ubd_ttl by wangnianwu

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 37

									Understanding by Design

          the ‘big ideas’
             of UbD


 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
3 Stages of
(“Backward”) Design
     1. Identify desired results


       2. Determine acceptable evidence


                  3. Plan learning experiences
                           & instruction

 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Why “backward”?
  The stages are logical but they go
           against habits
  We’re used to jumping to lesson and
   activity ideas - before clarifying our
   performance goals for students
  By thinking through the assessments
   upfront, we ensure greater alignment of
   our goals and means, and that teaching is
   focused on desired results

 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Understanding by Design
Template

  The UBD template
  embodies the 3 stages
  of “Backward Design”

  The DDN   Curriculum
  site provides an easy
  mechanism for
  exchange of ideas.
  Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Misconception Alert:
the work is non-linear                                                  !
It doesn’t matter where you start
   as long as the final design is
  coherent (all elements aligned)
  Clarifying one element or Stage often
   forces changes to another
   element or Stage
  The template “blueprint” is logical
   but the process is non-linear (think:
   home improvement!)
 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
 You’ve got to go
below the surface...
           to uncover the
         really ‘big ideas.’


Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
3 Stages of Design,
elaborated
   1. Identify desired results

       2. Determine acceptable evidence


                  3. Plan learning experiences
                           & instruction

 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
     Stage 1 – Identify
     desired results.
                 Key: Focus on Big ideas
   Enduring Understandings: What specific insights U
    about big ideas do we want students to leave with?
   What essential questions will frame the teaching
    and learning, pointing toward key issues and     Q
    ideas, and suggest meaningful and provocative
    inquiry into content?
   What should students know and be able to do?                                     K
   What content standards are addressed explicitly CS
    by the unit?
      Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Establishing Priorities
                                              Knowledge that is worth being
                                              familiar with
             Worth being
             familiar with



             Important to                     Knowledge and skills that are
             know and do                      important to know and do

            “Enduring”
           understanding

                                              Understandings that are
                                              enduring



 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Taking a Closer Look at
Understandings: They are...
  specific generalizations about the “big
   ideas.” They summarize the key meanings,
   inferences, and importance of the ‘content’
  Require “uncoverage” because they are not
   “facts” to the novice, but unobvious
   inferences drawn from facts - counter-
   intuitive & easily misunderstood
  deliberately framed as a full sentence
   “moral of the story” – “Students will
   understand THAT…”

 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Six Facets of Understanding
Explain - provide thorough,                  Perspective - can see and
supported, and justifiable accounts of       hear points of view through critical eyes
phenomena, facts and data                    and ears; see the big picture.

Interpret - tell meaningful                  Empathize - find value in
stories; offer apt translations; provide a   what others might find odd, alien, or
revealing historical or personal             implausible; perceive sensitively on the
dimension to ideas and events; make it       basis of prior direct experience.
personal or accessible through images,
anecdotes, analogies, and models.            Self-Knowledge -
Apply - effectively use and adapt            perceive the personal style, prejudices,
                                             projections, and habits of mind that both
what is known in diverse contexts.           shape and impede our own
                                             understanding; having an awareness of
                                             what one does not understand and why
                                             understanding is so hard


    Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Brainstorming Essential
Questions Based On the Facets
 Interpretation                   Explanation                      Application

           critique                    describe                     build
           illustrate                  express                      create
           judge                       justify                      design
           translate                   predict                      perform
           provide metaphors           synthesize                   solve




           assume role of              be aware of                  analyze
           consider                    realize                      argue
           imagine                     recognize                    compare
           relate                      reflect                      contrast
           role-play                   self-assess                  infer



 Empathy                          Self-Knowledge                    Perspective


  Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Provocative Essential Questions
•Have no one obvious right answer.
•Raise other important questions.
•Address the philosophical or conceptual
foundations of a discipline.
•Recur naturally.
•Are framed to provoke and sustain
student interest.


  Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
SD Content Standards
Goals - the "end results" of what we expect after thirteen years
of content study

Indicators - further define the goals and provide the targets
and anchors for instructional levels

Benchmarks - articulate what the goal and indicator
represent at the different developmental levels, providing the targets
for student performance
Standards - represent the classroom learning objectives or
activities to help students reach the expectations articulated in the
benchmarks, indicators, and goals
   Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Identify the Content Standards
for your Unit
•By Goal, Indicator, Benchmark
•3-5 for a 6 week unit of study


*Remember these are the “Big Ideas” specifically addressed by
teaching and learning experiences in the unit.

*Specific knowledge and skills (grade level standards)will also be
listed on the design template.



   Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Test Design Against Standards
    To what extent are the targeted
          understandings:

                * Enduring
        * Framed as Generalizations
     * Framed by Provocative Essential
                Questions

 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Reflection - Stage 1
Choose 1 to answer  •I was surprised…
  individually.     •I have been
                    wondering…
Share response with •I realized that…
    your team.      •Today I learned...

 Team selects 2 to
 share with group.
 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
3 Stages of Design:
Stage 2
     1. Identify desired results


   2. Determine acceptable evidence

                  3. Plan learning experiences
                           & instruction

 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Just because the student
“knows it” …
Evidence of understanding is a greater
  challenge than evidence that the
  student knows a correct or valid
               answer
   Understanding is inferred, not seen
   It can only be inferred if we see evidence
    that the student knows why (it works) so
    what? (why it matters), how (to apply it) –
    not just knowing that specific inference
 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Reliability: Snapshot vs.
Photo Album
 We need patterns that overcome
  inherent measurement error
    Sound assessment (particularly of State
     Standards) requires multiple evidence over
     time - a photo album vs. a single snapshot




 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
For Reliability & Sufficiency:
Use a Variety of Assessments
          Varied types, over time:
  authentic tasks                 and projects
  academic exam questions,                              prompts,
    and problems
  quizzes and               test items
  informal checks                   for understanding
  student self-assessments

 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Curricular Priorities and
Assessment Methods
   Assessment Types
                                                           Worth being
Traditional quizzes and tests                              familiar with
Paper-pencil
Selected-response                                          Important to
Constructed-response                                       know and do



Performance tasks and projects                            “Enduring”
                                                         understanding
Open-ended
Complex
Authentic

    Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Assessment of Understanding
Brainstorming….

 Using the Facets of Understanding
 Considering a Range of Evidence
 Determining Possible Performances




    Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Scenarios for Authentic Tasks                                                   T

       Build assessments anchored in
      authentic tasks using GRASPS:
G     What is the Goal in the scenario?

R     What is the Role?
      Who is the Audience?
A
         What is your Situation (context)?
S    

P      What is the Performance challenge?
      By what Standards will work be judged
S      in the scenario?

 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
A Performance Task is Authentic
if it…
Is realistic.
Requires judgment and innovation.
Asks a student to “do” the subject.
Replicates or simulates the contexts in which adults are
tested in the workplace.
Assess a student’s ability to efficiently and effectively
use a repertoire of knowledge and skills to negotiate a
complex task.
Allows appropriate opportunities to rehearse, practice,
and consult resources; obtain feedback on performances;
and refine performances and products.


  Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Rubrics,Checklists and Other
Evidence
UBD Templates
•Holistic Frame
•Analytic Frame
                                         •RubiStar
•Analytic Frame for
                                         •PBL Checklists
the Facets
                                         •QuizStar

                                         http://4teachers.org

  Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Test Design Against Standards
  To what extent do the assessment
              provide:

       * Valid and Reliable Measures
       * Authentic Performance Task
               Opportunities
    * Sufficient and Varied Information

 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Reflection - Stage 2
Choose 1 to answer  •I find it interesting
  individually.     that...
                    •I have been
Share response with wondering…
    your team.      •Today’s activities
                    caused me to think
 Team selects 2 to  differently about __
 share with group.  because...
                    •Today I learned...
 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
3 Stages of Design:
Stage 3
     1. Identify desired results


       2. Determine acceptable evidence


               3. Plan learning experiences
                        & instruction

 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Stage 3 big idea:

                    E
                    F                                    E
                    F                                    N
                    E                                    G
                    C             and                    A
                    T                                    G
                    I                                    I
                    V
                                                         N
                                                         G
                    E


 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Taking a Closer Look at...
      Coverage                            Misunderstanding
        vs.                                     and
     Uncoverage                            Misconceptions




 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Think of your obligations via
W. H. E. R. E. T. O.                                                               L

W    “Where are we headed?” (the student’s Q!)
H    How will the student be ‘hooked’?
     What opportunities will there be to be equipped,
E     and to experience and explore key ideas?
R    What will provide opportunities to rethink,
      rehearse, refine and revise?
E    How will students evaluate their work?
T    How will the work be tailored to individual
      needs, interests, styles?
O    How will the work be organized for maximal
      engagement and effectiveness?
    Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Test Design Against Standards
      To what extent will students:
   * Know where they are headed and why?
                   * Be hooked?
      * Explore and experience key ideas?
             * Reflect and Rethink?
          * Evaluate their own work?
   * Have work tailored to meet their needs?
* Participate in learning activities organized to
           be engaging and effective?
 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Reflection - Stage 3
Choose 1 to answer  •I feel comfortable
  individually.     with...
                    •I would like to
Share response with learn more about...
    your team.      •I am still unclear
                    or unsure about...
 Team selects 2 to  •I realize I need to
 share with group.  take a closer look
                    at...
 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
Peer Review
                         Consider….

                 Strengths
        Areas needing improvement
                 Feedback
                 Guidance

 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002
NBPTS
            In what ways
  does the Backward Design Process
support the Five Core Propositions of
“What Accomplished Teachers Should
     Know and Be Able to Do”?



 Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

								
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