Kaizen ????

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					   品質經營

     郭倉義
kuo@bm.nsysu.edu.tw
• Kaizen 今井正明
 – Ongoing improvement involves everyone
    • Top management
    • Managers
    • Workers
 – A culture of supporting quality improvement
    • more important than the use of any specific tools
• Kaizen
  – The unifying thread running through
     • The philosophy
     • The systems
     • The problem-solving tools developed
  of Japanese quality movement
Japanese ≠ Kaizen
• Japanese management      • Western management
  – Kaizen                   – Innovation
  – Process-oriented way     – Result-oriented
    of thinking                thinking
– Process-oriented management
  • Evaluation of quality control circles
     – Numbers of problems solved
        » NOT the amount of money saved
     – How the problems are approached
        » Do they considered the company’s current situation
        » Do they consider safety, quality, and cost
        » Do they improve work standard
  • Directed at people’s efforts
  • Managers need to work with employees jointly
– Risks of result-oriented management
   • Lacking long term strategy
      – 貸款有嚴密的審核機制
         » 作業人員的收入主要靠佣金
         » 高層需要業績來拉抬股價
             unethical mortgage practice
             雙卡風暴、次貸 (Sub prime mortgage)
      – 豐田汽車德州廠 2008
         » Full size pickup
                  停工 4 個月 消化滯銷車
                  教育訓練          no layoff
• Missing new ideas and innovation
   – Manage failure 失敗學
      » Pfizer, compound UK-92,480
               treatment of angina (心絞痛)
      » promising in the lab and in animal tests
      » little benefit in clinical trials in humans
   – Apple NeXT system
      » Macintosh
– Negative false
    » Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center lab
    » Terminated Ethernet (by 3Com) and PostScript (by
       Adobe)
    » The Document Company, not a software company
– http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/3807.html
• Climate features innovation
  – Rapid expending markets
     • Increasing sales more important than reducing cost
  – Consumers oriented more toward quantity
    rather than quality
  – Abundant and low-cost resources
  – A belief that success with innovative product
    will offset sluggish performance
• Climate favors Kaizen
  – Sharp increase in the costs of material, energy,
    and labor
  – Overcapacity of production facilities
  – Increasing competitions
  – 資訊不對稱的消失
  – Need to introduce new products more rapidly
  – Need to lower the breakeven point
• Kaizen Culture
  – A corporate culture in which everyone can
    freely admit these problems
  – A systematic and collaborative approach to
    cross-functional problem-solving
     • Internal, Next process is customer
     • External, suppliers
• Kaizen Culture
  – A customer-driven strategy for improvement
     • Quality, cost, schedule, and delivery requirements
  – Emphasis on process
     • Result is not the only thing and everything
     • Support and acknowledge people’s process-oriented
       efforts for improvement
 Kaizen and management

 Innovation

              Kaizen


                           Maintenance


Top      Middle        Supervisor   Worker
Mgnt     Mgnt
• QC Circles
  – Primarily focus on
     • Cost, safety, and productivity
     • Indirectly to product-quality improvement
  – Account for only 10% - 30% of the overall
    TQC efforts in Japanese companies
     • 品質是製造出來的
     • 品質是設計出來的
  – Making improvements in the workplace
          Key phrases of TQC
•   Speak with data, 數據會說話
•   Quality first, not profit first
•   Quality at source, 源頭管理
•   The next process is the customer
•   Customer-oriented TQC
•   TQC starts with training and ends with
    training
• Speak with data
  – Emphasize the use of data
  However, aware of
     • False data,
     • Mistaken data,
     • Immeasurable
•   Quality First
    –   Making the top quality products (1st)
    –   At the low cost (2nd)
    –   In large quantity (3rd)
    –   From the very beginning
        •   Toyota 線邊檢貨
        •   McDonald’s 50 秒點餐革命
            – 1對1服務 (used to be)
            – 2對1服務 (一人點餐+收銀、一人給餐)
• Quality at source
  – Ask “why” 5 times
     • The real cause of a machine stoppage
        –   Question 1: Why did the machine stop?
        –   Answer 1: Because the fuse blew due to an overload
        –   Question 2: Why was there an overload?
        –   Answer 2: Because the bearing lubrication was inadequate.
        –   Question 3: Why was the lubrication inadequate?
        –   ……
• The next process is the customer
  – Mass production age
     • The person making the products neither knows nor
       care who the customers are
  – The design engineer’s customers
     • The manufacturing people
     • (End customers)
• Customer-oriented TQC,
  – Not manufacturer-oriented TQC
  – Build a system for designing, developing,
    producing, and servicing products to satisfy
    their customers
     • 華航 – 退票作業
        – 要求旅客繳回機票正本
        – 不告訴旅客如何 follow up
        – Cf. 以客為尊?
• TQC starts with training and ends with
  training
  – Building quality into people
• Cross-functional management to facilitate
  Kaizen
  – “Quality at source” means TQC should be
    extended to include
     • Vendors
     • Suppliers
     • subcontractors
• Follow the PDCA cycle
  – Problem-solving
  – Management
    • Design – Plan: product design corresponds to the
      planning phase of management
    • Production – Do: making products as designed
    • Sale – Check: customers satisfied?
    • Research – Action: how to approach complaints
                    • No layoff policy
– Not PDCF                    – Virginia Mason Medical Center,
                                Seattle, WA
  •   Plan
  •   Do               – 改善造就『冗員』
  •   Check               • Redeploys employees
  •   Fight/fire!             – Training
                          • Kaizen Promotion Office
                              – Toyota’s suppliers support center
• Use the QC story to persuade
  – Case study of shortening telephone waiting
    time
     • kaizenStory.doc
• Standardize the results
  – There can be no improvement where there are
    no standards
  – A way of spreading the benefits of
    improvement throughout the organization
• Cross Functional Management at Toyota
  – Clarify its quality goals and deploy them to all
    employees at every level
  – Establish a system of close coordination among
    different department
     • toyotaXfun.doc
品
質
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