VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 23 POSTED ON: 3/1/2012
Autism Spectrum Disorder What is it? How does it affect children? Presented by: Peggy Bartman, Occupational Therapist Autism Society of the Fox Valley What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? • Life-long neurological developmental disability. • The medical spectrum of autism – Autistic Disorder – Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) – Asperger’s Syndrome The Spectrum of Autism Cognitive Giftedness Impairment No verbal Exceptional language vocabulary Delays in Exceptional Gross and fine Artistic or physical skills Motor skills Social Active, odd Isolation Behaviors What Causes ASD? • Neurological disorder, generally thought to be present from birth. • Affects the way the brain processes and uses information. • Researchers have determined that genetic factors, possibly in combination with environmental factors, contribute to causation of ASD. Miscellaneous Statistics • Occurs in at least 1 in 110 births (Autism Society of America 2010) • 4 of every 5 people with Autistic Disorder are male. • 10 of every 11 people with Asperger Syndrome are male • Fastest growing developmental disability ASD Ice Berg Behaviors of ASD Water line Features/Characteristics of ASD Learning/thinking/processing differences Social differences Communication differences Sensory Processing differences Restricted/repetitive patterns Adapted from Susan Boswell of behaviors, actions or interests Division TEACCH, 2000 Features & Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder • Learning / thinking / processing differences • Restricted, repetitive, perseverative patterns of behavior, thoughts & interests • Inflexible thinking • Sensory processing differences • Communication differences • Social relation differences Learning / Thinking / Processing Differences 1. Strengths in processing information visually versus weakness in processing information auditorily Learning, Thinking and Processing Differences • Attending Differences • Organization and Sequencing • Concrete and Literal • Difficulty with Generalizing • Possibility of: – Exceptional rote memory skills – Specific skills that far exceed skills in other areas Restrictive / Repetitive Patterns of Behavior • Can present as all-consuming interests in topics, themes or objects • Strict adherence to rituals or routines • Stereotyped motor patterns Inflexible Thinking • Insistence on sameness • Difficulty with change • Strict adherence to rules • Need for closure or completion • Perfectionistic, or fear of failure Sensory Processing Disorder • Misinterpretation of everyday sensory information. The brain processes sensations inefficiently The outward manifestations of sensory problems are often seen in noncompliance and/or rages/meltdown behaviors that are out of proportion to the situation or stimulus. Communication What is communication? purposeful, intentional behavior verbal or nonverbal used to exchange information within a social context. Communication Differences • May exhibit echolalia or perseverative speech • Challenges engaging in appropriate conversational skills • Difficulty recognizing and interpreting non-verbal social communication behavior – Limited or fleeting eye contact (on own terms) • Language comprehension and auditory processing difficulties Social Relation Differences • Social Awareness • Social Understanding Social Understanding taking another person’s perspective • The ability to put ourselves in someone else’s shoes and look at the world through their eyes • The ability to understand that other people have thoughts, ideas, interests, feelings and beliefs different from our own • The ability to think about what other people are thinking Social Understanding Difficulties Can Look Like: • Problems functioning in cooperative learning groups • Interrupting others with own ideas or issues • Difficulty participating in competitive activities • Poor awareness of “hidden rules” or social codes of conduct • Lack of intuitive desire to learn about others • As a result of neurological problems in: – Processing information – Sensory processing – Social interactions – Communication – Rigid, inflexible thinking People on the autism spectrum experience almost constant FEAR and ANXIETY! Challenging behaviors are most often the result of increased fear and anxiety! How can we help? – Provide structured activities – Provide quiet atmosphere – Provide a VISUAL SCHEDULE so that child can see what is going to happen – Provide a place where families know they can take their child without fear of them being “spotted out” or have negative judgments made about their parenting skills
"Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder"