Public speaking

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					Public speaking
   Basics
Objectives
Identify the major similarities and differences
  between public speaking and everyday
  conversation.
Discuss methods of controlling nervousness and
  of making it work for a speaker.
Identify the basic elements of the speech
  communication process.
Public speaking vs. conversation
   A. Public speaking and conversation share major
    goals: to inform, to persuade, to entertain.
   B. Public speaking and conversation require
    similar skills. In both, people:
   1. organize their thoughts logically.
   2. tailor their message to an audience.
   3. tell a story for maximum impact.
   4. adapt to feedback from listeners.
Differences between public speaking
and everyday conversation
   A. Public speaking is more highly structured
    than ordinary conversation.
   B. Public speaking requires more formal
    language than ordinary conversation.
   C. Public speaking requires a different method
    of delivery from ordinary conversation.
   D. With study and practice, most people are
    able to master these differences and expand
    their conversational skills into speechmaking.
Public speaking helps people develop
critical thinking skills
   Critical thinking involves:
   being able to assess the strengths and
    weaknesses of an argument.
   distinguishing fact from opinion.
   judging the credibility of sources.
   assessing the quality of evidence.
   discerning the relationships among ideas.
Critical thinking skills are enriched by
a public speaking class
   As students organize their speeches, their ideas
    will become more clear and cohesive.
   As students work on expressing their ideas
    accurately, their thinking will become more
    precise.
   As students learn about the role of reasoning and
    evidence in speeches, they will become better able
    to assess reasoning and evidence in all types of
    situations.
Understanding your nervousness
   Fear of failure
   Fear of being judged
   Fear of humiliation
Some steps students can take to
control their nervousness
   Be thoroughly prepared for every speech.
   Think positively about yourself and the speech
   Know that your nervousness is usually not visible
    to the audience.
   Don’t expect perfection.
   Be at your physical and mental best.
   Concentrate on communicating with the audience
    rather than on worrying about your nervousness.
How it works?
Elements of the speech
communication process
   The Speaker (source)
   The message
   The channel
   The listener (receiver)
   Feedback
   Interference (external or internal).
   The situation/context
Communication Process
      Situation
       MES SAGE




                        Situation
      CHAN NEL

      FEED BACK

      Interference
      Situation
Encoding and Decoding
The key concepts:
encoding / decoding
   Encoding: ‘translating’ ideas and
    images into a code (e.g., language) that
    the audience can recognize
   Decoding: understanding /
    deciphering received messages
    (encoded ideas and images)
   Communication as:
   Action, Interaction and Transaction
Channels
   Verbal
       Spoken/written words
   Nonverbal cues
       Personal appearance
       Bodily action, Gestures
       Attitudes toward Time, Space
       Voice, Articulation / Dialect
Noise
   Physical
   Physiological
   Psychological
   Semantic
Situation
   Influences on the form and content
    of messages:
   Physical setting
   Cultural / social milieu
Communication principles
   Inevitability: Everything communicates
   Intentional vs. Unintentional
   Irreversible
   Unrepeatable
Communication competence
   Achieving one’s goals: Effectiveness + Ethics

   A Large Communication Repertoire
   Ability to Choose the Right Approach
   Self-Monitoring
   Cognitive Complexity / Knowledge:
    “Well-developed person”
Questions of ethics
    Public speakers should
   make sure their goals are ethically
    sound
   be fully prepared for each speech.
   be honest in what they say.
   avoid all forms of abusive language.
   put ethical principles into practice.
Listeners
   Listeners should be courteous and
    attentive during the speech.
   Listeners should avoid prejudging
    the speaker.
   Listeners should maintain the free
    and open expression of ideas.
Freedom of Speech
   Free speech is a means to an end:
    discovering the best idea possible.


   Free speech is also an end itself:
    the desire for free expression, self-
    fulfillment.
The Case for Free Speech
   Discovery of Truth: The pursuit of
    political truth through competition of
    ideas.
   A means of political participation.
   Check on Government: The restraint on
    tyranny, corruption, and ineptitude.
   Social Stability: The facilitation of
    majority rule.
Free expression and human
dignity
   The First Amendment serves not
    only the needs of the polity but
    also those of the human spirit—a
    spirit that demands self-expression
    (Thurgood Marshall)
   Self-fulfillment
   Pleasure, Gratification
   Respect
What is Speech
   All forms of expressions:

   The actual spoken/written
    communication
   Symbolic speech / Expressive
    conduct to convey a message
Flag burning
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
   During the protests against the Republican
    National Convention in Dallas in 1984 Gregory
    Johnson set on fire a national flag.
   He was convicted under Texas criminal
    statute making: it is a criminal offense to…
    desecrate… a state or national flag.”
   He was sentenced to one year in prison and a
    fine of $2,000.
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
   The Supreme Court ruled for Johnson.
   It ruled that the desecration was
    “expressive conduct.” Thus, Texas
    statute prohibited expressing ideas, not
    desecration and thus was not
    permissible.
New York Times v. Sullivan
(1964)
   “The debate on public issues
    should be uninhibited, robust, and
    wide open, and that it may well
    include vehement, caustic, and
    sometimes unpleasantly sharp
    attacks on government and public
    officials”
    (from Justice Brennan’s opinion)
New York Times v. Sullivan
(1964)
   Public officials may not recover damages for
    defamatory falsehood relating to their official
    conduct unless they can prove actual
    malice;

   “that the statement was made with…
    knowledge that it was false or with
    reckless disregard of whether it was
    false or not.”
Hustler Magazine v. Falwell
(1988)
   In a parody that appeared in
    Hustler magazine the prominent
    fundamentalist evangelist
    Reverend Jerry Falwell was
    depicted as a drunk in a sexual
    liaison with his mother in an
    outhouse
From the “Campari Ad”
   But your mom? Isn’t it a bit odd?
   I don’t think so. Looks don’t mean that
    much to me in a woman.
   Go on.
   Well, we were drunk off our God fearing
    asses on Campari, ginger ale and soda…
    And mom looked better than a Baptist
    whore with a $100 donation.
From the “Campari Ad”
   Did you try it again?
   Oh, yeah. I always get sloshed before I
    go out to the pulpit. You don’t think I
    could lay down all that bullshit sober, do
    you?
Hustler Magazine v. Falwell (1988)
 Falwell sued for:
1. libel,
2. invasion of privacy,
3. intentional infliction of emotional distress.
 In the trial court he lost on (1) and (2) but
  prevailed on (3). He was awarded
  $200,000 damages for emotional distress
Hustler Magazine v. Falwell (1988)
   The Supreme Court reversed (8 to 0):
   a public figure or official may not recover
    for intentional infliction of emotional
    distress arising from a publication unless
    the publication contains a false statement of
    fact that was made with actual malice.
Hustler Magazine v. Falwell (1988)
   That the material might be deemed
    outrageous and that it might have been
    intended to cause severe emotional distress
    were not enough to overcome the First
    Amendment.
Obscenity test (not protected by 1st
Amendment)
   1. The average person, applying contemporary
    community standards' would find that the work,
    taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest
   2. The work depicts or describes, in a patently
    offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined
    by the applicable state law
   3. The work, taken as a whole, lacks serious
    literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Contemporary Arts Center in Cincinnati,
Ohio: Robert Mapplethorpe Show
   Dennis Barrie and the                Protesters outside the
    Contemporary Arts Center were         Contemporary Arts Center
    indicted for pandering
    obscenity hours after the
    opening of the show that
    exhibited several portraits,
    mostly of sadomasochistic acts.
         Mr. Barrie and the
    arts center he directed
    were acquitted in a much-
    publicized trial that lasted
    six months.
Obscene versus indecent
   Obscenity: a class of sexual material so
    offensive that is deemed by the Supreme
    Court to have virtually no 1st Amendment
    protection
   Indecency: not necessarily obscene, but
    deemed inappropriate for the airwaves
Obscene? Indecent?
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=koRlFnBlDH0



   European Union Official advertisement for
    European Cinema

   http://www.ifilm.com/video/2671016



   Carls Jr commercial
Indecent: Definitional problems
   Indecent: offending against decency;
    unsuitable
   Decency: correct, honorable, or modest
    behavior
   Special legal meaning: a class of speech that is
    restricted on the broadcast airwaves, even though
    is not necessarily obscene and would be legally
    allowable in other avenues of expression.
Seven Dirty words
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fFmRypAYz_E

   George Carlin: Seven Dirty Words
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MeSSwKffj9o

   George Carlin on God
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOLFo9Aoomw


   Lewis Black
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mCDZMWVWuc

   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2Cj5usuA-Q&feature=related

   Deadwood
$550,000 Moment (FCC Fine)
Plagiarism: presenting another
person’s language or ideas as one’s
own
   Global plagiarism is copying an entire
    speech and passing it off as one’s own.
   Patchwork plagiarism occurs when a
    speaker patches a speech together by
    copying verbatim from two or three sources
   Incremental plagiarism occurs when a
    speaker fails to give credit for specific parts of
    the speech that are borrowed from other
    people (plagiaphrasing)
Ways to avoid plagiarism
   Start work on your speeches as early as
    possible so you will have plenty of time to
    prepare a speech that is truly your own.
   Consult a large number of sources in your
    research so you do not rely too heavily on
    one or two sources.
   Be careful when taking research notes to
    distinguish among direct quotations,
    paraphrases, and your own ideas (avoid
    accidental plagiarism)
Choosing a topic
   From subjects about which students already
    know a great deal.
   From subjects about which a student is
    interested and wants to learn more.
   From issues about which students hold strong
    opinions and beliefs.
   Students can use several brainstorming
    procedures (make inventory of interests,
    skills, experiences or browse through
    encyclopedias, dictionaries, or other reference
    materials)
Determining the general
purpose
   When the general purpose is to inform,
    speakers act as teachers.
       Their goal is to communicate information
    clearly, accurately, and interestingly.
   When the general purpose is to
    persuade, speakers act as advocates.
       Their goal is to change the attitudes or
    actions of their audience.
Narrowing to the specific
purpose
   The specific purpose should indicate
    precisely what the speaker wants the
    audience to know or believe after the
    speech.
   1. It should focus on a clearly defined aspect
    of the topic.
   2. It should be expressed as a single
    infinitive phrase that includes the audience.
Five tips for forming a good
specific purpose statement
   It should be a full infinitive phrase, not
    a fragment.
   It should be phrased as a statement,
    not a question.
   It should avoid figurative language.
   It should not contain two or more
    unrelated ideas.
   It should not be too vague or general.
Specific purpose statement’s
checklist
   Does the specific purpose meet the
    assignment?
   Can this specific purpose be accomplished
    effectively in the time allotted?
   Is the specific purpose relevant to the
    audience?
   Is the specific purpose too technical or trivial?
Central idea: It sums up the speech
in a single statement
   Often called a thesis statement or
    subject sentence, the central idea
    encapsulates the main points to be
    developed in the body of the speech.

   It   should   be expressed in a full sentence.
   It   should   not be in the form of a question.
   It   should   avoid figurative language.
   It   should   not be too vague or general.

				
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