The Cold War by pb4ciAk


									Chapter 8: From a World War to a Cold War (Contains Cuban Missile Crisis for SBQ)

Why did Cold War break out?
 This portion of the content deals with the reasons for the outbreak of the Cold War
  between the USA and the USSR

Competing Ideologies:
 The Cold War confrontation between the USA and the USSR was a clash between the
   opposing ideologies of Communism (USSR) and Democracy (USA)
 Supporters of Democracy felt that Communism was akin to slavery and that only
   Democracy could offer freedom. On the other hand, supporters of Communism felt that
   workers in Democratic societies were the slaves of the Capitalists

Feelings of Mistrust:
 Feelings of mistrust between Communism and the West began in 1917 when the
   Communists first came to power after the 17 October revolution in Russia. This is
   because the Communists called for a world revolution which the USA feared would
   cause an end to Capitalism and Democracy
 Poor relations with the West continued when Britain, France, Japan and the USA sent
   funds and troops to prevent the spread of Communism during the Russian Civil War,
   fighting on the sides of the anti-Bolshevik White Armies
 After World War II, the USA and the USSR emerged as the world’s only two
   superpowers, both believing in different ideologies. They also had the power to spread
   their ideologies to other countries

Wartime Alliances Broke Down:
 After 1945, there was no common enemy (Germany) to keep the USA and the USSR
  working together so they both returned to the old relationship of mistrust and suspicion
 While the relationship was still alright, the West and the USSR agreed at the Yalta
  conference to temporarily divide Germany and its capital, Berlin, into four zones of
  occupation. When the war ended, the leaders of the Allied countries met again in
  Potsdam to finalise the discussion started in Yalta
 Tensions began when the issue of who should be in charge of Poland was discussed. The
  Allies wanted free elections while the USSR wanted more land as it feared being
  attacked through Poland
 The poor relations between the USSR and the West at the Potsdam Conference were a
  sign that their wartime alliance had come to an end and that the Cold War had begun

How did the Cold War affect Europe?
 This portion of the content deals with how the outbreak of the Cold War affected Europe

Europe was divided:
 Between 1945 and 1948, Europe was divided into 2 sides – the Eastern European
   Communist countries and in the Western European Democratic countries
 The USSR expanded its control over the Eastern European countries by occupying them
   with Soviet troops so that the USSR could not be attacked through these countries.
    Stalin also set up Communist governments in these countries so that he could influence
    them to follow pro-USSR policies. These countries were known as satellite states
   The West viewed this policy as hostile and aggressive and criticised the USSR for not
    holding democratic elections and oppressing democracy in the satellite states
   Churchill described Europe as being divided into two spheres of influence by an “Iron
    Curtain” (an imaginary line between the Soviet satellite states in the East and the
    Democratic states in the West

Germany was divided:
 Conflicts on how to administer Germany led to a crisis among Britain, France, the USA
   and the USSR in 1948
 Despite making agreements at Yalta and Potsdam, in 1948, Britain, France and the USA
   joined their separate zones in Germany and created a new currency for their sphere of
   influence. This action helped West Germany recover faster from the damage caused by
   WW2. The West also had democratic elections for West Germany. However, East
   Germany did not have all this as it was under a Communist party under Soviet control
 Seeing the progress made by West Germany, Stalin was afraid that Germany would grow
   strong again and be a threat to the USSR. He planned to seize control of West Berlin by
   blocking all road, rail and canal links between West and East Germany in 1948. The crisis
   became known as the Berlin Blockade. Stalin believed that he could force the British,
   French and Americans to leave the city by blocking all supplies of food to West Berlin
 For the USA, it was important to support West Berlin because it represented the
   democratic system. The USA was also concerned that if it pulled out of West Berlin, the
   Soviets may have invaded West Germany
 Knowing that retaliation by troops would result in a full-scale war, Harry Truman
   (President of the USA) deployed a fleet of planes to fly over the blockade and bring food
   and supplies to the West Berliners. The USSR could not do anything about the planes as
   shooting them down would be a declaration of war
 After 10 months, the USSR realised that it had not succeeded and ended the blockade in
   1949. Following the blockade, Germany was separated into two countries – West
   Germany and East Germany

The Truman Doctrine (1947):
 In order to prevent Communism from spreading, President Truman announced the plans
   for the Truman Doctrine. According to the doctrine, the USA would help other
   democratic countries when they were threatened by Communism
 The Truman Doctrine (or Containment Policy) was to force Communism to remain within
   its borders by giving money, weapons, fuel and other incentives to countries in danger
   of being taken over by Communists

Marshall Plan (1947):
 The Marshall Plan offered financial help to Europe to help it recover from World War II
  and to build a prosperous and successful Western Europe which would resist
  Communism by giving loans, aid and goods
 The USA believed that with the Marshall Plan, the people of Western Europe would be
  more prosperous and less likely to support Communism
 Stalin forbade the Soviet satellites to accept the Marshall Plan
   As a result of the Marshall Plan, Western Europe recovered faster from the effects of
    WW2 than Eastern Europe. The Marshall Plan also heightened Cold War tensions as the
    USSR saw the Marshall Plan as an attempt to spread Democracy and Capitalism through
    the use of money
   The USSR set up COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Co-operation) in response to
    the Marshall Plan and to encourage trade and co-ordinate the economic policies among
    the Communist countries

NATO (1949) and Warsaw Pact (1955) were set up:
 The division of Europe into two spheres of influence and forced the USSR and the USA to
   seek allies through military alliances
 The USA built up their forces in Europe through NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
   Organisation) in 1949 to defend Europe from Soviet attack
 The USSR and all the Communist countries of Eastern Europe joined the Warsaw Pact in

How did the Cold War affect the rest of the world?
 This portion of the content deals with how the outbreak of the Cold War affected the rest
  of the world

China joined the Cold War:
 Having defeated the Nationalists, the Chinese Communist Party took control of China
   and proclaimed the creation of the Peoples’ Republic of China in October 1949
 The USA then saw the Communist alliance between the USSR and China as a single,
   united enemy determined to control the world
 The USA was also afraid that the USSR would give China nuclear weapon technology as
   the USSR had recently tested its own nuclear weapons

Japan became the USA’s main-Communist ally:
 Faced with the threat of Communism, the USA strengthened Japan’s economy and
   introduced democratic reforms in order to turn Japan into its main ally in the region. It
   also provided Japan with economic aid, new technology, new industrial equipment and
   lifted trade restrictions on the country. It also supported Japan’s entry into several world
   bodies (IMF, UN, World Bank)
 The USA and Japan also signed the 1952 US-Japan Mutual Security Treaty where the USA
   promised to come to Japan’s aid if Japan was attacked. The treaty also allowed the USA
   to station troops in Japan

USA’s One China Policy:
 Due to their unfriendly relations, the USA adopted a One China Policy from 1945 to 1972
   and refused to recognise the Peoples’ Republic of China (PRC). Instead, it recognised
   Taiwan (Republic of China – ROC) as the legitimate government of China

Increased US Support for anti-Communists in Asia:
 Communism in China also led the USA to search for other allies in Asia. In addition to
    forming alliances with Taiwan, the USA also sent troops to support anti-Communist
    governments in South Korea (1950) and South Vietnam (after 1954)
   An anti-Communist alliance to oppose Communist gains in Southeast Asian was formed.
    It was called the Southeast Asian Treaty Organisation (SEATO)
   The USA also competed with the USSR in search for allies in the Middle East (Israel and
    other Arab States) and in Africa (Congo, Angola, etc)

Case Study 1: The Korean War (Can be used to study SS)
 This portion of the content deals with how the Cold War became a “Hot War” with the
   Korean War

Circumstances leading to the Korean War:
 Korea was divided at the 38th parallel when Soviet troops took control of the North and
    American troops took control of the South upon the surrender of the Japanese in 1945.
    Free elections were supposed to have been carried out to reunite the two Koreas under
    one elected government
 The USA and the USSR set up governments in both Koreas which supported their
    ideology. The USSR gave power to Kim Il Sung while the USA gave power to Syngman
    Rhee. North Korea became known as the Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea (DPRK)
    while South Korea became known as the Republic of Korea (RK)
 In 1949 both parties pulled out their troops but the USSR left behind a well-trained
    North Korean Army while the USA left behind a poorly trained and poorly equipped
    South Korean Army as it did not want the South to launch an invasion of the North.
    However, both Kim Il Sung and Syngman Rhee claimed the right to rule over both Koreas
    and there were border raids and conflicts between North and South Korean soldiers
 Kim Il Sung thought that he stood a good chance of unifying the two Koreas under
    Communist rule. Emboldened by an announcement that South Korea was not
    mentioned in the US defence perimeter, Kim persuaded the Chinese and the USSR to
    allow him to invade the South. The USSR and the Chinese provided weapons and
    advisors to the North Koreans

Course of the War:
 In 1950, the North Koreans cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea to reunite it
   under Communist rule. The UN called for an immediate ceasefire but was ignored by
   North Korea
 A UN force was assembled out of 16 countries and half the soldiers were from the USA.
   This force was sent to fight the North Koreans
 The UN forces pushed back the North Koreans to the Yalu River (border with China).
   Chinese troops joined in the fight and the UN forces were forced to retreat South. The
   fighting continued for two years without a clear winner although peace talks were
 In 1953, both sides stopped fighting but no peace treaty was signed.

Impact of the War:
 Korea:
       o 2.5 million deaths (85% civilian)
       o 80% damage (Korean factories, transport networks of rails, roads and bridges)
       o The 38th parallel remained a division between the two Koreas with the exception
           of a demilitarised zone (DMZ) set up at the 38th parallel as a buffer between the
           two Koreas. This DMZ is filled with soldiers, barbed wire, land mines and is one of
           the most heavily armed places in the world. Korean families are still separated
           although from time to time reunions are allowed when relations between the
           two Koreas are cordial
   China:
        o Its entry into the Korean War showed that it was a major military power and
            could match a world power like the USA. It grew increasingly confident of its
            position in the world and demanded a UN seat which it obtained in 1971
   USA:
        o Felt that the Korean War was successful in containing Communism
        o Negotiated alliances with other countries in addition to NATO:
                 ANZUS (Australia and New Zealand) – 1951
                 SEATO (SE Asian equivalent of NATO) – 1954
        o Built up the size of its troops in the Asia-Pacific by stationing troops in South
            Korea and Japan
   Japan:
        o Became a key US ally in Asia and a model of American democracy for Asian
        o It was also turned into a production and supply base for US troops in Korea
            during the war. In fact, the Japanese economy boomed because it supplied US
            troops with uniforms, equipment and supplies during the Korean War and
            recovered from the damage it suffered during WW2
   Taiwan (ROC):
        o Taiwan was protected by American warships during the Korean War as the US
            was afraid that China might use the Korean War to launch an attack on Taiwan
        o Military conflicts between Taiwan and China would occur 3 more times in the
            Taiwan Straits. There have been artillery attacks on Taiwanese offshore islands
            (Quemoy and Matsu) and trade blockades have been imposed on Taiwan
   Global Impact:
        o The Korean War brought the Cold War into Asia and made it a global war
        o The Korean War also showed that smaller countries could use superpowers to
            fight their aims (e.g. North Korea drawing USSR and China to try and reunite it
            with South Korea)
   Iron and Bamboo Curtains:
        o Bamboo Curtain was the Asian equivalent of the Iron Curtain
        o It consisted of divisions on the Korean Peninsula and between mainland China
            and Taiwan

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