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How to learn English Confidently

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					 How to Learn English as a
Foreign Language Confidently
    Presenter: Lin, Shin-Chung Ph.D.
        Chair of Applied Foreign Languages
      National Pingtung Institute of Commerce
    Address: 51 Min Sheng E. Road, Pingtung900
               Tel: (08)7238700-3300
                 Fax: (08)7239277
             E-mail: linsc@npic.edu.tw
                 October. 06, 2004


                                                 1
1.   Why are you going to learn English as a foreign
     language?
2.   Why so many learners are suffering from
     learning English?
3.   How to learn English as a foreign language
     confidently—independent study concerned?
4.   How to learn English as a foreign language
     confidently—life-time learning concerned?
5.   Conclusion


                                                  2
 1. Why are you going to learn
English as a foreign language?
For what purpose are you going to
learn English as a foreign language?
A. Instrumental motivation
B. Integrative motivation
C. The facts about English


                                  3
    A. Instrumental motivation
(1) To get a better job or a promotion.
(2) To pass a required examination.
(3) To study in an English-speaking country.
(4) To present a research paper in an
    international conference.
(5) To help your students learn English well.

                                            4
      B. Integrative motivation
(1) To be interested in integrating into the
    target language group.
(2) To know more about the culture of the
    target language group.
(3) To be able to know another quarter of the
    population in the world.

                                           5
    C. The facts about English I
(1) 80% of the world’s electronically stored
    information is in English.
(2) Three-quarters of the world’s mail is written in
    English.
(3) 80% of Internet users communicate in English.
(4) English is the main language of books,
    newspapers, airports, and air-traffic control,
    international business and technology, diplomacy,
    sport, international competitions, pop music, and
    advertising.
                                                 6
    C. The facts about English II
(5) English has official or special status in at least 75/
    195 countries, with a total population of over 2
     billion.
(6) English is spoken as a first language by around
    345 million, and as a second language by around
   300 million people in the world.

             From the British Council Website English Worldwide
                                                           7
  2. Why are so many learners
 suffering from learning English?
A. The different processes in first and second
   language acquisition.
B. The different nature of Chinese and English.
C. The conflict between English learning and
   expectation.
D. The impractical orientation of language
   learning.
                                            8
 A. The different processes in first
 and second language acquisition.
(1) Exposure time
(2) For surviving / as a tool only
(3) Effort and effortless
(4) First language interferes the acquisition of second
    language
    a. Interfered by different sound systems. Tones /
       stress / ending consonants / intonation
    b. Interfered by different language functions.
       Auxiliary / transitive V / adj clause / wh-movement
       / tense etc.
    c. Interfered by different usage. (用、借、開 etc.) 9
Ex1: The different usage of interrogative sentences
1. Are you a student?
2. Is your father a doctor?
3. Were you there?
4. Was he angry?
5. Do you watch TV everyday?
6. Did you watch the TV program “Sex and the City”
    last night?
7. Does he walk to school everyday?
8. Have you done your homework?
9. Will you have done your homework by then?
10. Had he been waiting for you long before you
    met him?
                                              10
Ex: The different usage of tenses

1. 當他來的時候,我正在看電視。
2. 明天這個時候你將會做什麼?
3. 我等了你大約有二十分鐘了。
4. 我遇見她的時候,她已經等你很久了。
5. 當他到達的時候,我們練習將滿兩個小時。
6. 昨晚九時孩子們全都睡了。
                             Only 46.8% passed the test.



                                                   11
Answers to the usage of tenses
•  When he came, I was watching TV.
•  What will you be doing at this time tomorrow?
•  I’ve been waiting for you about 20 minutes.
•  When I met her, she had been waiting for you a
   long time.
•  When he arrives, we’II have been practicing for
   two hours.
•  The children had all gone to bed at nine last
   night.

                                               12
     B. The different nature of
      Chinese and English.
(1) Ideographic language (表意文字語言) vs.
    alphabetic language (字母拼音語言).
(2) Limited vs. increasing number of the words.
    E.g. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
    syndrome) / tofu / kung fu / Internet / e-mail
    愛滋病 (後天性免疫不全症候群) / 叩應 /
    電腦 / 手機 / 轟趴
(3) Advanced vs. primary
                                                 13
                松下問童子
                言師採藥去
                只在此山中
                雲深不知處

Asking boy under pine tree.
Saying master going picking up herb medicine.
In the mountains.
Covering under heavy clouds, don’t know where.
                             (22 words used, 56% spared)
                                                   14
The possibly acceptable translation
I asked a boy under the pine tree.
He said that his master is going picking
    up herb medicine.
He is in the mountains.
Because the mountains are covered
    under the heavy clouds, He doesn’t
     know where his master is.
                               (39 words used)

                                          15
C. The conflict between English
learning and expectation
(1) Learning English is to pass the exams not to use
     the language
(2) Learning English is a subject not a language
     per se.
(3) Daily language is hard to be learned in a classroom
    setting and tested.
(4) It costs too much to have a test in speaking ability.
*The following is what you are going to be tested.
                                                     16
                                              取材自全民英檢初級


1.   PLEASE WAIT BEHINE WHITE LINE
     What does this sign mean?
     A. Stay on the line.       B. Drive inside the line.
     C. Keep the line straight. D. Stand in back of the line

2.   Responsible and friendly high school or college
     student is needed to baby-sit active five-year-old on
     weekends.
     Call 2943-6262 after 6:00
     Where might a person see this?
     A. On a menu.               B. On street sign.
     C. In a newspaper.          D. In a telephone book.
                                                             17
                                                         取材自國中學力測驗

1.   In summer it is ______ to stay in my parents’ room because it is air-
     conditioned.
     A. comfortable     B. gentle      C. impossible D. serious

2.   Mother makes me ______ my homework every day before I can play
     video games.
     A. finish        B. finished C. finishing D. to finish

3.   Elsa: Did Eric buy any vegetables in the market?
     Bob: No, he didn’t, but he bought ______ fish.
     A. no               B. any       C. some         D. both

4.   Rose: It’s time to go to bed. You have to get up early tomorrow, ___?
     Nina: Yes, my class is going hiking tomorrow.
     A. can’t you        B. don’t you C. aren’t you D. haven’t you
                                                                       18
                                                                       取材自國中學力測驗
Read Amy’s diary and answer the questions.
                                                                 May 30, 2003
      Today I met an American on my way home. He asked me some
questions in English, but I couldn’t understand him. I was nervous and
couldn’t say a word.
      I felt so depressed.
      I study English very hard and I usually get the best grades on the
English tests. I am always looking for opportunities to practice speaking
English. But when the opportunity comes, I can’t do anything. I think I have
to study English much harder.

1.     What does depressed mean in the letter?
       A. Sad.       B. Bored.       C. Lucky.           D. Excited

2.    What can we learn from Amy’s experience?
      A. It is dangerous to talk to strangers on the streets.
      B. English is the most difficult subject for most students.
      C. People who get nervous easily cannot get good grades in English.
      D. Getting good grades in English does not mean we can use English well.
                                                                                 19
                                                           取材自大學學測

1.   As the tallest building in the world, Taipei 101 has become a new
     ______ of Taipei City.
     A. incident           B. geography
     C. skylight           D. landmark

2.   Jane usually buys things on ______. Her purchases seem to be
     driven by some sudden force or desire.
     A. accident          B. compliment
     C. justification     D. impulse

3.   If people keep polluting the rivers, no fish there will survive
     ______.
     A. at all cost        B. for a long while
     C. in the long run    D. by no means
                                                                       20
4. 雖然Lily生來又瞎又聾,但她從來不氣餒。

5. 她的故事證明了,我們只要努力必能成功。

Although Lily was born blind and deaf, she
   never felt discouraged.
Her story has proved that we can succeed so
   long as we make efforts.

                                         21
D. The impractical orientation of
      language learning
  (1) The starting age mystery.
  (2) Language is learned effortless.
  (3) Picked up vs. learned process.
  (4) The chagrin of environment



                                        22
 3. How to learn English as a foreign
 language confidently—independent
        learning concerned?


A. Phonetics, phonology, and phonics
B. Syntax: pedagogical grammar
C. Usage: habit formation


                                    23
A. Phonetics, Phonology, and Phonics
(1) Phonetics (語音學): The study of the speech
    sounds that occur in all human language to
    represent meanings is called phonetics.
(2) Phonology (音韻學): The study of sound
    patterns in language or as the sound
    patterns themselves.
(3) Phonics (聲學,自然發音學): A method of
    teaching beginners to read and pronounce
    words by learning the phonetic value of
    letters, letter groups, and especially syllables.
                                                  24
Letter ‘o’ and the Sound it Represents I

    “o’ in Words    Phonetics Represented
       dog                  [dCE]
       not                   [nAt]
        no                    [no]
        of                    [Dv]
      women               ['w0m0n]
      woman               ['w?mDn]
      mother              ['mKMQ]
                                      25
Quiz for you
1. How do you pronounce ‘Yots’—the last name of
   an American friend?
2. Answer 1. It is pronounced the same as
  ‘yachts’.
3. Answer 2. [jAts]
4. How do you pronounce ‘entrepreneur’
5. Answer (looking in a dictionary for [`AntrDprD'n"])


                                                   26
        The combined ways

entrepreneur   phonetics   [`AntrDprD'n"]



企業家             phonics    entrepreneur




                                       27
      Learning vowels I

[ A     e    i       o       u ]



[ D      G       0       C    ? ]

                                    28
       Learning vowels I I

 [ A          e        i    o     u ]

[K D Q "      $ G          0    C   ? ]

       [ a0       a?       C0 ]
                                        29
             Learning consonants
             Bilabial   Labio-   Inter- Alveolar Alveo- Velar Glottal
                        dental   dental          palatal
Stops           p                          t              K
                b                          d              g

Fricatives                f        L       s       N
                          v        M       z       I             h

Affricates                                         tN
                                                   dI
Nasals         m                           n                     H

Lateral                                    l

Glides                                     r        j     w
                                                                30
      Learning the conformation of
             the phonemes
Syllable Combination in Chinese Syllable Combination in English

Chinese           Examples      English          Examples
V                 愛ㄞˋ           V                eye
CV                替ㄊㄧˋ          CV               tea
CCV               跨ㄎㄨㄚˋ         CCV              qua
                                CVC              cat
                                CCVC             what
                                CCVCC            plant
                                CCCVCC           springs
Note. V = vowel      C = consonant                          31
Exercise 1: One syllable
1. [ta0m]        時間             2. [hGlp] 幫助
3. [w"k] 工作                 4. [wik]   星期
Exercise 2: Two syllables
5. ['p0kn0k] 野餐                 6. [bD'liv] 相
   信
7. ['fr0zbi] 飛盤             8. [hD'lo] 哈囉
Exercise 3: Three or above syllables
9. ['ta0p`ra0tQ] 打字機 10. ['Gvr0`hwGr] 到
   處
                                       32
11.[0m'pCrtDnt] 重要的 12. ['GlDfDnt] 象
             Learning Intonation
                     Good morning?
                      How are you?
                         What is it?
                     Where are you?
                     Where is John?
Exercise 4: Intonation of the sentences
1. [hwAt '0z 0t↘]               2. [hwAt 0z jur 'nem↘]
3. [hwAt 'ta0 0z 0t]             4. [Ar Me stKd0H
'0HEl0N↗]                                            33
    Spelling and pronunciation
Exercise 1: Diphthongs and vowel letters
1.[let] l __ te         2. [Miz] th __ se
3. [ka0t] k __ te       4. [not] n __ te
5. [kjut] c __ te


Exercise 2: Monophthongs and vowel letters
6. [st$nd]   st __ nd   7. [pGn] p __ n
8. [p0k]      p __ ck   9. [dCE] d __ g
10. [bKs]     b __ s
                                             34
              B. Syntax I

(1) Moods

  a. Imperative mood.
    (Stand up. / Open your book. / Let’s go.)
  b. Indicative mood.
  c. Subjunctive mood.



                                            35
              B. Syntax II
(2) Nine primary sentence patterns of
    indicative mood.
   a. S + be + N / Adj / Adv
   b. S + Linking V + N / Adj
   c. S + Intransitive V
   d. S + Transitive V + O
   e. S + Transitive V + O1 + O2
   f. S + Transitive V + O + OC
                                        36
              B. Syntax III

(3) Tenses

  Simple present / past / future tense
  Progressive present / past / future e tense
  Perfect present / past / future tense
  Perfect Progressive present / past / future
  tense

                                            37
              B. Syntax IV


(4) Tenses and the meaning of subjunctive
    mood

  Simple present / past / future tense



                                            38
Ex:
      假如我有時間,我會去看你。
      假如我是你,我不會給他錢。
      假如你昨天在家讀書(study),你就不會
           在街上遇到(meet)她。
      If I’ve time, I will visit you.
      If I had time, I would visit you.
      If I were you, I wouldn’t give him money.
      If you had studied at home yesterday,
      you wouldn’t have met her on the street.    39
                C. Usage I
(1) Can I use the credit card?
(2) We are peace maker.
(3) May I borrow your telephone?
(4) I will learn more knowledge after I graduate.
(5) I am glad to have the chance to write for
    you.
(6) The birds are on the tree.
(7) I slept at nine last night.

                                              40
              C. Usage II
(8) The department store is on sale.
(9) She pregnant.
(10) Did you write your homework?
(11) Do you like the movie? Yes, I like.
(12) And thank you for the offering on
     recommendation letter, which I think
     I will be needing it in the future time.
                                           41
     4. How to learn English as a foreign language
      Confidently—life-time learning concerned?
A.     Attitude—native like is not possible / you are better
      than the ones you have to talk in their language if
      only you can communicate with them.
B. Sticks on a TV program or a movie that you like very
   much.
C. Make the note that keeps the track of the usage of
   the target language.
D. Try to have a pen pal who can not read in Chinese to
   e-mail each other.
E. Jot down what you read and heard and make sure
   that you understand it well.
                                                          42
           5. Conclusion
Learning English is like playing a sport,
or singing a song. It takes time and
effort to achieve the goal.

Methods + achievement + tactics +
motivation + attitudes + time = success


                                            43

				
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