Nutrition by jianghongl


									Nutrition         Class #1          Tuesday, January 7, 2003

Chapter 1: Nutrition Basics

**Table 1-1 Terms (page 5)
Body Mass Index - 25 or greater considered overweight and 30 or greater considered obese, can assess
health problems for individuals
Obesity - BMI greater than 30
Risk Factor - talking about a disease process
Kilocalorie - foods and their energy contents (can convert to joules, conversion factor is 4.2 J/cal)

Table 1-2 Leading Causes of Death in the United States
Most common is heart disease and then cancer

6 Nutritional Components
Energy Sources:
1. Proteins
2. Carbohydrates
3. Lipids
Structural Features:
4. Vitamins - fat-soluble (tendency to accumulate and become toxic) versus water soluble (involved in
chemical processes, alter the rates of reactions)
5. Minerals - non-organic
6. Water

calorie - energy required to raise 1 gram of water 1 degrees Celsius
Calorie (kcal) - energy required to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius

Proteins and Carbohydrates
4 cal/gram

9 cal/gram

7 cal/gram

Food Label (page 11)
Dietary fiber means indigestible carbohydrates

Table 1-4
Years When Common American Foods Were Introduced

Chart Versus Target Values and Current Estimated Values in the Population

Scientific Method

Case Control Studies and Double-blind Studies
Double-blind standard is as good as it gets when it comes to scientific experiments

Situations Regarding Red Flags
Red flags - breakthrough, amazing new information, etc. are buzzwords that should make you suspicious
Genetics and Nutrition
Genetic profile (page 31) will help you determine what risk factors can effect you

How to Find Reliable Information on Nutrition (page 23)
Lists web sites for valuable information

Chapter 2: Introduction to Nutrients

Nutrient Density
Refers to vitamin and mineral content per Kilocalorie
For large nutrient density we want high vitamin and mineral content and low number of kilocalories

Energy Density
Ratio of kilocalories per gram
Of those 3 energy-containing nutrients, lipids have the highest energy density
Want to remove the more energy dense foods (lipids) because removing less food from the diet
(360 kcal - remove 40 grams of fat or 90 grams of carbohydrates)

Table 2-2 (page 42)
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
Possible to overdose on any of the 6 components of nutrition
Recommended Dietary Allowance - want to watch out for

Table 2-4
Comparison of Daily Values with the Latest Dries and Other Nutrient Standards

Table 2-6
Food Pyramid Guide
Base is cereal grains
Fruits and vegetable
As move towards top fewer and fewer servings
Replaced the 4 food groups
Other versions available
Nutrition          Class #2      Tuesday, January 14, 2002

Body Mass Index
Ratio of weight to height
Calculated by dividing one's weight in pounds by square of one's height in inches, and multiplying by 703.
(703 corrects for pounds and inches)

Food Pyramid (Page 48)
At the bottom of the pyramid are things people should eat more of, and as one progresses to the top, the
fewer servings that one is supposed to have
Replaced the food groups
Various other versions of food pyramids (Page 74)
Criticisms of Food Pyramid (Page 51)
Other information at Harvard School of Public Health

Food Labels

Food Exchange System
Appendix D
Assessment of Calorie Count (Page 514)

***Dietary Assessment Project (Page 70-71)
Keep a log of food and activities for a few days (what you eat and how much and activities) (weekends and
4-5 Days

Chapter 3: Human Physiological Processes
Review Organization of the Body
Tables 3-3 to 3-6
Are you taking care of your digestive tract? (Page 120)

Chapter 4: Metabolism
Appendix on chemistry

Chapter 5: Carbohydrates



Between 3-8 simple sugars
Appear in vegetables, legumes, etc. and are for the most part indigestible

More than 9 simple sugars

Digestive Processes of Carbohydrates
Glycosidic linkage has to be hydrolyzed

Complex Carbohydrates

Nutrition         Class#3 Tuesday, January 21, 2003

Nutrition Perspective Chapter 3: When Digestive Processes Go Awry

Chapter 5: Carbohydrates



Complex Carbohydrates
Dietary Fiber is carbohydrates found in the diet with indigestible glycosidic linkages
Soluble vs. Insoluble
Does not take into account whether or not a substance is digestible
Soluble is gums, pectins, and mucilages
Insoluble is celluloses and hemi-celluloses*
Bran is largely cellulose with some hemi-cellulose

Insoluble items pass directly through digestive system

Some soluble items can be digested
Microbes in the intestine digest some soluble carbohydrates, and as a result, produce by-products because
of the metabolic breakdown
Have 1-3 kcal/g

Sugar Alcohols vs. Sugar Acids
Sugar alcohols will be CH2OH
Sugar acids will have carboxylic acid COOH

***Table 5-1 Classification of Dietary Fibers (page 167)


***Review Carbohydrate Digestion

Complex Carbohydrates
Mixtures of digestible carbohydrates (starches) and non-digestible carbohydrates (fiber)

Uses of Carbohydrates
1. Energy source
2. Glucose properties:
Protein sparing indicates that the carbohydrate is used for fuel instead of a protein
Ketosis production (acidosis) is using a carbohydrate instead of fatty acid
3. Adding flavor and sweetness
Starches have very little sweetness associated with them

Role of Fiber
1. Diverticula are small pouches that develop in a person's large intestine
Diverticulosis is occurrence of diverticula, usually asymptomatic
Diverticulitis is when diverticula become inflamed, symptomatic, and usually arises when food becomes
trapped in diverticula
2. Tends to slow food absorption
A. Glucose absorption
B. Cholesterol absorption*
Food moves faster through intestinal tract in a high fiber diet, so food is not absorbed as fast

High Fiber Diets and Colon Cancer

Requirements of Carbohydrates
Estimated value of total energy spent is 50-75% carbohydrates
About 10% of total carbohydrate intake are simple sugars
Problems with High-Fiber Diets
Phytobezoars are fiber balls that accumulate in the stomach

Lactose Intolerance
Digestive disorder in which the body fails to produce an enzyme to catalyze hydrolysis of lactose
Glycosidic bond is hydrolyzed by microbes in small intestine, which produces gas, etc.
Not a food allergy
Certain ethnic groups are more likely to develop lactose intolerance
Maturity enhances people getting lactose intolerance

Diet of Simple Sugars
Has a low nutrient density ("empty calories")
Examples: soft drinks, candy, etc.

Fat Free Foods
Bland taste initially until simple sugars are added so people are eating high carbohydrates

Tooth Decay
Diet high in simple sugars and carbohydrates can lead to tooth decay (dental caries)

Glycemic Index
When you ingest a food, your blood sugar increases and then returns to normal in about 2-2 1/2 hours
Glucose tolerance curve

Nutrition                  Class #4          Tuesday, January 28, 2003

*Read Perspectives at end of each chapter

Food Sweeteners
High fructose corn syrup is corn syrup with added fructose to obtain a high level of sweetness
High fructose corn syrup is a lot cheaper than cane sugar
Alternative sweeteners - Nutrasweet (aspartame) are sweeter so use less of it and therefore calorie content
is reduced in the diet
Sugar alcohols include sorbitol and is used in substances that are labeled "sugar-free"
Sugar alcohols do not produce tooth decay as often as other carbohydrates
Sugar alcohols do have a calorie count
Glycerol is another type of sugar alcohol that comes from dihydroxy acetone or glyceraldehyde

Chapter 6: Lipids

Saturated Fatty Acids
On each end is a methyl group and carboxylate group

Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Also have a methyl group on one end and carboxylate group on the other end
Also have one or more double bonds in the middle of the chain

Short Chain Fatty Acid
Less than 6 carbon

Medium Chain Fatty Acid
Between 6-10 carbons

Long Chain Fatty Acid
More than 12 carbons
Fatty Acids
Almost always have even numbers of carbon
Synthesized from acetyl CoA

Delta Notation
Starts at carboxyl end and names the fatty acid

Nutrition Notation
Starts at methyl group and names the fatty acid
Denotes starting at methyl group by starting with "omega"

Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids
Essential fatty acids
Prostaglandins and other metabolites are synthesized at the expense of these fatty acids
Have to accumulate these omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids from dietary intake because they cannot be
made in the body
Linolenic is an omega-3 fatty acid
Linoleic is an omega-6 fatty acid
Prevalent in the normal diet
It is possible to overdose on essential fatty acids (blood clotting time is elongated and platelet formation is
impacted which makes you more susceptible to hemorrhaging)

Triacylglycerols is a more descriptive name
Energy content

Non-polar Lipids
Depot fat
Energy storage

Membrane Lipids
Phosphatides - diacylglycerol (diglycerides)
Polar lipid bilayer

Precursor for bile salts, steroid hormones, etc.
Can be a membrane component
Synthesized from the acetyl CoA

Fat Digestion
*Review in text

Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Hormone involved in lipid digestion
Stimulates the release of bile

Lipid Transport
LDL, HDL, and VLDL are lipoproteins (mixed micelles with cholesterol esters)
*Refer to a chemistry book

Fat in one's diet gives the sensation that you have eaten enough
Put enough fat in your diet so that you will not be eating soon after you have just finished a meal

Gastric Inhibitory Protein (GIP)
Tend to slow down the release of food into the lumen of the small intestine

Trans Fatty Acids
In a cis double bond there is a bend in the configuration
Less of a bend in a trans configuration at a double bond
More cis fatty acids than trans fatty acids
To extend shelf life of a lipid make the oil more saturated by removing the double bond with hydrogen gas
and a platinum catalyst
This process is carried out at relatively high temperatures
Unless you hydrogenate the lipids completely, then you get some trans double bonds
Hydrogenating some lipids completely causes them to be hard as brick
Partially hydrogenated means that some of the double bonds are still present
Major occurrence in trans fatty acids are in margarines, potato chips, etc. (processed foods)
Want to produce foods that have long shelf lives and right consistency

Food Additives
Added to extend shelf life
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant
Retard spoilage

Nutrition                   Class #5 Tuesday, February 4, 2003

**Look at Table page 206

Typically found in animal lipid sources, rarely found in plants
Higher the fat content, the higher the bile salts the body makes so more cholesterol present in the diet
Has no metabolic consequences but a precursor for bile salts and material for cell membranes

Fat Replacements
Having fat in diet with minimal detriments
Fats provide flavors, textures to foods, and satiety
Olestra is an engineered fat that is indigestible

Most energy dense foods

**Table 2-9 Definitions for Comparative and Absolute Nutrient Claims on Food Labels

Blood Lipids
Too many LDLs causes problems
High amounts of HDLs helps

Chapter 7: Proteins

Essential Amino Acids
Required by the organism and the organism cannot synthesize them

Nonessential Amino Acids
Can be synthesized by the organism

Why do we need protein in our diet?
1. Supply essential amino acids
2. Transport mechanism for nitrogen
3. Fuel source

Dietary Sources for Proteins
1. Animal proteins are complete proteins except for gelatin
Gelatin is an incomplete protein that is a structural component for collagen
2. Plant proteins are incomplete proteins, which means that they do not contain all of the amino acids

Complementary Proteins
One plant protein does not contain amount of essential amino acids that the body needs so combine with
complete protein and body will obtain amount that is needed
Table 7-2

Protein Synthesis

Protein Turnover
As a routine basis, the body is continuously hydrolyzing and synthesizing proteins
As proteins are hydrolyzed they make amino acids, and as proteins are synthesized they consume amino
Protein thru hydrolysis to make amino acids
Amino acid thru synthesis to make proteins
Amino acids are used for carbohydrate synthesis, acid-base balance, and specific metabolites
When use amino acids that are essential, have to supply them from diet so that appropriate proteins can be
Use 300-400 grams of protein per day
Amino acids contain carbon that can be used as fuel (calorie burn is about 4 calories/gram)

Nitrogen Balance
Measure of nitrogen intake and nitrogen output

Modes of Nitrogen Loss
1. Urea is formed in the liver in response to variable nitrogen intake
Need to expose nitrogen because variable intake, cannot store it, and it is toxic to the body
Use nitrogen for acid-base balance

RDA for Protein
Based on nitrogen intake
Want a slight overage so that you will end up with more nitrogen
Need about 0.8 grams/kilogram of normal body weight
Different levels for different ages
On average amino acids are about 16% nitrogen by weight

Nutrition         Class #6           Tuesday, February 11, 2003

Evaluation of Protein Quality
Page 280-281
Biological Value
Protein Efficiency Ratio
Chemical Score of Protein
Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score

Protein Energy Malnutrition

Nutrition Perspective: Vegetarian Diets

Chapter 8: Alcohol

Energy Content for Ethyl Alcohol
7 calories/gram

Alcohol Metabolism
From carbohydrates
Alcohol dehydrogenase pathway - 95% of alcohol consumption will be metabolized via this method
Will generate reducing agents
Hepatic process
Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system

Fortified Wines
Grain alcohol that has been distilled and then extra alcohol added to it

Speed of Metabolism
Males metabolize alcohol faster than females

Benefits of Alcohol Use
In the past it was used in place of water because dirty water or water not available

Detriments of Alcohol Use
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal alcohol effect

Binge Drinking vs. Alcohol Dependency
Binge drinking is an episodic situation
Alcohol dependency is when a person becomes sick without alcohol and has to be professionally
detoxified, cannot usually go more than 8-10 hours without alcohol

CAGE Questionnaire
C - Cut down
A - Annoyed by questions
G - guilty about drinking
E - Eye-opener
Nutrition         Class #7 Tuesday, March 5, 2003

Fat-Soluble Vitamins
4 vitamins (A, D, E, and K)
E and K discovered recently
Hydrocarbon tail
A lot of benzene rings
Beta-carotene - provitamin A, found in bright orange and yellow vegetables
Retinals are halves of the beta-carotenes
Trans-retinal is more stable
Vitamin D is a cholesterol derivative
Absorption from digestive tract dependent on amount of fat in one's diet
Liver is first organ site for vitamin breakdown
Vitamins can be stored and can overdose on them
Vitamin A
2 Versions - carotenoids (precursors - Beta-carotene) and retinols
Function is regarding vision

Carotenoids and Retinols
Carotenoids found in plants and vegetables (orange, yellow, and dark green vegetables)
Beta-carotene will processed into
"Retinoids" - active form, retinol (alcohol), retinal (aldehyde), and retinoic acid (acid)
Liver will store carotenoids and retinoids
Carotenoids are absorbed via the lymphatic systems
Retinoids are absorbed via the portal system
Transport via lipoproteins

Role of Retinoids
Visual process
Rhodopsin is a combination of the 9- or 11-cis-retinal
Cis-retinal and opsin react to make rhodopsin
Energy from light will transfer rhodopsin to prelurmirhodopsin (trans-retinal)
Trans-retinal is active agent that will induce a hyperpolarization
Trans-retinal will be transferred back to cis-retinal by isomerase, will cost energy
Trans-retinal will be changed by NADH to trans-retinol (active agent)
Cis-retinal will be changed by NADH to cis-retinol (active agent)
Both of these processes require energy

Cell Differentiation
Vitamin A also associated with cell differentiation
Used in various types of skin disorders

Food Sources for Vitamin A
Carotenoids come from plant sources
Retinoids come from animal sources (liver, fish, eggs, etc.)
Best source of vitamin A is polar bear liver

IU vs. RAE
Varies with gender and age
900 RAE for males and 700 RAE for females between the ages of 19 and 70+
Possible to overdose on fat-soluble vitamins

Acute, chronic, or tetragonic
Tetragonic amounts produce birth defects
Toxicity is more related to retinoids
**Look at symptomatology of Vitamin A toxicity
Major problem is night-blindness

Vitamin D
Vitamin D is formed when there is a bond breakage in cholesterol
Most come from fortified foods
Not many natural food sources
Active form is 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol
Sunlight impact has to be relatively intense (usually get enough sun light in the summer or where it is
relatively warm year-round)
Sunlight impact is a function of latitude and also is related to skin color
RDA is a sliding scale for Vitamin D (less than 50 years is 5 micrograms per day, between 50-70 years is
10 micrograms per day, and more than 70 years is 15 micrograms per day)
Can store Vitamin D for several weeks
Function of Vitamin D
Play a role in maintaining plasma calcium levels
Calcium reserves are the bones
Problems associated with Ricketts
Hard to reverse disease in adults
Another problem is osteoporosis
Also helps regulate phosphate concentrations
*Know difference between Ricketts and osteomalacia
About 5 times the average intake o Vitamin D can cause toxicity

Nutrition         Class #8 Tuesday, March 11, 2003

Vitamin E
Tocopherols (different forms, 8 versions that have to do with stereochemistry, alpha, beta, gamma, etc.)
Classified as an antioxidant, dressed up reducing agent
Free radical is an agent that has an unpaired electron, as a result they are high energy agents (example:
hydrogen peroxide)
R reacted with energy (and sometimes a metal ion) yields an R group with free electron
This compound reacts with oxygen to yield a peroxide
Peroxide reacts with another R group and yields? (process continues on and on)
Tocopherol will react with R group with free electron or peroxide
Antioxidant will interrupt a reaction
Glutathione (GSH) is tripeptide made up of 3 amino acids (glutamate, cystine, and glycine); it is a reducing
Sources are vegetable oils, whole grains, etc.
About 22 natural IUs and 33 artificial IUs
Toxicity is rare, hard to overdose, no known disease associated with it

Vitamin K
Absorbed lymphatic system
Reaction that it engineers is associated with blood clotting factors
Known as the "clotting factor"
Deficiency is blood hemorrhaging

Water-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins B and C
Absorbed via the hepatic portal system
Tendency not to collect in fatty tissues so not very toxic
Tend to flush them out regularly so need to supplement often

Vitamin B
Tend to be lost in cooking, absorbed in water (cook item as quickly as possible)
**Refer to Table on pages 402-403 (summary of B vitamins)
Function as coenzymes

Thiamin (B1)
1. Activate "acyl" functions
2. Involved in transketolase reaction (pentose pathway)
Disease is Beri Beri (cannot produce acetyl CoA so cannot produce acetylcholine), have congestive heart
failure, skeletal muscle wasting, etc.
Usually seen in alcoholics
Active form is TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate)
Riboflavin and Niacin
Redox cofactors in dehydrogenase reactions
Riboflavin (FAD, FMN) - TCA, Beta-oxidation, ETS
Niacin (NAD, NADP)
Disease process associated with Niacin is Pellagra
Whole grains are major food sources

Involved in coenzyme A
Usually found in acyl functions
Extremely difficult to have get a deficiency

Involved in carboxylation reactions (pyruvate to generate oxaloacetate) (odd carbon fatty acids and
branched chain amino acids)
Hard to have get a biotin deficiency

Used in transamination reactions (utilized in amino acid reactions and expelling nitrogen in urea)
Associated with PMS and carpal tunnel syndrome

Folate (folic acid) is in series of reactions that transfer methyl groups (1-carbon) (uracil to thiamine,
homocysteine to methionine, norepinephrine to epinephrine, etc.)
Deficiency can cause megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defects

Cobalamin (B-12)
Final absorption in ilium
"Intrinsic factor" is glycoprotein synthesized in stomach
Cobalamin transported by intrinsic factor
Involved in homocysteine to methionine and norepinephrine to epinephrine reactions
Disease process is pernicious anemia
Available in animal products
Vegans and elderly individuals are at risk for deficiency

Nutrition         Class #9 Tuesday, March 18, 2003

Class Projects
Wearing a bracelet is useless in obtaining copper into your diet
Trace element for animals and humans
Used for synthesis of ATP
Absorbed in stomach and most in small intestine
Involved in absorption, metabolism of iron
Activate lysyl oxidase
Aneurysms is cause of deficiency
Also associated with Parkinson's disease because increased copper in CSF
Increased perception of red and green colors
Deficiencies are associated with high blood pressure, reduction in strength of arterial walls, myelin defects,
Leukopenia is also associated with copper deficiency
Zinc interferes with absorption of copper (be careful with zinc supplements)
Normal RDA is .8 to 1.5 mg
200(+) mg indicate copper toxicity
Extreme toxicity can lead to suicide
2 diseases: Wilson's disease and ?
Foods that contain copper are leafy green vegetables, liver, nuts, etc.

Occurs naturally in foods
Natural forms are found primarily in meat, fish, and other animal products
Stored as high energy molecule used in production of ATP
Creatinine is a waste product excreted in urine
Important when there is a transition from rest to intense explosive exercise
High carbohydrate diets are required to maintain insulin necessary for muscle creatine transport
Causes water retention (approx. 1.5 to 2.0 kg)
Aerobic endurance activities are not positively influenced by creatine
Effects renal system (should not use if already have renal disease)
Many professional athletes are using it
Many college coaches are trying to stop their athletes from using it
If used in excessive amounts during competition can be associated with "doping"

What are essential fatty acids?
Can only be supplied by the diet
Body cannot produce a carbon-carbon double-bond
Linolenic Acid and linoleic acid
Vital parts of body structures, immune system function, visual function, eicosanoids (prostaglandins,
prostacyclin, etc.)
Omega-3 reduces heart arrhythmias, thrombosis, decrease TAG levels, reduce rate of plaque, etc. (found in
plant oils, mayonnaise, salad dressing, whole grains, vegetables)
Omega-6 is found in fatty fish (salmon, tuna) and plant oils
Can overdose in essential fatty acids, need to balance both because imbalance can lead to problems clotting
or not clotting blood

Nutrition         Class #10          Tuesday, March 25, 2003

Alternative Nutrition for Huntington's Chorea
3 stages:
1. Patient still can be independent, depression, slow tremors, etc.
2. Partially dependent, increased irritability and mood swings, trouble swallowing
3. Degeneration in the brain, total dependency, walk only with assistance, severe tremors, tube feeding
Need alternative nutrition because of diabetic-like metabolism (trouble digesting glucose)
Test was on 2 groups of mice
Nutrition diets lead to slower progression of symptoms, less body weight, better digestion of glucose
Disease has no cure

Fast Food Diet
Benefits: convenient, predictable, cheap, tastes good, and fast
Risks: high calorie, fat, cholesterol, sugar, sodium, and low nutrient
Calories for men: 2700/day
For women: 2000/day
Fat 30% of total diet
Double Whopper with cheese with large fries is the worst
Domino's pizza is lower in fat but high in sodium

Vitamin and Nutrient Losses as a Result of Medications
Most Common: antacids, antibiotics, antihistamines, etc.
Antacids: lose calcium (tooth decay), phosphorous, and folic acid (anemia)
Antibiotics: B vitamins, K, magnesium, iron, B6, and zinc (weak immunity)
Bronchodilators: potassium and B6 (sleep problem)
Female Hormones: ERT and HRT, oral contraceptives (folic acid, magnesium, B3, B6)
Thyroid Medications: iron depleting (anemia)
Case study: multivitamins did not help healthy individuals, but helps immune compromised individuals

Hollywood 48 Hour Diet
Special formula of all natural fruits and purees, vitamins, etc.
Jamie Kable is the inventor
Weight loss of up to 10 pounds or more
Decrease in cravings for "killer" foods
Disrupts regular food intake, cleansing digestive system, and activating body's internal fat-burning surface
Does not disrupt the diet but you do not eat
To keep weight off transition slowly back to healthy diet

Food Allergies and Food Intolerance
See handout
Food allergy is an immune reaction to food
Most common: milk, eggs, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shell fish, soy
In children, most common are milk, eggs, and peanuts
Ingestion of food causes large production of IgEs
Contaminated meat has many of the same reactions as food allergies
Food intolerance produced by yellow dye number 5, MSG, and sulphites
Celiac disease is a permanent adverse reaction to gluten
Wheat allergy is an IgE mediated response

Russian Air-Force Diet
See handout
Created in Russia during the Cold War
Vitamin D, E, and folate are low
Caloric intake is low

Nutrition         Class #11         Tuesday, April 1, 2003

Phosphate Loading
**See Handout
Popular for endurance athletes
Phosphate is major component for ATP
Typically get a lot of phosphate in our diet daily
RDA 800-1200mg per day
Research varies from improved endurance to no correlation
Not illegal
No apparent effects except for GI problems
No one knows about long term effects, only possible problem is phosphate might interfere with calcium

Blood Type Diet
60% of adults are overweight
1/5 of Americans are obese
CDC reports that diabetes has increased by 33% since 1990
Developed by Dr. Peter D'Adamo
Chemical reaction occurs between blood and foods you eat. Reaction caused by Lectins, abundant and
diverse proteins found in foods.
Blood Type A: typically docile, more at risk for cancer, diabetes, etc., should eat mostly vegetarian
Type O: should eat lots of proteins and less carbohydrates, thrive on doing a lot of exercise
Type B: Opposite of Type A, weaker immune systems, eat balanced diet, fits food pyramid best
Type AB: weaker immune systems, lots of vegetables, mixed diet
No evidence that suggests that the diet works, no known research

Improve memory
Provide energy
Improve cell's response
Reduce allergies
Hormonal balancing
2 essentials: omega-3 and omega-6 (most Americans get more omega-6 in their diets)
Get omega-3 flax, walnut, fish, etc. (fish oil is best source)
Get omega-6 from olive oil
Major killers: cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes
Overweight and under nourished (recommend 21 as BMI, BMI of 25 is usually associated with health
related diseases)
Need omega-3 to control weight because improves sensitivity of insulin receptors, etc.
Low fat leads to poor health (brain is 60% lipid) low omega-3 is associated with depression
Use cod oil in cold weather because contains vitamin D
Recommended ratio of 1:1 of omega-3 and omega-6

Trace mineral
Metal is reactive chemically
Found mostly in bones but also in liver, pancreas, glands, and active metabolic organs
Co-enzyme for citric acid cycle
Important for digestion and utilization of foods, supports immune system, etc.
Low levels associated with fatigue, depression, joint dislocations, etc.
High levels associated with migraine, PMS, muscle tremors
Mostly in nuts and whole grains but also in leafy greens, legumes, coffee beans, etc.
No RDA, recommended value is 2.5-5mg per day
Toxic levels are around 50mg per day

Benefits of Olive Oil
Most commonly eaten monounsaturated oil
Types: differences in acidity virgin (4%), extra virgin (less than 1%), and light does not mean less calories
77% monounsaturated fat
Reduces the oxidation of LDL's and maintains HDL's
Cholesterol buster
Good for your heart
Breast cancer prevention
Colon protection
Loves your skin (helps prevent skin cancer)
Helps your joints (can help prevent rheumatoid arthritis)
Mediterranean Diet: bread, pasta, rice, fruit and vegetables, use olive oil as fat, high in fat content
Olive Oil Diet: Lindsey McLean, "detox diet", eat what you want, drink olive oil straight (recommends
juice chaser after)

Fats and Alzheimer's
Mental deterioration manifested by loss of memory, ability to calculate, etc.
Beta amyloid develops in brain
No known cause
Vaccine currently being tested
Dietary fats help prevent but some may increase the chances of disease
More saturated fats the greater the risk
Should eat polyunsaturated fats
Need to start now because after a person gets the disease nothing helps
Antioxidants do not help

Coral Calcium
50 times more absorbable
Eat sand which contains coral calcium
Discovered by people from Japan who used to feed their cows and chickens this sand and discovered that
more eggs and milk were produced so started to include this sand in their diet
May play a role in body pH

Choosing Not Cheating
Dr. Howard Shapiro's Picture Perfect Weight Loss
Perspective on what you can eat
Shows pictures in the book to show you what you should choose to eat

Thiamin (Vitamin B-1)
Carbohydrate metabolism, nerve impulses, oxygen metabolism, etc.
Mainly absorbed in jejunum
TPP is active form
Most values for males and females are relatively the same
Pork, watermelon, mushrooms, sunflower seeds, etc.
Benefits are depression, muscle tenderness, sciatica, etc.
Diseases are Beriberi (2 types are wet and dry), Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (associated with alcohol)

Swank MS Diet
By Dr. Swank in 1950
Associated the Multiple Sclerosis (disease of central nervous system)
In females more than males
4 ways to categorize MS
Low fat, high oil diet
Eating less fat slows down the deterioration of myelin sheath
People can live a long time with no complications when they are on this diet
Started diet in Canada
Fat provides the most energy (9 calories per gram)
High oil because need essential fatty acids which are necessary for function of nervous system
Vitamin supplements should compliment diet (Vitamin A and D, cod oil etc.)

Folic Acid (B9)
Water soluble vitamin
Composed of pteridine, para-aminobenzoic acid, and one molecule of glutamate
Needed for DNA replication, needed for synthesis of Adenine and Guanine, and neurotransmitters
Associated with megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defects (anencephaly and spina bifida)
Neural tube defects are common in China and Japan
Spina bifida is bulges in neural tube
Level of spina bifida determines amount of disability
Best sources are liver, fortified foods, legumes, whole grains, and vegetables
Try to eat foods that are not processes as much
RDA is 400 micrograms for women during child-bearing years

Benefits of Flaxseed Oil
Rich source of essential fatty acids
Abundant source of lignan
Symptoms are aching joints, constipation, cracked nails, forgetfulness, immune weakness, etc.
Omega-6 and omega-3 balance important to keep cell membranes fluid, provide "good" prostaglandins,
improve blood flow, etc.
Flaxseed oil is associated with decreased heart disease, cancer, etc.
Lignan, found in seed hull, are antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial properties

Grapefruit Diet
2 1/2 months lose 52 pounds
Grapefruit or juice starts burning process
Lacks sufficient amounts of iron, calcium, and vitamins

Essential mineral found in almost every cell
Stimulates activity of enzymes
Needed for wound healing and growth, DNA replication, etc.
Best source is oysters, also found in poultry and meats, etc.
Absorbed in small intestine
RDA 3-14 mg
Deficiency causes growth retardation, hair loss, diarrhea, etc.
Lower amount for infants and pregnant women
Toxicity is 40mg/dayu, causes decrease in HDL, interferes with copper metals, etc.
Wound healing: increase T-lymphocytes, fight infection, etc.
More research needed on effects on common cold

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