Investing in Small Steps by bA5mrD6M


									 Investing in Small Steps

Stability through Rural Development

        Christopher Dureau
13 districts, 65 Sub-districts,
 442 Suco and 2500 Aldeia

           80% mountainous
              Timor-Leste is largely Rural:
      70 % of population live in rural areas
80% of workforce are in rural communities
The current situation
  - More about poverty than politics

  - More about seeking to be noticed than about
     seeking to be destructive.
  So: Increased peoples access to participate in the
  development process will lead to improved
greater stability and peace
   • engage more in the sub-district and village
   • through small and participative ways for
     rural families to be ‘busy’
   • in learning and doing things to improving
     their situation.
• I want to argue that despite plenty of rhetoric about what
  should and could be done to promote pro-poor and bottom
  up development.
• With the exception of Health Services (incl water supply)
  and by default possibly basic Education,
• Far too little is happening at the rural community level,
  where most of the population live and most of the
  remainder of the population have their family ties.
• People do not feel the government, and to some extent the
  civil society groups are with them as they try to work out
  how to be involved in their own development.
• Almost 50% of pop
  live in household
  farms with minimal
  resources leading to
  vulnerability and
• 64% of the
  currently suffer
  from food
Presidents Dream
 • A country of people working their farms
   benefiting the whole community through their

 • “The culture of cooperation among farmers can be a way
   to enable them to raise production through the acquisition
   of agricultural inputs and selling of their surpluses” (Kay
   Rela Xanana Gusmao Jan 2006)

 • Government or civil society groups will need to
   apply their resources and expertise to help bring
   this about.
• The President dreams of a rural and pro
  poor led development process for Timor
  – So too does much of the thinking in the Sector
    Development Plans (SIP). Confirmed in the
    recommendations of the UNDP Report 2006.
  – Some examples now exist
  – but they are not the norm.
The Economic Advisor to the PM agrees:
   • Increasing farm food crop productivity is a
     critical aspect of a poverty reduction
     strategy for Timor Leste

        • Carlos R. Risopatron. UN Economic Advisor at the Prime Minister's
‘if the country is poor, a rural development
  program must be designed early in the
  peace building operation, as a basic
  requirement for increasing food
  productivity, reducing extreme poverty in
  the short term and aid-dependency in the
  medium term’.
        » Carlos R. Risopatron. UN Economic Advisor at the Prime
          Minister's Office, East Timor
Missed opportunity:
‘there were many opportunities to help develop a
   more vibrant rural sector. The markets were there
   but they were not used: For example, the UN
   Transitional Authority (UNTAET) did not take the
   creative initiative to develop small scale and
   cottage type industry in meeting its own needs
   while in Timor-Leste. For example the UN
   imported bananas and vegetables from Australia.’
         Jose Ramos Horta responding to the UN Head of Mission
The reality:
An urban not a rural bias:
The reality: urban not rural bias:
  Most of the funding (CFET) goes to Dili:
  • 90% of all public expenditure is planned and
    managed out of Dili
  • 66% of the public expenditure is for urban areas
    (with 20% of the population)
  • 80% of goods and services are going to the cities.
  • 60% of civil service staff are based in Dili

              » (World Bank, 2003 UNDP 2006)
The Non Rural Sector Driver
   “The challenge is to promote rapid growth in the
     non-food private sector, which currently employs
     about 70,000 workers at much higher average
     levels of productivity. Rapid growth in the latter
     will allow for a gradual shift out of low
     productivity employment in rural areas. With
     rising levels of labor productivity, the incidence of
     income poverty will decline.”
             – Overview of Sector Investment Programs – Volume 1
Agriculture a case study.

  • Agriculture is the primary economic activity
    in Timor-Leste

  • Yet only 2.1% of CFET allocations have
    been allocated to MAFF for FY. 06/07
Funding for Agriculture
  • Allocation of funds for 2000-2004:
     – $ US 66 million for all MAFF activities:
     – 30% for the coffee industry and studies about
       commercial agriculture
     – 14% on food security
     – 10% on service delivery (helping village
       farmers improve outputs).
  • Projected allocation of funds for 2005-2009:
     – $ US 41m total
     – 30% for food security
     – 19% on service delivery
     – $ US 10m for 5 year period from CFET
     – 18 key programs for food security still waiting
       external confirmed funds
• Infrastructure
  investment is also
  favoring the minority
  in urban population:
The case for rural development
 • Rural development is considered by many
   of the policy advisors, to be an inadequate
   driver of development because of its low
 • but in fact many would argue that rural
   development must be the foundation of
   urban development in countries like Timor
The road map is in place:
 UN Economic Advisor at the Prime Minister's Office says:
 • increase the food yields per hectare and quickly
   end chronic hunger.
 • focus on fertilizers, improved agriculture
   technology, green manures and cover crops, water
   harvesting, small scale irrigation and improved
 • A road network interconnecting the districts.
• A village truck and storage facilities would allow
  the villages to sell the grain over the course of
  months getting more favorable prices.

• Electricity could be made available to selected
  districts using a cost effective method (coal power
  plants and/or non fossil technologies).

• Safe drinking water and sanitation, investments in
  basic health and education in most critical districts

UNDP Model:
Rural development as the primary driver
• UNDP argues that
  Pro-poor rural
  development requires
  a lower growth rate
  and less average
  annual input. ($65m
  as against $48m
Integrated rural development
 • UNDP Report outlines four options for greater
   engagement with local communities.
 • Develop government services- more public servants
   working directly with communities
 • Encourage local organisations – cooperatives, user groups
   and village managed community initiatives
 • Involve NGOs – so that they can provide technical support,
   services and facilitation of community engagement
 • Encourage the private sector
UNICEF on Youth
The UNICEF Proposal for a National Youth
  Policy in Timor-Leste recommends such an
  approach. The two top strategies are:
• Mobilise young people to serve in their
  community – turning youth gangs into youth services
• Build bridges from education to post school
  reality – relevant work opportunities – linking
  graduates to work opportunities in industry and service
• Many of these either graduate in Dili (50%
  of all high school students) or move quickly
  to Dili to find work.
• A pro poor and rural development program
  would aim to provide work related
  opportunities for youth outside the urban
Successful initiatives
  • State Administration coordinated: ‘Local
    Development Program’ – 3 pilot Districts & now
    working in Bobinaro – UNDP.
  • District Planning and service delivery in Health
    and in Water Supply and Sanitation
  • Many INGO programs such as Oxfam, WV, Care,
    CRS, Concern, Caritas
  • Many T-L NGOs – ETADEP, Timor Aid, Bia
    Hula, Gracia….
  • Previously CEP & Respect
What Timorese expect
       [Socio cultural reasons for a larger investment in the rural
   •   Collectivism – group benefit
   •   Respect – Relationship building
   •   Immediacy – impatience for some results.
   •   Ongoing support and encouragement - High
       risk aversion and intolerance for
       experimentation in uncertainty.
• Collectivism
  – Dependent on tight integration across functional family
  – Most people associate with family in the rural areas
  – Just as one family member in employment will be
    expected to support the whole family, so too one part of
    the community experiencing development will be
    considered beneficial to the rest of the community.
• Respect and Process Learning
  – Decision making requires substantial and
    apparently time consuming consultation with
    all relevant community members
  – Conflict resolution and peace building requires
    process as well as outcome – the people must
    be provided with the opportunity to put their
    case first.
  – High reliance on formal processes and ritual
• Immediacy and impatience for some
  – The time gap between thinking about
    development objectives and beginning to
    benefit from these is very small
  – Yet: Patience with the final outcome –seeing
    something happening is more important than
    getting results.
• Ongoing support and encouragement
    – long years of political domination – trying not to be
    – fragility of agricultural returns has led to a low
      tolerance for risk and a lack of interest in
      experimentation and initiative.
    – requires considerable mentoring and long term
      partnering as they begin to engage in the uncertain path
      of development initiatives.
    – Using local knowledge and building on traditional
      successful methods is much more likely to be effective
      than introduced and very foreign technologies.
The advice and the successful initiatives
 recommend investment in rural
 development should be
     • small scale,
     • resource intensive and
     • sustained
Investing in Small Steps

 • Small Scale
    – Community led initiatives maximising
      community participation.
    – Promoting community ownership
    – Mobilising existing resources
    – Local level management
    – Multiple voc ed and life skills short courses
    – Multiple but integrated village activities.
• Resource Intensive:
  – Community capacity building for Suco Leadership and
    Suco Councils
  – Organisational development for NGOs and community
    groups such as farmers associations, women’s groups
    and fishermen associations.
  – Skills development in relation to modernisation or
    development activities such as improved water and
    sanitation, repair of schools and clinics, improved
    agriculture practice and mechanical skills.
• Sustained.
  – Continued opportunities for learning on the job,
    trial and error and repeated mentoring –
    capacity retention.
  – Maintaining the service till it becomes an
    accepted standard.
Working within the community

 Community Engagement should be
 • Comprehensive
         – pro poor and gender inclusive
 • Cooperative
         – including government, civil society, private
           sector and media collaboration.
Working in partnership with the community

  • Bubble effect – engaging large groups to mobilise the
    community. (getting out there and staying with the
  • Decentralisation of service management
  • Adequate resourcing of local government
  • Suco governance and councils collaboration and liaison
  • NGO/CSOs as facilitators of community engagement.
  • Private Sector
  • Media.
Rural Development and Stability
  • We have all been preoccupied in trying to create
    an effective state without sufficient concern for
    the welfare and engagement of the people.

  • There is now an imperative for
     – greater balance and
     – a bottom first approach.
Rural Development brings Stability
  • Rural Development will promote a greater sense
    of achievement and nation building than the past
    focus getting it right at the centre first
  • When there is gainful engagement in demand
    driven development at the rural level, coupled
    with skills enhancement and community
    empowerment – national stability and peace
    building will be better achieved.
Uneven rural development
 •   The World Food Program reports a
     severe situation of food insecurity in
     March 2006 in the western side of
     Timor Leste: Oecussi, Bobonaro and
     Covalima. Food insecurity is moderate
     in the central districts of Liquica,
     Ermera, Ainaro, Manufahi, Aileu,
     Manatuto and Dili. Food insecurity
     risks are low in eastern Timor Leste
     districts of Viqueque, Baucau and
     Lautem. The increasing gap between
     loromunu (western districts) and
     lorosae (eastern districts) represents an
     internal security threat that must be
     addressed to avoid a probable scenario
     where population expectations may not
     be met and could result (Risopatron
     (April 2006)
•   The Path out of Poverty – Integrated rural development. Timor-Leste Human Development Report
    Jan. 2006
•   Timor-Leste: Overview of Sector Investment Program, Volume II & Timor-Leste: Agriculture,
    Forestry and Fisheries Sector Investment Program
•   Lessons Learned for Poverty Reduction from the United Nations Peace Building Operation in East
    Timor . (Executive Summary) Carlos R. Risopatron. UN Economic Advisor at the Prime Minister's
    Office, East Timor.
•   DFID, 2004, How to accelerate pro-poor growth: a basic framework for policy analysis, Pro Poor
    Briefing Note 2, Sept, Department for International Development, UK
•    Asian Development Outlook: Timor-Leste,
•    Proposal for a National Youth Policy for Timor-Leste, Richard Curtin, Fernando Antoino da Costa
    & Zelia Fernandes, UNICEF, 30 March 2006.

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