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					    Year 12

Business Studies

Marketing Booklet
                  Contents
1. HSC Business Studies Course Structure

2. HSC Business Studies Exam Structure

3. Hints on How to Write a Business Report / How to Revise for the HSC

4. Glossary of Key Words

5. Marketing Outcomes

6. Marketing Syllabus

7. Key Marketing Terms

8. Introduction to Marketing – Food for Thought… newspaper articles

9. Blank Summary Sheets by Syllabus Key Dot Points

10. Case Study Material

11. HSC Marketing Exam Questions – Multiple Choice and Short Answer
    Questions(2005-2009) with Answers
           HSC Business
          Studies Course
             Structure
(120 indicative hours)



                                                % of course time
1 Business Management and Change                      20
2 Financial Planning and Management                   20
3 Marketing                                           20
4 Employment Relations                                20
5 Global Business                                     20


The HSC course is based on a study of five compulsory topics.
The ordering of the topics is not prescriptive and in practice may be influenced
by students’ needs, interests and access to case study and other resources.
 HSC Business Studies
   Exam Structure
The Business Studies HSC Exam is set out as follows:

Section I

20 Multiple Choice (20 Marks) – this consists of approximately four multiple-
choice questions from each of the five topics studied



Section II

Short Answers (40 Marks) – this is the largest component of the paper – this
section consists of 5 short answer questions usually ranging from 1 mark
questions to 6 mark questions – all five topics studied are usually covered in this
section – HINT – the number of lines given indicates the suggested length of your
response for each question



Section III

Business Report (20 Marks) – this section MUST be written in a business report
format (see Hints on How to Write a Business Report). This section WILL
consists of THREE topic areas studied.

Markers are looking for: links to the stimulus material, report logic and structure



Section IV

Extended Response (20 Marks) – this section can be written in essay style OR
business report format. The key to getting the best marks in this section is to
include case study examples in your response. Without referring to case studies
HSC markers will only give a maximum of 12 marks out of 20 for a very well
written, logical response.

This section WILL consist of the TWO topic areas not examined in Section III.

(See also handout on ‘Business Studies Exam Preparation’ and ‘The sharp
end’) – see Mrs W for a copy
           Hints…
       How to Write a
       Business Report
Your Business Report is marked on the following criteria in general:

   -   correct reference to syllabus areas of three topics provided (knowledge)
   -   correct use of relevant business terminology and concepts
   -   correct use of directive terms eg describe, explain, etc
   -   correct business report format with introduction and conclusion,
       headings for each new section, subheadings where appropriate (logical,
       well-structured)

Business reports have many parts. They include:

   -   main heading or title of the report (what the report is about)
   -   opening paragraph (introduction/executive summary) – outlines what
       aspects are included in the report
   -   internal headings – main headings and subheadings (what each section of
       the report is about)
   -   may include tables, charts, diagrams, flowcharts – they must be referred
       to in the report and relevant
   -   paragraphs – there should be a new paragraph for each new idea
   -   a report should have a conclusion or a recommendation as to the action
       the business should take



Time Allocation: 35 minutes to write report in HSC



(Also see handout – How to Write a Business Report – see Mrs W for a copy)
        How to Revise
         for the HSC
MAKE THE BUSINESS STUDIES SYLLABUS DOCUMENT YOUR BEST
FRIEND!

Learn each dot point for each topic well.

Practice past HSC Business Studies papers – see Board of Studies Website:
www.boardofstudies.nsw.gov.au

Use Board of Studies ‘Test Yourself’ Multiple Choice questions.

Know your Glossary of Terms

Revise regularly – don’t leave it to the last minute – there is a large amount of
content in Business Studies

Other points to note:

-   study in a quiet environment
-   break down the Business Studies syllabus into manageable chunks
-   use a variety of study techniques to help you prepare for different types of
    questions
-   exercise regularly, eat a balanced diet and get sufficient sleep
-   have regular breaks
   Glossary of Key Words
    (relevant to Business Studies)
Account                         Account for: state reasons for, report
                                on. Give an account of: narrate a series
                                of events or transactions

Analyse                         Identify components and the
                                relationship between them; draw out
                                and relate implications

Assess                          Make a judgement of value, quality,
                                outcomes, results or size

Calculate                       Ascertain/determine from given facts,
                                figures or information

Compare                         Show how things are similar or
                                different

Contrast                        Show how things are different or
                                opposite

Critically (analyse/evaluate)   Add a degree or level of accuracy
                                depth, knowledge and understanding,
                                logic, questioning, reflection and
                                quality to (analyse/evaluate)

Define                          State meaning and identify essential
                                qualities

Demonstrate                     Show by example

Describe                        Provide characteristics and features

Discuss                         Identify issues and provide points for
                                and/or against

Distinguish                     Recognise or note/indicate as being
                                distinct or different from; to note
                                differences between
Evaluate    Make a judgement based on criteria;
            determine the value of

Examine     Inquire into

Explain     Relate cause and effect; make the
            relationships between things evident;
            provide why and/or how

Identify    Recognise and name

Justify     Support an argument or conclusion

Outline     Sketch in general terms; indicate the
            main features of

Propose     Put forward (for example a point of
            view, idea, argument, suggestion) for
            consideration or action

Recommend   Provide reasons in favour
                   Marketing
                   Outcomes
The focus of this topic is to develop an understanding of the nature and role of
marketing in a business and the main elements involved in the development
and implementation of successful marketing strategies.

Outcomes

The student:

H1.2 critically analyses the role of business in Australia

H2.1 describes and analyses business functions and operations and their
     impact on business success

H3.2 evaluates the effectiveness of management in the organisation and
     operations of business and its responsiveness to change

H4.1 critically analyses the social and ethical responsibilities of management

H5.1 selects, organises and evaluates information and sources for
     usefulness and reliability

H5.2 plans and conducts an investigation into business to present the
     findings in an appropriate business format

H5.3 communicates business information, ideas and issues, using relevant
     business terminology and concepts in appropriate forms.
   Marketing Syllabus
Students learn to:

use existing business case studies to investigate and communicate ideas and
issues related to marketing. The focus of these case studies will be to:

• analyse and evaluate marketing strategies for a product or service
• analyse the marketing plan of a business
• construct a marketing plan for a single product/service (real or imaginary).


Students learn about:

nature and role of markets and marketing

• the role of marketing in the firm and in society

• types of markets — resource, industrial, intermediate, consumer, mass,
niche

• production–selling–marketing orientation

• the marketing concept — customer orientation, relationship marketing

• marketing planning process


elements of a marketing plan

• situational analysis including SWOT and product life cycle

• establishing market objectives

• identifying target market

• developing marketing strategies

• implementation, monitoring and controlling — developing a financial
forecast, comparing actual and planned results, and revising the marketing
strategy


market research process

• determining information needs, data collection (primary and secondary),
data analysis and interpretation
customer and buyer behaviour

• types of customers — people, households, firms, educational institutions,
government, clubs and societies, religious organisations

• the buying process — buyers and users

• factors influencing customer choice — psychological, sociocultural,
economic, government


developing marketing strategies

• market segmentation and product/service differentiation

• product and service
– positioning
– branding
– packaging

• price including pricing methods — cost, market and competition-based
– pricing strategies/tactics — skimming, penetration, loss leaders, price points
– price and quality interaction

• promotion
– elements of the promotion mix — personal selling, advertising, below-theline
promotions, public relations
– the communication process including opinion leaders and word of mouth

• place/distribution
– distribution channels and reasons for intermediaries
– channel choice including intensive, selective, exclusive
– physical distribution issues including transport, warehousing, inventory

• environmental effects on distribution — technology, local government


ethical and legal aspects

• environmentally responsible products

• other issues including creation of needs, impacts of retail developments,
sugging (selling under the guise of research)

• role of consumer laws in dealing with
– deceptive and misleading advertising
– price discrimination
– implied conditions
– warranties
– resale price maintenance.
          Key Marketing Terms
TERM                                   DEFINITION

Advertising

Below-the-line promotions

Brand

Consumer market

Consumption spending

Controlling

Culture

Customer orientation

Demographic segmentation

Distribution channels

Ecological sustainability

Economic factors

E-commerce

Environmentally responsible products

Ethics

Exclusive distribution

Firms

Geographic segmentation

Government factors

Implementation
Industrial market

Intellectual property

Intensive distribution

Intermediate market

Loss leaders

Market research

Market segmentation

Market share

Market skimming

Marketing

Marketing concept

Marketing mix

Mass market

Monitoring

Niche market

Objectives

Opportunities

Packaging

Penetration pricing

Personal selling

Place

Positioning

Price

Price discrimination
Price point

Primary data

Product

Product life cycle

Promotion

Psychological factors

Public relations

Relationship marketing

Resource markets

Secondary data

Selective distribution

Selling orientation

Situational analysis

Skimming

Socio-cultural factors

Strengths

Sugging

SWOT analysis

Target market

Threats

Trademark

Warranty

Weaknesses
ADD YOUR OWN:
 Introduction to Marketing
    – Food for Thought…
Article 1
Tweets shed light on our banking gripes
Clare Kermond
Sydney Morning Herald
September 10, 2010

A STUDY of five months' worth of tweets about Australia's big four banks has
found that people dislike all banks about the same, but find different reasons to
be fed up with each one.

Researchers also found that people were far more likely to tweet about ANZ,
Westpac and Commonwealth Bank than they were about National Australia
Bank, with NAB the topic of only 9 per cent of messages. The issue most
commented on for all banks was service.

The study, by Christine Walker of Alliance Strategic Research, analysed more
than 5000 tweets between January and May this year. It will be presented today
at the Australian Marketing and Social Research Society conference in
Melbourne.

Ms Walker said there was a clear benefit in banks being on Twitter, in terms of
managing the word-of-mouth about their brand and ensuring that comments
were less negative.

Not surprisingly, tweets about banks were most often negative, but researchers
found important differences around what kind of messages people put on
Twitter depending who they were addressing the tweets to.

People were more strongly negative and more likely to swear in their banking
tweets, if the message was not addressed to anyone specific.

The breakdown of negative, positive and neutral comments was similar for each
bank.

Classification of the tweets into themes revealed some hot spots for customers.
After service, the most commented-on aspect of banks was social media followed
by brand image, location of branches and bank personnel.

Internet banking and bank websites were the subject of a lot of negative
comments with typical complaints including running slow, login not working,
site down and balances not shown. This was also an area where there were big
differences between the banks, with 85 per cent of ANZ's commentary negative
compared to an average for the other banks of 71 per cent.

Ms Walker also analysed swearing in the bank tweets and found that
Commonwealth Bank copped the highest proportion of messages including bad
language.

Ms Walker said the research showed that people did self-moderate their tweets
depending on whom they were talking to. She said at the time of the study,
Westpac was the only bank actively engaging with people on Twitter and
responding to comments.

''It's important that you [the banks] are in the conversation. If somebody knows
you're out there and you're listening they are going to be a little less negative
and that's an important thing for the brand.''

http://www.amsrs.com.au

Source: The Age
The article “Tweets shed light on our banking gripes” talks about the impact of
Web 2.0 technology on Australia’s banking sector. Answer the following
questions:

What is Web 2.0?

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What kind of information can be tracked from this source?

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Why is it important that marketers:
Are aware of this information?

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Use this information?

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Name 3 ways marketers use this information?

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Article 2
Hostie's use Lady Gaga to spice up safety

Daily Mail 4 October 2010

FED up with passengers who ignore hostie safety demonstrations, one airline
has adopted Lady Gaga and her cool dance moves to capture more attention.

Fed up with passengers who ignore hostie safety demonstrations, one airline has
adopted Lady Gaga and her cool dance moves to capture more attention.

Bemused passengers en-route to the Phhillipines arenow being treated to boppy
renditons of the pop star's "Just Dance" by cabin crew as they are advised of the
location of emergency exits on the plane.

And it's working, The Daily Mail reports cabin crew on board a Cebu Pacific
Airlines flight had no trouble holding the stunned gaze of everyone on board as
they strut down the aisles.

They also perform to Katy Perry's California Gurls.

The music competes with a voiceover that informs passengers what to do 'in the
event of an emergency landing'.
One quick-thinking passenger filmed the performance on a mobile phone,
posting it to YouTube.

Candice Iyog, vice President of Marketing at Cebu Pacific Airlines, told
GMANewsTV: 'Cebu Pacific has always been known as a fun airline, we
wanted to get the message across to our customers that flight safety doesn't
have to be boring.

'This was an experiment that we hope to repeat and also a chance to showcase
the talent of some of our cabin crew staff.
Article 3
Why league fans are staying away

Josh Massoud
The Daily Telegraph 9 May 2008

AS rugby league prepares for 10,000 empty seats at tonight's Centenary Test,
secret research has emerged to explain why Sydney fans are staying away.

The Daily Telegraph this week obtained two of the NRL's specially-
commissioned annual surveys into public attitude toward league.

Based on interviews with thousands of respondents Australia-wide, the 2004
and 2005 NRL Fanscans recommended the code improve its appeal to families
and women.

An alarmingly poor off-field perception was also evident within the pages of both
sizeable documents.

The 2005 season was the NRL's most successful to date, with record average
crowds and fairytale premiers in Wests Tigers.

That year's research identified a "wave of positive sentiment" - and stressed
families and women as key demographics to continue the upward trend.

Start of sidebar. Skip to end of sidebar.

End of sidebar. Return to start of sidebar.

Suggestions to grow crowds were overwhelmingly family-friendly. They
included family-only areas, improved public transport, cheaper food and
beverages and even a mechanism to use the family's credit card reward points to
pay for season tickets.

The research company, Enhance Management, also recommended the NRL use
more families in its advertising campaigns - not least of all to soften league's
tarnished image.

While it rated highly as an "entertaining", "powerful" and "aggressive" sport on
field, the game's image beyond the sidelines left much to be desired.

In 2005, the game's off-field image returned only a 5.2 out of 10 rating. Almost
65 per cent of respondents cited "bad/unethical/immature" player behaviour as
the top reason for their discontent.

Of particular concern was the high proportion of female respondents who
expressed such sentiments.
In 2004, women accounted for 55 per cent of the game's potential fan base.

While misbehaviour and scandal were of no great consequence to the game's
traditional male support base, the constant dramas have a real impact on it's No.
1 growth area - women and families.

"Family is key not only because of their higher net value, but also because family
influence is the strongest predictor of future rugby league support," the 2005
report concluded.

Since the results were compiled, the NRL has introduced some applaudable
initiatives to wisen players up - particularly young ones.

But crowds have inexplicably dropped. The past two seasons failed to eclipse
2005, and there was a marked decay in Sydney attendances last year.

An average of 13,816 people attended games in "the home of rugby league" -
down almost 700 on the previous year.

Over the first eight weeks of 2008, Sydney crowds have bounced back to a
healthier average of 16,633. But clubs are rightly cynical of early season figures.

With the rep season in full swing, they are bunkering down for the annual mid-
season dip that coincides with media and public attention turning to the State of
Origin series.

That's why, during Wednesday's meeting of all 16 NRL marketing managers,
there was a suggestion that Origin matches return to stand-alone weekends to
avoid "cannabalising" club games.

"There's a Test match in Sydney on Friday night and we are asking people to fork
out more money for club footy on the weekend," one insider said. "I honestly
can't see how they can afford it."

Roosters coach Brad Fittler said as much this week, when he linked the Test's
slow ticket sales to economic pressures on families.

And the research agrees. Sitting third on the 2005's list of "Barriers to
Attendance" was the price of stadium food and beverage.

The researchers surmised that clubs could even get away with increasing
admission prices if they dropped the cost of footy franks and pies inside the gate.

"This is because food and beverage prices are something that all game attendees
have a good knowledge of, and are easily compared elsewhere," the report said.
"The cost of tickets, however, is much harder to compare."
         Marketing Syllabus
       Key Dot Points Summary
nature and role of markets and marketing

• the role of marketing in the firm and in society

• types of markets — resource, industrial, intermediate, consumer, mass,
niche

• production–selling–marketing orientation

• the marketing concept — customer orientation, relationship marketing

• marketing planning process

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Focus Areas:

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elements of a marketing plan

• situational analysis including SWOT and product life cycle

• establishing market objectives

• identifying target market

• developing marketing strategies

• implementation, monitoring and controlling — developing a financial
forecast, comparing actual and planned results, and revising the marketing
strategy

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Focus Areas:

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market research process

• determining information needs, data collection (primary and secondary),
data
analysis and interpretation

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Focus Areas:

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customer and buyer behaviour

• types of customers — people, households, firms, educational institutions,
government, clubs and societies, religious organisations

• the buying process — buyers and users

• factors influencing customer choice — psychological, sociocultural,
economic, government

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Focus Areas:

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developing marketing strategies

• market segmentation and product/service differentiation

• product and service
– positioning
– branding
– packaging

• price including pricing methods — cost, market and competition-based
– pricing strategies/tactics — skimming, penetration, loss leaders, price points
– price and quality interaction

• promotion
– elements of the promotion mix — personal selling, advertising, below-theline
promotions, public relations
– the communication process including opinion leaders and word of mouth

• place/distribution
– distribution channels and reasons for intermediaries
– channel choice including intensive, selective, exclusive
– physical distribution issues including transport, warehousing, inventory

• environmental effects on distribution — technology, local government

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Focus Areas:

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ethical and legal aspects

• environmentally responsible products

• other issues including creation of needs, impacts of retail developments,
sugging (selling under the guise of research)

• role of consumer laws in dealing with
– deceptive and misleading advertising
– price discrimination
– implied conditions
– warranties
– resale price maintenance
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Focus Areas:

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          Case Study Material /
          Resources and Hints
   –     Ikea (see Excursion booklet)
   –     Imax:www.imax.com.au/content/.../Big%20Screen%20Business%20
         2007.pdf
   –     Billabong
   –     Harvey Norman
   –     Qantas
   –     McDonalds
   –     Boost Juice
   –     Holden
   –     ‘Bored of Studies’ website




More information to come….Work in Progress
            HSC Business Studies
            Marketing Questions –
    Multiple Choice & Short Answers

Multiple Choice
1. An engineering business that has been producing pollution control
components for ten years, is now redesigning components to meet new
environmental standards.

What marketing strategy is the business currently concerned with?

(A) Place
(B) Price
(C) Product
(D) Promotion


2. Academic Electronics produces microchip components for manufacturers of
computer systems.

What type of market is Academic Electronics servicing?

(A) Consumer
(B) Industrial
(C) Mass
(D) Retail


3. Which of the following best describes selling-oriented marketing?

(A) Using aggressive advertising to persuade customers to purchase products
(B) Satisfying the current and future preferences of customers to ensure long-
term success
(C) Pursuing production efficiencies to deliver quality products at prices that
attract consumers
(D) Enhancing the quality of working life to motivate staff to deliver high-quality
goods and services
4. A popular rock band has released a new CD. A large department store has
decided to sell this CD at below cost price.

What strategy is the store using?

(A) Price points
(B) Market pricing
(C) Price skimming
(D) Loss leader pricing


5. A soft drink company has designed a multicoloured bottle to market its new
drink.

Which marketing strategy is being used by the company?

(A)   Place
(B)   Price
(C)   Product
(D)   Promotion


6. Ana purchased a new brand of football boots on the recommendation of her
team-mates.

Which factor influenced Ana’s choice?

(A)   Competitiveness
(B)   Economic
(C)   Psychological
(D)   Sociocultural


7. A bank charges a fee to customers of other banks who use its ATM service.
What is the pricing method being used by the bank?

(A)   Cost-based
(B)   Break-even
(C)   Market-based
(D)   Competition-based
8. A business is offering next day delivery of cleaned and scaled fish to
restaurants.

What type of market is the business targeting?

(A) Consumer
(B) Intermediate
(C) Resource
(D) Wholesale


9. A business sets the price of a range of furniture at below cost price.

Which pricing strategy is being used?

(A)   Loss leader
(B)   Penetration
(C)   Price point
(D)   Skimming


10. What is an example of below-the-line promotion?

(A)   A television advertising campaign
(B)   Sponsorship of a local sports team
(C)   A commercial billboard on the side of a main road
(D)   A product slogan developed by an advertising agency


11. What is an example of market segmentation?

(A) A bank offering reward points to loyal customers
(B) A breakfast cereal manufacturer using advertising to target specific age
groups
(C) A sporting goods store dividing the floor space into sections to assist with
customer flow
(D) A biscuit manufacturer repackaging its product as a result of increased
market competition


12. A local cinema asks customers for their postcode when they purchase tickets.
This information is used to plan a marketing campaign.

Which of the following best describes this process?
(A) Market distribution
(B) Service differentiation
(C) Primary data collection
(D) Secondary data collection
13. A sports clothing manufacturer is experiencing increased competition and
plans to re-launch its product.

Which strategy is most appropriate for this phase in the product life cycle?

(A)   Diversify into sports equipment
(B)   Downsize the marketing department
(C)   Decrease accounts receivable turnover
(D)   Create a modern image for the clothing ran


14. Which of the following is an example of price discrimination?

(A) Advertising free installation but charging a fee
(B) Charging consumers for an extended warranty period
(C) Offering pensioners cheaper prices than non-pensioners
(D) Selling at the retail price imposed by the manufacturer


15. Which of the following includes ALL four elements of the marketing mix?

(A)   Credit terms, positioning, segmentation, pricing
(B)   Advertising, warranties, pricing, public relations
(C)   Discounting, packaging, advertising, distribution
(D)   Personal selling, branding, warehousing, publicity


The diagram shows the market position of Product A and of its competitor
Product Y.

The marketing manager for Product A wishes to move the product from its
current position at A to A1.

Personalised
service
Perceived Perceived
low high
quality quality
AA
1
Y
Non-personalised
service
16. Which of the following strategies could the business use to achieve the
repositioning to A1?

(A)   Price skimming
(B)   Increasing price
(C)   Penetration pricing
(D)   Loss leader pricing


The marketing manager for Product Y would like to maintain Product Y’s current
market positioning and customers.

17. Which strategy would best achieve this?

(A)   Reducing the price
(B)   Using intensive distribution
(C)   Developing a loyalty scheme
(D)   Advertising weekly in free local newspapers


18. A business sells jewellery to 15–20 year olds.

Which type of market is the business targeting?

(A)   Consumer
(B)   Intermediate
(C)   Niche
(D)   Resource


19. Which of the following is an example of promotion as a marketing strategy for
a new line of shampoo?

(A)   Creating a brand name
(B)   Making it available only in hair salons
(C)   Packaging in environmentally-friendly bottles
(D)   Advertising it as adding shine and volume to hair


20. A business makes unauthorised copies of foreign movies and sells them at
the recommended retail price of the original product.

Which of the following describes this practice?

(A)   Sugging consumers
(B)   Dumping illegal products
(C)   Violating intellectual property rights
(D)   Engaging in resale price maintenance

Short Answers
1. A shoe manufacturer has employed a high-profile teenage music star, Sandy, to
launch its new fashion shoe line aimed at girls in the 8–12 age group.

Advertisement shows a slim model with the catchline: Do you want to move like
Sandy? Step into her shoes and you will. Available at all good shoe stores.

(a) Describe ONE ethical issue involved in targeting this age group. 2

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(b) Analyse ONE legal aspect related to the use of the above advertisement. 3

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2. A mobile phone company is moving to a niche market focus. The concept the
company is aiming to develop is relationship marketing.

(a) Identify ONE feature of a niche market. 1

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(b) Describe relationship marketing. 2

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(c) Identify ONE strategy that the mobile phone company could use to develop
relationship marketing, and explain ONE possible impact of the strategy on
EITHER the customer OR the company. 3

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3. A chain of fitness centres in the city is used by office workers.
The owners plan to open a new branch in a shopping complex in a new suburb.

(a) Identify ONE possible target market for the new branch. 1

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(b) Describe a market research process appropriate for the new branch. 3

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(c) Analyse how the business could differentiate its existing services for the
new branch. 6

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4. A business sells a perfumed hair gel under the KoolTop brand. It now wants to
market a cheaper non-perfumed hair gel.


(a)   Define branding. 2

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(b) Describe ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of marketing the
non-perfumed hair gel under the KoolTop brand. 4

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 100% environmentally friendly
Fits all your shopping

Buy one today
Money back guarantee
Has the government tick of approval
Cheaper for pensioners
Gogreen
A customer-oriented business sells environmentally friendly shopping bags. The
business is considering using the following advertisement to market its product.
One business objective is to improve its reputation as a provider of
environmentally friendly products.

5. (a) Define customer orientation. 2

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(b) Explain how TWO features of this advertisement could be seen as
deceptive or misleading. 4

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(c) Assess the likely impact of using this advertisement to achieve the
business objective. 4

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Work in Progress - Answers to come……


Multiple Choice Answers
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Short Question Answers
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