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					Institute Student Achievement Toolkit 2011
Chemistry B: Overview and Unit Plan
This Institute Student Achievement Toolkit (ISAT) and its components were designed to assist you in leading your
students at the Teach For America Los Angeles summer institute to dramatic achievement this summer.

This ISAT was written by skilled educators with evidence of excellent student achievement in a low-income community
and the California State standards chosen were selected based on an analysis of our schools’ student achievement data,
as well as feedback from our school partners.

Please read this document in its entirety before administering your assessment or planning your Chemistry B lessons.
Reach out to your corps member advisor, school director, or instructional leader for assistance.

This tool includes:
    Big Idea of Physical Science and Chemistry B in California
    Selected standards and skills this summer
    Author’s Notes
    Chemistry B Unit Plan objectives
    Summer objective calendar
    Author Biography

                                                                      Big Ideas

A note to corps members:
You learned in an IL session that it is critical to deeply understand your objectives prior to planning a daily lesson, and you also learned that part of
understanding your objectives is connecting them to the “big ideas” of your content area. The statement below is meant to give you an overarching
picture of the “big ideas” of what Physical Science and specifically, Chemistry B is all about, and it was developed and reviewed by experts in
teaching this content. While the statement won’t necessarily incorporate 100% of all objectives you might teach, you should be able to connect
most of your objectives to a larger purpose found in this statement. In essence, this statement should help you answer the following questions,
both for yourself and for your students:
              Why are we learning this?
              How will mastering this objective be important over the long-term?
Being able to answer these questions will help you write more relevant key points, more valid lesson assessments, and stronger instructional
methods. To better understand how to use this statement, talk to educators with more experience in teaching this content area, such as your CMA
and your FA.
                                                         Big Idea of Physical Science
The physical sciences are about understanding physical laws, including:
 The properties of matter and energy, and the interactions between the two.
 The relationships between motion, force, and energy.
These understandings enable us to make predictions based on physical laws.

Underlying this content knowledge should be an overarching focus on building these scientific habits of mind:
 Collecting and synthesizing multiple types of evidence
 Generating knowledge and drawing conclusions
                                                            Big Idea of Chemistry B
Chemistry in a very important course in the high school science sequence. Students in Chemistry practice both literacy and math skills, while
simultaneously refining the basic chemical concepts developed in middle school science classes. Students will extend their knowledge of atoms,
molecules, and compounds through practice and experience with the Periodic Table. It is expected that students leave Chemistry with a strong
foundation as to what the Periodic Table shows and how it is organized. Ultimately, one of the major goals is to have students feel comfortable with
using it, reading it, and picking out important information. Though some standards (for example, the periodic trends) may seem to lack utility beyond
the scope of the course, these concepts, in reality, are excellent opportunities to practice critical thinking, analysis, and pattern recognition.
Students often feel empowered when they can use previously learned concepts and skills to make predictions or discern explanations on their own.
Unlike Biology, Chemistry is very much skills-based. This offers students the opportunity to extend their thinking and come up with their own
rationales to explain concepts (for example, electronegativity and its connection to the creation of an ionic bond). By using engaging demonstrations
and analogies, students are able to access the content more readily and feel more comfortable with the difficult vocabulary.
        The second goal of Chemistry is to leave students with unique enduring understandings that spark interest in the explanation of everyday
phenomena. Through the different units and strands, teachers and students are able to articulate unique properties of the world that are explained
through chemical principles. Some of these properties include: how hot and cold packs work, why a balloon expands or shrinks when placed in a
freezer or brought to the top of a mountain, why air freshener spreads in a room, why vinegar (acetic acid) is added to a salad, and many other
phenomena. It is up to the teacher to think “outside the box” and use their creativity to connect the chemical principles to everyday occurrences.
Though this can be difficult, one should not hesitate at all to extrapolate lessons beyond conventional boundaries and mold them to be engaging
and connected to students’ lives. Creativity is key, and by developing student rationale to explain real world applications of chemistry (or
connections to Biology, Physics, Earth sciences, etc.), students are more aptly set up for success to remember the desired enduring

We selected the following standards and objectives based on an analysis of our partner schools’ student achievement
data, as well as feedback from teachers, curriculum coordinators, and school leaders in our Los Angeles partner schools.

                            California State Standards and Performance Objectives in this Unit Plan

                                   Standards                                                             Objectives
5a. Students know the observable properties of acids, bases, and salt solutions.     2.1a, 2.1b, 2.2, 2.3,
5b. Students know acids are hydrogen-ion-donating and bases are hydrogen-ion-        2.4
   accepting substances.
5c. Students know strong acids and bases fully dissociate and weak acids and bases   2.5a, 2.5b,
   partially dissociate.
5d. Students know how to use the pH scale to characterize acid and base solutions.   2.5a, 2.5b, 2.6
5e. Students know the Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid–base definitions     2.7
5f. Students know buffers stabilize pH in acid–base reactions.                       2.9
5f. Students know how to calculate pH from the hydrogen-ion concentration            2.9, 2.5a, 2.5b
6a. Students know the definitions of solute and solvent.                             1.1, 1.2a, 1.2b, 1.3
6b. Students know how to describe the dissolving process at the molecular level by
   using the concept of random molecular motion.                                     1.1, 1.4, 1.5
6c. Students know temperature, pressure, and surface area affect the dissolving
   process.                                                                          1.6, 1.7a, 1.7b, 1.8
6d. Students know how to calculate the concentration of a solute in terms of grams   1.9, 1.10
   per liter, molarity, parts per million, and percent composition.

7a. Students know how to describe temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion   3.1a, 3.1b
   of molecules (or atoms).
7b. Students know chemical processes can either release (exothermic) or absorb       3.2a, 3.2b, 4.6, 4.7b
   (endothermic) thermal energy.
7c. Students know energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is     3.3a, 3.3b, 3.4a, 3.4b, 3.5, 3.6
   absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.
7d. Students know how to solve problems involving heat flow and temperature          3.8, 3.9, 3.10
   changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.
8a. Students know the rate of reaction is the decrease in concentration of reactants    4.1, 4.2
   or the increase in concentration of products with time.
8b. Students know how reaction rates depend on such factors as concentration,           4.3a, 4.3b, 4.4a, 4.4b
   temperature, and pressure.
8c. Students know the role a catalyst plays in increasing the reaction rate.            4.9a, 4.9b
8d. Students know the definition and role of activation energy in a chemical reaction   4.7a, 4.7b, 4.6
9a. Students know how to use Le Chatelier’s principle to predict the effect of          5.2a, 5.2b, 5.3a, 5.3b, 5.4
   changes in concentration, temperature, and pressure.
9b. Students know equilibrium is established when forward and reverse reaction          5.1, 5.4
   rates are equal.
9c. Students know how to write and calculate an equilibrium constant expression for     5.5
   a reaction
10a. Students know large molecules (polymers), such as proteins, nucleic acids, and     6.1a, 6.1b
   starch, are formed by repetitive combinations of simple subunits.
10b. Students know the bonding characteristics of carbon that result in the formation   6.6a, 6.6b
   of a large variety of structures ranging from simple hydrocarbons to complex poly-
   mers and biological molecules.
10c. Students know amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.                     6.2, 6.3, 6.4. 6.5
10d. Students know the system for naming the ten simplest linear hydrocarbons and       6.7a, 6.7b, 6.8a, 6.8b
   isomers that contain single bonds, simple hydrocarbons with double and triple
   bonds, and simple molecules that contain a benzene ring.
10f. Students know the R-group structure of amino acids and know how they               6.7b, 6.8a, 6.8b
   combine to form the polypeptide backbone structure of proteins.
11a. Students know protons and neutrons in the nucleus are held together by             7.1a 7.1b
   nuclear forces that overcome the electromagnetic repulsion between the protons.
11b. Students know the energy release per gram of material is much larger in            7.2a, 7.2b, 7.3
   nuclear fusion or fission reactions than in chemical reactions.
11c. Students know some naturally occurring isotopes of elements are radioactive,       7.4a
   as are isotopes formed in nuclear reactions.
11d. Students know the three most common forms of radioactive decay (alpha, beta,       7.4b, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7a, 7.7b
   and gamma) and know how the nucleus changes in each type of decay.
11e. Students know alpha, beta, and gamma radiation produce different amounts           7.7a, 7.7b
and kinds of damage in matter and have different penetrations.

                                                          Author’s Notes

 Topic                                                                     Notes
                 Given time constraints of summer school and advising from district partners, specific standards from each strand of the CA
                 state standards were picked to include in the unit plan. Unfortunately, some pieces of information had to be omitted, as not
                 everything could be tested in such a short amount of time. Objectives were written to be as scaffolded as possible, in such
                 a way that an experienced teacher would do during a full academic year. Having said that, CMs may find the scope of
                 some objectives to be limiting (or a 45 min block too long to teach some skills/knowledge). It is important to remember
                 that, as chemistry can be very foreign and “intangible” to many students, repetition is one of the best ways to solidify a skill
                 or certain piece of knowledge. Taking a scaffolded objective and practicing it in new ways, often connecting it to recently
                 taught objectives is the best way for students to learn through repetition and build their confidence. Additionally, if a CM
                 feels limited by the scope of an objective, they should feel free to branch out and make connections to the skill or
                 knowledge being taught. A 45 minute lesson on a seemingly simple skill can go by very quickly and be extremely fruitful by
                 bringing in additional complexity (as the CM sees fit) beyond what is required from the pre- and post-tests. Going beyond
                 is not a bad thing at all, and as long as the core skill/knowledge is mastered any enrichment information is outstanding and
                 beneficial for students.

Chemistry B: Unit Plan
Symbol                       Meaning
            a/b              Indicates that both objectives should be taught in one block

Possible Daily Objectives:
Assessment                                                                                                     CA Standard
#                                                        Objective
                                                     Solutions – Mini-Unit 1

                  SWAT define solubility and describe the dissolving process                                   6a/b
                  SWBAT define solute and solvent and relate the two words to one another                      6a
                  SWBAT identify the solute and solvent in a given situation                                   6a
                  SWBAT describe homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures and relate the two to the              6a
                  concept of solutes and solvents
                  SWBAT apply the concept of “likes dissolve likes” to polar and non-polar solutes and         6b
                  SWBAT analyze how the solute-solvent and solute-solute forces compare when a                 6b
                  substance does or does not dissolve
                  SWBAT describe how changes in temperature impact solubility of a solute                      6c
                  SWBAT describe how changes in the surface area of a solute affects the rate of dissolution   .
     1:7a         of a solute                                                                                  6c

       SWBAT describe how changes in pressure impact solubility of a solute                       6c
       SWBAT synthesis all factors which contribute to changes in solubility                      6c
       SWBAT calculate the concentration (molarity) of a solution                                 6d
       SWBAT calculate the % composition of a solution                                            6d
                                           Acids and Bases– Mini-Unit 2

       SWBAT to describe the observable properties of acids, bases and salt solutions (feel,      5a
       taste, electrical conduction, pH, H+ concentration, etc)
       SWBAT distinguish between acids, bases and salt solutions based on properties (including   5a
       how they affect indicators)
       SWBAT use the pH scale to characterize acids and base as strong or weak                    5a
       SWBAT predict acids and bases based on chemical formulas (and names)                       5a
       Example: OH and H as indicators of acids and bases
       SWBAT describe acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors            5b
       SWBAT characterize the properties of strong acids and weak acids                           5c/5d
       SWBAT characterize the properties of strong bases and weak bases                           5c/5d
       SWBAT determine the pH or pOH of a compound given the concentration of H+ or OH-           5f
       SWBAT convert between concentrations of H+ and pH and OH- and pOH                          5f
       SWBAT identify arrehenious and brodsted acids and bases                                    5e
       SWBAT determine products of acid base neutralizations                                      5c/g

       SWBAT describe how a buffer system works                                                     5g
                         Physical Properties and Thermodynamics – Mini-Unit 3

       SWBAT define temperature as a measure of the random molecular motion (speed) of              7a
       SWBAT determine the direction heat will flow in a given situation                            7a
       SWBAT describe an exothermic reaction as: having a negative ΔH and releasing energy          7b
       from the system to surroundings
       SWBAT describe an endothermic reaction as having a positive ΔH and absorbing energy          7b
       from the surroundings to system
       SWBAT describe solids, liquids, and gases in terms of volume and shape                       7c
       SWBAT describe the three states of matter in terms of internal energy and molecular          7c
       SWBAT identify the six phase changes: boiling, condensing, melting, freezing, sublimating,   7c
       SWBAT describe the phase changes in terms of exothermic and endothermic process              7c
       SWBAT interpret heating/cooling curves                                                       7c
       SWBAT interpret phase diagrams                                                               7c
       SWBAT calculate the heat absorbed or released using q=MCAT (solve for all variables)         7d
       SWBAT calculate the energy required to change states given heat of fusion or vaporization    7d
       q=mVf or q=mVv (solve for mass also)
       SWBAT to define specific heat as the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the      7d/b
3.9    temperature by one degree Celsius
       SWBAT solve specific heat problems to find the identity of a substance.                   7d
       (Equations and givens should be provided)
                                     Reaction Rates- Mini- Unit 4
       SWBAT distinguish between a chemical change (reaction) and a physical change (ex:         8a
       phase change)
       SWBAT define the rate of a reaction as the conversion from reactants to products over     8a
       SWBAT describe how changes in reactant concentration impact the rate of a reaction        8b
       SWBAT describe how changes in temperature impact the rate of a reaction                   8b
       SWBAT describe how changes in pressure impact the rate of a reaction                      8b
       SWBAT analyze how changes in concentration, temperature, and pressure will impact the     8b
       rate of a reaction
       SWBAT define activation energy and describe why energy is required to initiate chemical   8d
       SWBAT distinguish between endothermic and exothermic reactions                            7b
       SWBAT identify activation energy, ΔH of reactants and products on an energy diagram       7b/8a
       SWBAT analyze an energy diagram to determine if a chemical process is endothermic or      7b/8a
       SWBAT calculate Energies of Activation, and ΔH’s using an energy diagram                  7b
       SWBAT define a catalyst as a substance that increases the speed of a reaction by          8d
4.9a   lowering the energy of activation of the reaction
       SWBAT describe how the addition of a catalyst impacts the appearance of an energy         8d
4.9b   diagram

                                          Equilibrium – Mini-Unit 5

       SWBAT describe equilibrium as equal forward and reverse reaction rates                         9b
       SWBAT relate Le Chatelier’s Principle to how a reaction will shift when the concentration of   9a
       a given reactant or product is increased
       SWBAT relate Le Chatelier’s Principle to how a reaction will shift when the temperature of     9a
       a reaction is increased or decreased
       SWBAT relate Le Chatelier’s Principle to how a reaction will shift when the volume of the      9a
       reaction container is increased or decreased
       SWBAT relate Le Chatelier’s Principle to how a reaction will shift when the pressure           9a
       exerted on a reaction is increased or decreased
       SWBAT synthesis how changes in temperature, pressure and concentration impact the              9a/9b
       equilibrium of a given reaction
       SWBAT calculate an equilibrium constant for a given reaction                                   9c
                                       Organic Chemistry Mini-Unit 6

       SWBAT describe polymers as long chains of repeating subunits                                   10a
       SWBAT identify the repeating unit in a polymer given the chemical equation                     10a
       SWBAT name the ten simplest linear hydrocarbons and isomers containing single bonds            10d
       SWBAT name the ten simplest linear hydrocarbons and isomers containing double bonds            10d
       SWBAT name the ten simplest linear hydrocarbons and isomers containing triple bonds            10d
       SWBAT name simple molecules which contain a benzene ring                                       10d

       SWBAT identify an organic compound and describe what makes a compound organic               10b
       SWBAT describe carbon’s unique bonding characteristics and its role in biological           10b
       molecules (stability, extended chains, double and triple bond capabilities)
       SWBAT describe amino acids as the building blocks of proteins and define a peptide as a     10c
       series of amino acids
       SWBAT identify the bonds between amino acids as peptide bonds in a polypeptide              10c/f
       SWBAT describe and identify the R group on a polypeptide                                    10c/f
       SWBAT describe the role of the R group in the unique chemical nature of a given protein     10c/f
                                      Nuclear Chemistry- Mini-Unit 7

       SWBAT describe the strong force which holds together the protons and neutrons inside the    11a
       SWBAT describe the nuclear forces which hold together protons and neutrons as stronger      11a
       than the electromagnetic repulsion forces between protons
       SWBAT identify fission and fusion reactions given a picture/ isotope notation               11b
       SWBAT describe the relative amount of energy released in a nuclear reaction (fission or     11b
       fusion) as far greater than a chemical reaction
       SWBAT distinguish between fission and fusion reactions (amount of energy produced,          11b
       power generation, waste products, civilian vs. military)
       SWBAT describe radioactive isotopes as naturally occurring and as the products of nuclear   11c
       SWAT define half-life and radioactive decay                                                 11d

       SWBAT balance nuclear equations involving fission, fusion or nuclear decay                    11d
       SWBAT calculate the half-life of radioactive isotopes (solve for all parts of the equation)   11d
       SWBAT identify the three radioactive particles (alpha, beta and gamma)                        11d/e
       SWBAT define the three particles properties (composition, mass, charge, penetrating           11d/e

                           Assessment Administration Instructions

A note to corps members:

An essential component to starting your summer off well is successfully administering your diagnostic assessment. You must first confidently
invest your students in trying their hardest on the diagnostic; then give explicit instructions for how to take the assessment and what to do when
they finish. You should give instructions verbally and have them written on the board or a poster.

                                                         Sample Investment Script:
Teacher to students: “Raise your hand if you’ve ever been in a class when the skills you were learning were too hard (wait). Raise your hand if
you’ve ever been in a class when the skills were too easy (wait). Raise your hand if that’s frustrating to you (wait). I have been in both of those
situations as well. We (state all teachers’ names), want to make sure that does not happen this summer. In order to do that, we need to know
exactly what you know and you need to do your absolute best on this assessment. When you do your best, it’s going to tell us what you know and
how we can be the best possible teachers for you this summer and lead you all to achieving your goal.”

                                                             Sample Instructions:

“Please clear everything off of your desks. Right now I am going to pass out the assessment. Please be silent and do not begin until I give you
permission to begin (Pass out assessments). Please write your first and last name at the top of the assessment and look up once you’ve done that
(Wait). Now, please put your pencils on the word instructions and read along silently as I read the instructions to you (Read instructions). Are there
any questions?

When you finish your assessment:
   1. Please go back and check over every answer;
   2. Flip over your assessment and place it in the upper-right hand corner of your desk; and
   3. Raise your hand so we know you are finished and we can give you the class survey.”

                                                                Author Biography

William Kvasnicka (Los Angeles ’08)

Welcome to LA Institute 2010. This High School Chemistry ISAT has been written by William Kvasnicka, a 2008 Los Angeles CM. William as spent
the last two years teaching chemistry at South East High School in South Los Angeles. He has described these last two years of teaching as “the
most formative years of his life” as he has grown immensely and learned about himself, his students, and the educational landscape of Los

During his second year of teaching William once asked his students, “Be honest with me, on a scale of one to fun, how do you think class is
going?” Though he expected some low numbers, he was surprised to see everyone give a genuinely positive response. One girl in the front row of
his class even went as far to say, “Mister, this is the class I look forward to most during my day.” It was a simple comment like this that made the
hours and effort he put into his job extremely worthwhile. At South East, William took on other leadership opportunities to expand and improve the
curriculum at South East High School. He became the facilitator of his Chemistry PLC, which organized and analyzed data in order to create
rigorous common lessons among teachers. Additionally, William helped the Chemistry CST Review program by designing and executing a review
curriculum on the Saturdays leading up to the CST’s in May. With the creation of rigorous and standards-based exams, he saw averages
consistently hovering around 80%. William attributes this success to the disciplined thought he put in to scaffolding his content and breaking it apart
for all students to be able to grasp. During his unit on bonding in his second year, he was able to tell his students, “You guys are doing college level
problems right now. And I don’t mean introductory Chemistry, I mean advanced Chemistry from upper level college courses!”

William is excited to be returning to Institute as an ISAT writer. In 2009 he worked as a School Operations Manager at LA Institute and in 2010 as a
o Corps Member Advisor. The ISAT is challenging. Everyone has their own way of planning and teaching, and it may be difficult to mold oneself
into using a document that was made for you and not by you. His hope is that, within this ISAT, you will feel empowered to extend objectives in
ways that you feel are appropriate and relevant. Effective scaffolding for difficult standards and objectives is present within this ISAT, but a CM
should seek out opportunities to insert their own perspectives and knowledge to make the chemistry experience that much more enriching for their
students. Good luck!


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