Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder by wangnianwu

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									Autism Spectrum Disorder

                 What is it?
           How does it affect
                  children?

                           Presented by:

                                Peggy Bartman,
                        Occupational Therapist
                Autism Society of the Fox Valley
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?


• Life-long neurological developmental
  disability.
• The medical spectrum of autism
   – Autistic Disorder
   – Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not
     Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)
   – Asperger’s Syndrome
          The Spectrum of Autism


 Cognitive
                            Giftedness
 Impairment

    No verbal               Exceptional
    language                vocabulary
Delays in                   Exceptional
Gross and fine              Artistic or physical skills
Motor skills

    Social                   Active, odd
    Isolation                Behaviors
        What Causes ASD?
• Neurological disorder, generally thought to
  be present from birth.
• Affects the way the brain processes and
  uses information.

• Researchers have determined that genetic
  factors, possibly in combination with
  environmental factors, contribute to
  causation of ASD.
    Miscellaneous Statistics

• Occurs in at least 1 in 110 births (Autism
  Society of America 2010)
• 4 of every 5 people with Autistic Disorder are
  male.
• 10 of every 11 people with Asperger
  Syndrome are male
• Fastest growing developmental disability
  ASD Ice Berg


                           Behaviors of ASD
Water line



                  Features/Characteristics of ASD

             Learning/thinking/processing differences

                        Social differences

                 Communication differences

                 Sensory Processing differences

                 Restricted/repetitive patterns         Adapted from Susan Boswell

                 of behaviors, actions or interests
                                                        Division TEACCH, 2000
   Features & Characteristics of
    Autism Spectrum Disorder

• Learning / thinking / processing differences
• Restricted, repetitive, perseverative patterns
  of behavior, thoughts & interests
• Inflexible thinking
• Sensory processing differences
• Communication differences
• Social relation differences
       Learning / Thinking / Processing
                  Differences
1. Strengths in processing information visually versus
   weakness in processing information auditorily
Learning, Thinking and Processing
           Differences
•   Attending Differences
•   Organization and Sequencing
•   Concrete and Literal
•   Difficulty with Generalizing
•   Possibility of:
    – Exceptional rote memory skills
    – Specific skills that far exceed skills in other
      areas
Restrictive / Repetitive
  Patterns of Behavior

• Can present as all-consuming
  interests in topics, themes or
  objects
• Strict adherence to rituals or
  routines
• Stereotyped motor patterns
    Inflexible Thinking

• Insistence on sameness
• Difficulty with change
• Strict adherence to rules
• Need for closure or
   completion
• Perfectionistic, or fear of
    failure
   Sensory Processing Disorder

• Misinterpretation of everyday sensory
  information. The brain processes
  sensations inefficiently
  The outward manifestations of sensory
problems are often seen in noncompliance
and/or rages/meltdown behaviors that are
    out of proportion to the situation or
                 stimulus.
Communication
What is communication?
purposeful, intentional behavior
verbal or nonverbal
used to exchange information within a social
 context.
  Communication Differences

• May exhibit echolalia or perseverative speech
• Challenges engaging in appropriate
  conversational skills
• Difficulty recognizing and interpreting non-verbal
  social communication behavior
   – Limited or fleeting eye contact (on own terms)
• Language comprehension and auditory
  processing difficulties
   Social Relation Differences
• Social Awareness
• Social Understanding
       Social Understanding
    taking another person’s perspective


• The ability to put ourselves in someone
  else’s shoes and look at the world through
  their eyes
• The ability to understand that other people
  have thoughts, ideas, interests, feelings
  and beliefs different from our own
• The ability to think about what other people
  are thinking
   Social Understanding Difficulties
           Can Look Like:

• Problems functioning in cooperative learning
  groups
• Interrupting others with own ideas or issues
• Difficulty participating in competitive activities
• Poor awareness of “hidden rules” or social
  codes of conduct
• Lack of intuitive desire to learn about others
• As a result of neurological problems in:
  –   Processing information
  –   Sensory processing
  –   Social interactions
  –   Communication
  –   Rigid, inflexible thinking


       People on the autism spectrum experience
                     almost constant
                 FEAR and ANXIETY!
Challenging behaviors are most
often the result of increased fear
           and anxiety!
       How can we help?

– Provide structured activities
– Provide quiet atmosphere
– Provide a VISUAL SCHEDULE so that child
  can see what is going to happen
– Provide a place where families know they can
  take their child without fear of them being
  “spotted out” or have negative judgments
  made about their parenting skills

								
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