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									The Humanistic Perspective


           Module 32
           PSY 2301
      Alan Mikolaj, LP, BS

                             1
       Humanism Founded in
          Existentialism
 Sören Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
  – Founder of existentialism
  – Poet, philosopher, theologian, &
    psychologist
  – Devout Christian who connected ‘sin’ to
    pathology
  – Interested in anxiety & depression

                                              2
        Humanism Founded in
           Existentialism
 Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
  – Self-appointed Antichrist
  – Saw religion as central to humankind’s
    problems
  – Predated & influenced Freud
  – First to conceptualize ‘id’ & ‘superego’
  – Think independently
  – Man relative to society
                                               3
      Existential Philosophy
 Focus on personal freedom & life’s
  meaning
 Subjective meaning
 Freedom to make choices means
  personal responsibility
  – Resist making God or society responsible for
    failures & successes
  – No reductionism explanations-behavior
  – No determinism explanations-biology
                                                   4
  The Third Force: Humanism
 First Force: Behaviorism
 Second Force:
  Psychoanalysis
 Third Force: Humanistic
  Psychology
 Abraham Maslow (1908-
  1970)


                              5
   Hierarchy of Human Needs
 Physiological Needs
 Safety Needs
 Belonging & Love Needs
 Esteem Needs
 Need for Self-Actualization


                                6
7
   Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered
           Perspective
 Client-Centered Therapy
 Unconditional Positive
  Regard
 Accepting Environment
 Congruence
 Empathic Understanding



                                  8
             Self-Esteem
 Positive self-esteem is correlated with
  positive well-being & vice versa (pp. 475-
  476)
 Threatened egotism may predispose
  violence (p. 476, 478)
 Self-affirmation IS adaptive


                                               9
The Humanistic Perspective


           Module 32
           PSY 2301
      Alan Mikolaj, LP, BS

                             10

								
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