS-2      10.0
            260     300      605         48      46.13         MKT-OS-2      10.0



    Fig. 3.Xa shows RMVSS versus depth data for West Delta 133. As can be seen in the figure,
RMVSS data are scattered largely especially after 200 ft below the mudline. The RMVSS values at
200 ft below mudline (BML) to 320 ft BML vary from 0.25 ksf to 1.05 ksf, which are 4 times
different. However, we just use least squares line to see the comparison between actual field
performances and our model predictions. Fig. 3.Xb, c show driving resistance versus penetration
depth BML. Actual field data shows easy driving resistance which is less than 20 blows per ft (bpf)
to a depth of 150 ft where sandy silt seams are encountered. At 160 ft a fairly hard streak was
encountered where 60 to 100 bpf was required. Fig. 3.Xb is the plot for piles in which two hammers
were used. A larger hammer was installed at 230 ft BLM and used until a depth of 290 ft where the
smaller hammer was used to finish off driving. Refusal was reached at depths of 290 to 300 ft BLM.
The piles represented in Fig. 3.Xc were driven with a single small hammer. From 240 ft BLM the
required blows per foot were much higher than shown in Fig. 3.Xb.
    Although both single and multiple blow analyses predict the same trend, multiple blow analysis
predicts less penetration per hammer blow which results in more number of blows per ft. The single
blow analysis predicts self penetration to 123 ft while multiple blow predicts79 ft of self penetration.
Single blow analysis on this platform under-predicts the driving resistance for both hammer
programs. Multiple blow analysis gives a good match for the dual hammer program, but under-
predicts for the single hammer. Soil setup is evident at 100 ft and 230 ft when driving was halted to
install a new segment of pile, and change hammers respectively, however driving resistance dropped
after just a few ft of penetration.
                              1.2
                                         RMVSS
         SOIL STRENGTH, ksf




                               1         Linear (RMVSS)
                              0.8

                              0.6

                              0.4

                              0.2

                               0
                                    0         50        100     150         200         250         300    350

                                                         DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft.
                                                                                                                 Fig.
3.Xa - Remolded miniature vane shear strength vs. depth for West Delta 133, GOM, Louisiana.

                         800
 DRIVING RESISTANCE,




                         700
                                        A-1
                         600
                                        A-2
                         500
        blows/ft




                                        B-1
                         400            B-3
                         300            Single Blow
                         200            Multiple Blow
                         100
                               0
                                    0         50          100         150         200         250         300

                                                        DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft

Fig. 3.Xb - Driving resistance comparison for single and multiple blow analyses for West Delta 133,
GOM, Louisiana, two hammer program.
                                   700
    DRIVING RESISTANCE, blows/ft
                                             A-3
                                   600
                                             A-4
                                   500       B-2
                                             B-4
                                   400       Single Blow
                                             Multiple Blow
                                   300

                                   200

                                   100


                                    0
                                         0   50         100     150     200        250   300
                                                   PENETRATION BELOW MUDLINE, ft

Fig. 3.Xc - Driving resistance comparison for single and multiple blow analyses for West Delta 133,
GOM, Louisiana single hammer program.
   East Cameron 240 JA, GOM, Louisiana

    Table 3.X shows the data for East Cameron 240 JA. Water depth is 127 ft and anticipated pile
driving depth is 270 ft for the four main piles and 240 ft for the five conductor piles. The soil
conditions were alternating clay and sand sections. Two hammers were used to drive the main piles
while only one was used to drive the conductor piles


  Table 3.1 - SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE DATA FOR EAST CAMERON 240 JA, GOM,
LOUISIANA

   Platform data:
         location                 East Cameron 240 JA, GOM, Louisiana
         water depth              127 ft
         design penetration       270 ft main piles, 240 ft conductors
         number of piles          4 corners, 5 conductors

   Soil data:
         top, ft    bottom, ft    type of formation
           0          54          firm gray clay
           54         69          gray silty fine sand
           69         206         firm to stiff gray clay
           206        223         gray fine sand
           223        233         very stiff gray clay
           233        315         gray fine sand

   Pile and Hammer data (main piles):
             depth       pile         pile average pile
         from, ft to, ft length, ft   OD, in. ID, in.         hammer     pile cap wt, kips
           0       120     280         54     51.60           Vulcan-060      42.6
           120     160     280         54     54.60           Vulcan-560      45.9
           160     240     360         54     51.48           Vulcan-560      45.9
           240     270     440         54     51.51           Vulcan-560      45.9

   Pile and Hammer data (conductor piles):
             depth        pile         pile average pile
         from, ft to, ft length, ft    OD, in. ID, in.        hammer     pile cap wt, kips
           0       70       190         30     27.96          Vulcan-020      10.0
           70      150      270         30     27.97          Vulcan-020      10.0
           150     220      340         30     27.97          Vulcan-020      10.0
           220     270      405         30     27.93          Vulcan-020      10.0

    Fig. 3.Xa is a plot of the RMVSS vs depth BLM. The plot shows only a small amount of scatter, howeve
least squares fit of the data was used in the model. The last data point was at 205 ft and the least squares line w
extrapolated out for values below 205 ft. Fig 3.Xb, c are plots of driving resistance for the main piles and
conductor piles, respectively. The main piles experienced a low driving resistance (below 20 bpf) until a depth
200 ft BLM where a steady increase is evident below. A slight setup was seen at 120 feet where the hammer w
changed from the Vulcan-060 to the Vulcan-560, but easy hammering was resumed after a few blows. The driv
resistance increases fairly rapidly from 220 ft to 240 ft due to a sand layer. Below the sand layer the increase
driving resistance stopped until a depth of 270 ft was reached and driving was halted. The conductor piles w
driven with one hammer where the driving resistance increased steadily until a depth of 210 to 220 ft, then a ra
increase in resistance is seen from 220 ft to 240 ft where driving was halted.

   For both cases a single blow analysis and a multiple blow analysis was run with the model. The same tren
seen in both single blow and multiple blow analysis, and both trends are similar to the actual data. Even thou
both analysis are similar in trends, the multiple blow analysis provides a much better fit to the actual data.

                           2
                                    RMVSS
                          1.8
     SOIL STRENGTH, ksf




                                    Linear (RMVSS)
                          1.6
                          1.4
                          1.2
                           1
                          0.8
                          0.6
                          0.4
                          0.2
                           0
                                0    50     100      150   200    250       300       350

                                             DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft

   Fig. 3.Xa - Remolded miniature vane shear strength vs. depth for East Cameron 240 JA, GOM,
Louisiana.
 DRIVING RESISTANCE, blows/ft
                                          300
                                                    A-1
                                          250       A-2
                                                    B-1
                                          200
                                                    B-2
                                          150       Single Blow
                                                    Multiple Blows
                                          100

                                           50

                                            0
                                                0     50           100         150          200    250   300

                                                                  DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft

Fig. 3.Xb - Driving resistance comparison for single and multiple blow analyses for East Cameron
240 JA, GOM, Louisiana, main piles.



                                          700
           Driving Resistance, blows/ft




                                                    CA
                                          600
                                                    CB
                                          500       CC
                                                    Single Blow
                                          400
                                                    Multiple Blows
                                          300

                                          200

                                          100

                                           0
                                                0         50             100          150         200     250

                                                                  Penetration, ft below mudline

Fig. 3.Xc - Driving resistance comparison for single and multiple blow analyses for East Cameron
240 JA, GOM, Louisiana conductor piles.
   East Cameron 294A, GOM, Louisiana

    Data for East Cameron 294A is shown in Table 3.X. Water depth is 191 ft and the four corner
piles were designed to be driven to 297 ft BLM. The hammer program called for the use of two
hammers to be used to drive these piles. A Vulcan-040 was used in the softer clays, while a Vulcan-
060 was used in the harder clay sections and the sand sections. From the table it can be seen that
there were some thick silt and sand sections to be driven through in addition to firm and stiff clays.

  Table 3.1 - SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE DATA FOR EAST CAMERON 294A, GOM,
LOUISIANA

   Platform data:
         location                 East Cameron 294A, GOM, Louisiana
         water depth              191 ft
         design penetration       297 ft main piles
         number of piles          4 corners

   Soil data:
         top, ft    bottom, ft    type of formation
           0          90          firm gray clay
           90         103         gray silt with clay seams and layers
           103        140         gray silty fine sand
           140        158         gray sandy silt
           158        282         stiff to very stiff gray clay
           282        290         gray sandy silt with clay seams
           290        318         gray fine sand
           318        374         very stiff gray clay with silt partings
           374        433         light gray fine to medium sand

   Pile and Hammer data (main piles):
             depth       pile         pile average pile
         from, ft to, ft length, ft   OD, in. ID, in.           hammer     pile cap wt, kips
           0       30      195         48     45.96             Vulcan-040      31.3
           30      100     285         48     45.77             Vulcan-040      31.3
           100     110     370         48     45.65             Vulcan-040      31.3
           110     160     370         48     45.65             Vulcan-060      43.5
           160     190     370         48     45.65             Vulcan-040      43.5
           190     210     455         48     45.61             Vulcan-040      43.5
           210     270     455         48     45.61             Vulcan-060      43.5
           270     300     522         48     45.59             Vulcan-060      43.5



   Fig. 3.Xa shows the data for the UMVSS (there was no data available for RMVSS) to a depth of
320 ft BLM. There was some scatter in the soil strength data, but not a great deal. Since there was no
data for RMVSS available a linear regression on the UMVSS data was used to calculate RMVSS to
be used in the model. Two cases were run, one for a maximum soil strength of 50% of UMVSS
(Fig. 3.Xb) and one for a minimum of 25% of UMVSS (Fig. 3.Xc). For the maximum soil strength
case, the single blow and multiple blow analysis predict the general trend of driving resistance. The
single blow analysis deviates from the actual data at 230 ft BLM, but predicts refusal of 500 bpf
fairly accurately. Multiple blow analysis matches the actual data until approximately 280 ft BLM
where actual cases showed refusal. The multiple blow analysis does not predict refusal at this depth.
The minimum soil strength underpredicted the actual data for the entire length. This shows the
importance of using accurate soil strength data for a good match of predicted behavior and actual.

    Easy pile driving was experienced until a depth of 160 ft BLM where the Vulcan-060 was
replaced by the Vulcan-040. An increase in driving resistance is seen at this depth, probably due to
soil setup, and the use of a smaller hammer, however the resistance decreased below 160 ft, partially
due to clay soil at the pile tip (prior soil type was sandy silt). At 270 ft BLM, the last section of pile
was installed. From the figures below, it can be seen that driving resistance increases drastically
after the last section was added. This could be due in part to soil setup, and to the transition from
clay to a sandy silt.

                           4.5
                                     UMVSS
                            4
      SOIL STRENGTH, ksf




                           3.5

                            3

                           2.5

                            2

                           1.5

                            1

                           0.5

                            0
                                 0    50     100    150   200   250   300    350   400      450

                                                   DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft

   Fig. 3.Xa - Unremolded miniature vane shear strength vs. depth for East Cameron 294A, GOM, Louisiana.
     DRIVING RESISTANCE, blows/ft
                                     600
                                                         A1
                                     500                 A2
                                                         B1
                                     400
                                                         B2
                                     300                 Single Blow
                                                         Multiple Blow
                                     200

                                     100

                                          0
                                              0     50            100    150     200    250   300

                                                              DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft

   Fig. 3.Xb - Driving resistance comparison for single and multiple blow analyses for East Cameron 294A, GO
Louisiana, maximum soil strength criteria (50% of UMVSS).



                                    600
     DRIVING RESISTANCE, blows/ft




                                                  A1
                                    500           A2
                                                  B1
                                    400           B2
                                                  Single Blow
                                    300
                                                  Multiple Blow

                                    200


                                    100


                                     0
                                          0        50           100      150     200    250   300

                                                              DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft


   Fig. 3.Xb - Driving resistance comparison for single and multiple blow analyses for East Cameron 294A, GO
Louisiana, minimum soil strength criteria (25% of UMVSS).
   East Cameron 321B, GOM, Louisiana

    East Cameron 321B platform data is shown in Table 3.X. Water depth is 229 ft and the four
piles are designed for 403 ft of penetration BLM. From the mudline to 250 ft BLM the soil profile
ranges from very soft clay to very stiff gray clay with a layer of loose gray clayey silt to soft silty clay
from 33 ft to 41 ft BLM. There is a 20 ft layer of dense silt from 250 ft to 270 ft BLM. From 270 ft
to 407 the profile is mostly very stiff clay with silt pockets, seams and sand layers mixed in. Two
hammers were used to drive these four piles, one was a Menck-30 and the other was a Menk-4600.
The Menck-4600 was used to drive through the zones from 220 ft to 270 ft BLM and from 310 ft to
400 ft BLM.



  Table 3.1 - SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE DATA FOR EAST CAMERON 321B, GOM,
LOUISIANA

   Platform data:
         location                  East Cameron 321B, GOM, Louisiana
         water depth               229 ft
         design penetration        403 ft main piles
         number of piles           4 corners

   Soil data:
         top, ft     bottom, ft    type of formation
           0           33          very soft to soft gray clay
           33          41          loose gray clayey silt to soft silty clay
           41          250         stiff to very stiff gray clay
           250         270         dense brown silt
           270         320         very stiff brown clay
           320         375         very stiff gray clay with numerous sand and silt seams, partings,
                                   and occasional land layers
           375         407         very stiff gray clay with silt seams and pockets

   Pile and Hammer data (main piles):
             depth       pile         pile average pile
         from, ft to, ft length, ft   OD, in. ID, in.            hammer    pile cap wt, kips
           0       30      240         54     50.00              Menk-30        35.49
           30      130     355         54     50.18              Menk-30        35.49
           130     220     445         54     50.18              Menk-30        35.49
           220     280     535         54     50.39              Menk-4600      61.73
           280     310     535         54     50.39              Menk-30        35.49
           310     350     585         54     50.47              Menk-4600      61.73
           350     400     675         54     50.54              Menk-4600      61.73
    Fig 3Xa, b, c show the UMVSS data and driving resistance vs depth for East Cameron 321B. A
least squares fit was made for the UMVSS data and maximum values of 50% of UMVSS was used
for RMVSS in Fig. 3.Xb and minimum values of 24% of UMVSS for RMVSS in Fig. 3.Xc. There
was a large amount of scatter in the data for UMVSS, but the least squares fit and the use of
minimum and maximum values seemed to work well. There was a steady increase in driving
resistance in the actual data from approximately 10 bpf to over 20 bpf at 270 ft. From 250 ft to 270
ft BLM a silt stringer was encountered. Starting at 270 ft BLM very stiff clay with silt pockets was
encountered. There is a sudden increase in driving resistance at 280 ft BLM due to the switch to the
Menck-30 hammer. At 310 ft BLM the Menck-4600 hammer was re-installed and the job was
finished, however the driving resistance increased greatly (up to a maximum of 220 bpf) partially
due to soil setup and partially due to a high sand content in the very stiff clay. From 370 ft to 400 ft
BLM driving resistance decreased to between 50 bpf to 100 bpf.

    Using a minimum soil strength of 25% of UMVSS did not provide a good match for the model to
the actual data. Both single blow analysis and multiple blow analysis gave very low estimates of
driving resistance. Calculating RMVSS of 50% of UMVSS gave a much closer estimate of driving
resistance for single and multiple blows. Both models follow the trend of the actual data well to a
depth of 320 ft BLM where the multiple blow analysis does not predict the large increase in driving
resistance actually encountered, but it predicted the final driving resistance at 400 ft BLM accurately.
The single blow analysis predicted the rapid increase in resistance 310 to 360 ft, but approximately
40 ft late. At 370 ft the single blow model predicted refusal. It appears that the multiple blow
analysis was superior overall in predicting the actual behavior.

                           4
                                    UMVSS
     SOIL STRENGTH, ksf




                          3.5
                                    Linear (UMVSS)
                           3

                          2.5

                           2
                          1.5

                           1

                          0.5

                           0
                                0   50       100      150   200   250   300    350   400   450

                                                     DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft

   Fig. 3.Xa - Unremolded miniature vane shear strength vs. depth for East Cameron 321B, GOM, Louisiana.
                                        250


         DRIVING RESISTANCE, blows/ft
                                                                                         A1
                                        200                                              A2
                                                                                         B1
                                                                                         B2
                                        150
                                                                                         Single Blow
                                                                                         Multiple Blow
                                        100



                                              50



                                                            0
                                                                       0            50         100         150         200         250         300         350         400

                                                                                                    DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft
   Fig. 3.Xb - Driving resistance comparison for single and multiple blow analyses for East Cameron 321B, GO
Louisiana, maximum (50% of UMVSS) soil strength criteria.
                                        DRIVING RESISTANCE, blows/ft




                                                                       250
                                                                                               A1
                                                                       200
                                                                                               A2
                                                                                               B1
                                                                       150                     B2
                                                                                               Single Blow
                                                                       100                     Multiple Blow


                                                                           50


                                                                           0
                                                                                0         50         100         150         200         250         300         350         400

                                                                                                       DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft

   Fig. 3.Xb - Driving resistance comparison for single and multiple blow analyses for East Cameron 321B, GO
Louisiana, minimum (25% of UMVSS) soil strength criteria.
   East Cameron 330B, GOM, Louisiana

    Table 3.X provides the data for East Cameron 330B. The water depth is 240 ft with designed
penetration of 335 ft BLM for the four corner piles and 310 ft BLM for the four interior piles. The
soil conditions are mostly soft clay to very stiff clay with numerous sand, silt, and shell stringers and
pockets throughout. Essentially the same hammer program was used for both corner and interior
piles with a Vulcan-040 to 160 ft BLM, a Vulcan-060 to 280 or 290 ft BLM and a Vulcan 560 from
that point on.

  Table 3.1 - SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE DATA FOR EAST CAMERON 330B, GOM,
LOUISIANA

   Platform data:
         location                  East Cameron 330B, GOM, Louisiana
         water depth               240 ft
         design penetration        335 ft main piles
         number of piles           4 corners/ 4interiors

   Soil data:
         top, ft     bottom, ft    type of formation
           0           39          very soft to soft gray clay
           39          108         firm to very stiff gray clay with occasional silt, sand and shell
                                   pockets
           108         408         firm to very stiff gray clay with numerous sand and silt pockets

   Pile and Hammer data (corner piles):
             depth        pile          pile average pile
         from, ft to, ft length, ft     OD, in. ID, in.         hammer     pile cap wt, kips
           0       30       194          48     45.95           Vulcan-040      31.3
           30      60       294          48     45.70           Vulcan-040      31.3
           60      130      364          48     45.43           Vulcan-040      31.3
           130     160      434          48     45.34           Vulcan-060      43.5
           160     200      434          48     45.34           Vulcan-060      43.5
           200     270      504          48     45.38           Vulcan-060      43.5
           270     290      574          48     45.42           Vulcan-060      43.5
           290     330      574          48     45.42           Vulcan-560      45.9
           330     340      639          48     45.45           Vulcan-560      45.9

   Pile and Hammer data (interior piles):
             depth        pile          pile average pile
         from, ft to, ft length, ft     OD, in. ID, in.         hammer     pile cap wt, kips
           0       50       355           48    45.56           Vulcan-040      31.3
           50      120      425           48    45.56           Vulcan-040      31.3
           120     160      495           48    45.59           Vulcan-040      31.3
           160     190      495           48    45.59           Vulcan-060      43.5
                          190       260      555       48     45.63     Vulcan-060    43.5
                          260       280      600       48     45.65     Vulcan-060    43.5
                          280       310      600       48     45.65     Vulcan-560    45.9

    Fig. 3.Xa is a plot of the RMVSS for East Cameron 330B, showing very little scatter in the data.
Fig 3.Xb, c are plots of the driving resistance vs depth for the corner piles and interior piles
respectively. The corner piles A4 and B4 slow almost identical driving resistance with a gradual
increase from self penetration of 60 ft to final depth of 340 ft BLM where less than 100 bpf were
required. Pile A1 experienced an increase in driving resistance when the Vulcan-560 hammer was
installed due to soil setup with a decrease in resistance after approximately 10 ft of hammering. Pile
B4 started having problems at 240 ft possibly due to shell fragments and sandy silt pockets
encountered. A slight decrease in resistance occurred at 250 ft, but by 300 ft BLM hammering was
suspended when refusal of 400 bpf was encountered.

   Fig. 3.Xc plots driving resistance vs depth BLM for the interior piles. Piles A2, A3, and B3
experienced almost identical driving resistance of less than 60 bpf by 310 ft BLM, however pile B2
experienced soil setup when the Vulcan-560 hammer was installed, and never regained the ease of
penetration of the other three interior piles.

    The single blow model does not predict driving resistance well at all calculating refusal by 260 to
270 ft BLM. The multiple blow analysis does a better job than the single blow model, but still
greatly over predicts driving resistance by 250 ft BLM. A better knowledge of soil strength data and
damping coefficients could lead to more accurate predictions.


                           3
                                          RMVSS
     SOIL STRENGTH, ksf




                          2.5             Linear (RMVSS)

                           2


                          1.5


                           1


                          0.5


                           0
                                0     50      100    150    200   250    300    350   400    450

                                                    DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft

   Fig. 3.Xa - Remolded miniature vane shear strength vs. depth for East Cameron 330B, GOM, Louisiana.
                                       600


        DRIVING RESISTANCE, blows/ft
                                                 A1
                                       500       B1
                                                 A4
                                       400
                                                 B4
                                       300
                                                 Single Blow
                                                 Multiple Blow
                                       200


                                       100


                                        0
                                             0   50      100     150   200     250   300   350

                                                          DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft

   Fig. 3.Xb - Driving resistance comparison for single and multiple blow analyses for East Cameron 330B, GO
Louisiana, corner pile.



                                       600
        DRIVING RESISTANCE, blows/ft




                                                 A2
                                       500       B2
                                                 A3
                                       400       B3
                                                 Single Blow
                                       300
                                                 Multiple Blow
                                       200


                                       100


                                        0
                                             0   50       100    150    200    250   300   350

                                                          DEPTH BELOW MUDLINE, ft

   Fig. 3.Xb - Driving resistance comparison for single and multiple blow analyses for East Cameron 330B, GO
Louisiana, interior pile.

								
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