IMAGERY

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					                          IMAGERY




               8th EDF Pacific Regional Indicative Program

         Reducing Vulnerability of Pacific ACP States through
                   Island Systems Management

       South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC)

                                  September 2000




SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 385a
A fundamental component of this Island Systems Management project is a GIS with layers
that contain information that can be displayed spatially to assist in planning and management
in the relevant sectors.

An essential input to the GIS and other analytical processes is imagery from remote sensing
platforms that include both orbital and geostationary satellites as well as aircraft.

The cost of satellite imagery has fallen dramatically since the launch of Landsat 7. There will
be further satellites launched in third quarter 2000 and in 2001 where this competition will
result in continually falling costs for high-resolution images. This will allow regular and
systematic image acquisitions for developing information systems critical for sustainability in
planning and management of the relevant sectors.

Before discussing the type of imagery and areas of interest by member country the relevant
land and EEZ areas as well as population are shown for each member country in Table 1.

Table 1 - Pacific Islands ACP Countries

Name                 ISO Code      LAND       %     EEZ              %        POP       %
Fiji                 FJ             18,272 3.5%  1,260,000       11.4%       773,000 13.1%
Kiribati             KI                726 0.1%  3,600,000       32.5%        78,000 1.3%
Papua New Guinea     PG            462,000 88.0% 3,100,000       28.0%     4,200,000 71.4%
Samoa                WS              2,934 0.6%    120,000         1.1%      170,000 2.9%
Solomon Islands      SB             28,000 5.3%  1,600,000       14.5%       380,000 6.5%
Tonga                TO                688 0.1%    700,000         6.3%       98,000 1.7%
Tuvalu               TV                 26 0.0%         na            na       9,600 0.2%
Vanuatu              VU             12,190 2.3%    680,000         6.1%      177,000 3.0%
                                   524,836 100% 11,060,000        100%     5,885,600 100%

na - Not Available

Satellite Imagery and Aerial Photography are detailed in the following sections while an
explanation of the technology and applications are included in Attachment A.
SATELLITE IMAGERY

Purpose
The imagery from satellites is used for:
· backdrops to assist in visualising and referencing ground features such as buildings,
   roads, rivers and vegetation. Especially where paper maps are outdated.
· raster data is used for change detection and resource monitoring of land cover, coastal
   features and shallow water bathymetry.
· Limited Digital Terrain Model (DTM) production.
· Training of technical staff in interpretation of above.

Resolution and Cost
Resolution and cost varies with type of satellite and the general rule is the higher the
resolution the higher the cost. The current standard for medium resolution is Landsat 7
satellite while higher resolutions are available from IKONOS and IRS-C1. New satellites
include Terra in the medium resolution while QuickBird, OrbitView and EROS-A will provide
high resolution images before end 2000. In addition, further satellites are planned for launch
in 2001 and beyond.

Table 2 shows comparison between the medium and high-resolution satellites. With
increasing competition the cost of images is expected to fall dramatically. It should also be
noted that height data from current satellites will not be as accurate as aerial stereo


                                          1
photography but new satellites that will be operational this year will provide better resolution
than is currently available.

Table 2 - Comparison of satellite imagery

Satellite   Available    Pixel size Image   Scene     Possible DTM                Cost Cost FJD
Name                     metre      Type     km       Scale    production         FJD    sq km

Landsat 7   Now                25.0 MS      185   170 1:50,000                1,300.00      0.04
Terra       Jun 2000           15.0 MS       na    na 1:30,000                      na        na
SPOT        Now                20.0 MS       60    60 1:50:000                3,875.00      1.08
SPOT        Now                10.0 Pan      60    60 1:25,000                4,750.00      1.32
IRS-1C      Now                 5.0 Pan      35    35 1:15,000                3,000.00      2.45
IKONOS      Now                 4.0 MS        1     1 1:10,000                   68.00     68.00
IKONOS      Now                 1.0 Pan       1     1 1:5,000                    68.00     68.00
QuickBird   Dec 2000            3.3 MS       22    22 1:10,000   Yes – 2m           na        na
QuickBird   Dec 2000            0.8 Pan      22    22 1:5,000    Yes                na        na
Orbview-3   Sep 2000            4.0 MS        8     8 1:10,000   Yes                na        na
Orbview-3   Sep 2000            1.0 Pan       8     8 1:5,000    Yes                na        na
EROS-A      Oct 2000            1.8 Pan      na    na 1:10,000                      na        na

Notes
MS          Multi spectral
Pan         Panchromatic
na          Not available
IKONOS      Minimum purchase USD 2,000 or approx. 60 sq Km

Exchange rates July 2000
1 FJD =              0.8 AUD
1 FJD =              0.5 USD
1 AUD             0.625 USD




AIRCRAFT IMAGERY
The imagery from aircraft normally consists of aerial photo sets that can subsequently be
ortho-rectified and optionally used to produce DTM for three-dimensional display. As with
satellite imagery, airborne imagery is now routinely incorporated into geographic information
system databases.

Purpose
The imagery from aerial photo-flights is used for creating photo-pairs for stereo 3-D viewing,
rectified and areally corrected high-resolution colour digital images as well as digital terrain
models having high vertical resolution and detailed, undistorted contour plans. These
products are especially useful for limited areas where concentrations of population and
assets make their higher cost justifiable.

The uses to which aerial imagery will be put include the quantitative assessment of flooding
risk and windstorm risk to the community through numerical modelling, accurate estimations
of areas of land and buildings for rapid studies of community assets, the construction of
public works such as road and water mains alignments, identification of features and assets
too small to be resolved by satellite imagery, and for display purposes where it is important
for local lay communities to appreciate the effects of hazards on features with which they can
relate.




                                            2
Resolution and Cost
The resolution is related to flight height, focal length of camera and film type. As with
satellites, higher resolution demands higher costs. Aerial imagery is more than competitive
on a cost basis when comparing like with like (1:50,000 aerial photography with 0.8 m (black
and white) pixel resolution with satellite imagery) as Table3 demonstrates. The higher costs
indicated in this proposal come about through selecting a high resolution option (1:12,000;
0.2 m pixel) for aerial photography; a level for which satellite imagery is not suitable.

Table 3 - Comparison of like-products from airborne and satellite imagery

Feature                     Satellite Imagery       Aerial Photo Imagery      Aerial Photo Imagery
                                                    1:50,000                  1:12,000
Resolution                  0.82 m (b&w)            0.75 m (colour)           0.20 m (colour)
                            4.0 m (colour)
Accuracy                    +/- 3 m                 +/- 1 m
DEM                         10-20 m                 5m                        0.25 m
Average Cost FJD per        $70                     $15 (for orthophoto and   $400
sq km                                               mobilisation)

The 1:12,000 airborne imagery required in order making quantitative calculations of risk and
vulnerability costs at least 10 times the best available satellite imagery, but provides the
basis for a DEM product that is around 10 times more detailed. It is important to distinguish
between the different uses towards which remotely sensed imagery would be put; the
requirements for high resolution in restricted city areas and cheaper, lower resolution
imagery in dealing with broader agricultural, watershed or aggregate investigation in which
studies of change over time may be important.


COUNTRIES, TARGET AREAS AND COSTS
There are 8 ACP countries covered in the project and the main target areas and costs for
satellite imagery that would provide overview and detail areas where all costs in USD.

The budget for Airborne Imagery by country is shown in Table 4.

Table 4 – Airborne Imagery Costs for Proposed High Population/Asset Density Target
Areas for 2001

Country      City                Area sq km Total FJD       Total USD
FJ           Suva                          21        10,000          5,000
FJ           Nadi-Lautoka                 100        97,000         48,000
PG           Lae                           70        68,000         34,000
WS           Apia                          56        40,000         20,000
SB           Honiara                       54        62,000         31,000
TO           Nuku’alofa                    42        58,000         29,000
VU           Luganville                    20        46,000         23,000
TOTAL                                     363       380,000        190,000

Tables 5, 6 and 7 provide an overview of costs by country with expected falling costs of 33%
and 40%.

Maps of target areas at 1:50:000 and 1:10,000 scales are shown in Attachment B and C.




                                                3
Table 5
Using 1:50,000 Landsat prices that will be fixed
Using 1:10,000 IKONOS current prices

Country              1:10,000 1:50,000 Total
Fiji                    14,178    4,200   18,378
Kiribati                65,824    1,200   67,024
Papua New Guinea        19,652    7,800   27,452
Samoa                  138,924    1,200 140,124
Solomon Islands          4,794    4,200    8,994
Tonga                   26,214    3,000   29,214
Tuvalu                   12716    1,800   14,516
Vanuatu                 14,212    2,400   16,612
Total                  296,514   25,800 322,314

Table 6
1:10,000 images falling by approximately 33%

Country              1:10,000 1:50,000 Total
Fiji                      9,525    4,200  13,725
Kiribati                44,221     1,200  45,421
Papua New Guinea        13,202     7,800  21,002
Samoa                   93,330     1,200  94,530
Solomon Islands           3,221    4,200   7,421
Tonga                   17,611     3,000  20,611
Tuvalu                    8,543    1,800  10,343
Vanuatu                   9,548    2,400  11,948
Total                  199,200   25,800 225,000

Table 7
1:10,000 images falling by 40%

Country              1:10,000 1:50,000 Total
Fiji                     8,507    4,200   12,707
Kiribati                39,494    1,200   40,694
Papua New Guinea        11,791    7,800   19,591
Samoa                   83,354    1,200   84,554
Solomon Islands          2,876    4,200    7,076
Tonga                   15,728    3,000   18,728
Tuvalu                   7,630    1,800    9,430
Vanuatu                  8,527    2,400   10,927
Total                  177,908   25,800 203,708




                                           4
Table 8 shows cost of combined aerial and satellite imagery with cost of 1:10,000 imagery
falling by 33% while 9 shows costs over 4 year project.

Table 8 - Costs combined images with 1:10,000 imagery falling by 33%
Country                 Aerial       Satellite    Total
                         USD           USD        USD
Fiji                         53,000     13,725     66,725
Kiribati                          -     45,421     45,421
Papua New Guinea             34,000     21,002     55,002
Samoa                        20,000     94,530    114,530
Solomon Islands              31,000       7,421    38,421
Tonga                        29,000     20,611     49,611
Tuvalu                            -     10,343     10,343
Vanuatu                      23,000     11,948     34,948
TOTAL                       190,000    225,000    415,000

Table 9 - Costs combined images over 4 years
Country              2,001       2002        2003          2004       Total
                      USD        USD         USD           USD        USD
Percentage            60%        30%          6%            4%        100%
Fiji                   40,196     20,098        4,020         2,412     66,725
Kiribati               27,362     13,681        2,736         1,642     45,421
Papua New Guinea       33,134     16,567        3,313         1,988     55,002
Samoa                  68,994     34,497        6,899         4,140    114,530
Solomon Islands        23,145     11,572        2,314         1,389     38,421
Tonga                  29,886     14,943        2,989         1,793     49,611
Tuvalu                  6,231      3,115          623           374     10,343
Vanuatu                21,053     10,526        2,105         1,263     34,948
TOTAL                 250,000    125,000       25,000        15,000    415,000

Table 10 – Details of costs per country
Fiji
1:10,000
          Area Name                 Area km2      USD
Monasavu watershed                          62     2,108
Vaturu watershed                            35     1,190
Rewa Delta + Savura watershed              320    10,880
Sub-Total                                         14,178
1:50,000
          No. Scenes                Cost/Scene    USD
                                7           600    4,200
Total                                             18,378

Kiribati
1:10,000
           Area Name                Area km2      USD
Tarawa                                     647    21,998
Abaiang                                    498    16,932
Christmas Islands                          791    26,894
Sub-Total                                         65,824
1:50,000
          No. Scenes                Cost/Scene    USD
                                2           600    1,200
Total                                             67,024




                                            5
Papua New Guinea
1:10,000
          Area Name            Area km2      USD
Lae                                   285     9,690
Port Moresby                          293     9,962
Sub-Total                                    19,652
1:50,000
          No. Scenes           Cost/Scene    USD
                          13           600    7,800
Total                                        27,452

Samoa
1:10,000
             Area Name         Area km2      USD
Sawaii                               2071     70,414
Upolu                                2015     68,510
Sub-Total                                    138,924
1:50,000
             No. Scenes        Cost/Scene    USD
                           2           600     1,200
Total                                        140,124



Solomon Islands
1:10,000
             Area Name         Area km2      USD
Honiara                               141     4,794
Sub-Total                                     4,794
1:50,000
             No. Scenes        Cost/Scene    USD
                           7           600    4,200
Total                                         8,994

Tonga
1:10,000
             Area Name         Area km2      USD
Nukua'lofa                            771    26,214
Sub-Total                                    26,214
1:50,000
             No. Scenes        Cost/Scene    USD
                           5           600    3,000
Total                                        29,214

Tuvalu
1:10,000
             Area Name         Area km2      USD
Funafuti                              268     9,112
Nukufetau                              68     2,312
Vaitupu                                38     1,292
Sub-Total                                    12,716
1:50,000
             No. Scenes        Cost/Scene    USD
                           3           600    1,800
Total                                        14,516



                                       6
Vanuatu
1:10,000
            Area Name             Area km2       USD
Port Vila                                418     14,212
Sub-Total                                        14,212
1:50,000
            No. Scenes            Cost/Scene     USD
                              4           600     2,400
Total                                            16,612


PROCUREMENT
Landsat 7 image data for 1:50,000 scale mapping have to be purchased from EROS Data
Centre in the United States. SPOT data from the European company SPOT Image is no
alternative because:

1. The image data do not cover the blue part of the spectrum which is required for near
   shore mapping,
2. SPOT data has very strict copy rights which will limit the multiple use as image backdrop,
3. A SPOT scene costs $AUS 3100 and covers 60 x 60 km and a Landsat scene costs USD
   600 and covers 185 x 170 km. The project would have to pay about 26 times more for a
   coverage by SPOT image data.

Satellite image data for 1:10,000 scale have to be purchased from SpaceImagine EOSAT in
USA, EarthWatch in USA or Orbimage which is also a company based in USA. These are
the three companies providing the high resolution image data requested for the project. If
Orbimage would distribute their image data via the French company SPOT Image, which the
case for the European market, then the images would be purchased from SPOT Image.

Image analysis software would be purchased through an European software company.

Therefore, derogation will be needed for all Satellite Imagery.

Proposed aerial photography will be flown by companies based in or in partnership with
companies based in Pacific ACP states.




                                           7
SUMMARY
The imagery necessary for the project “Reducing Vulnerability of Pacific ACP States through
Island Systems Management” that is acquired from satellite images and aerial photography
has been defined where this will meet the needs of the various sectors and support the more
than 100 field surveys. It is again highlighted that there will be satellite imagery with
increasingly higher resolution and falling cost over the next few years and table 9 that is
again included shows cost for 1:10,000 falling by 33%. The overall costs are also shown in
FJD where it is assumed FJD 1 = USD 0.5.

Table 9 - Costs combined images over 4 years
Country               2001       2002        2003         2004       Total
                      USD        USD         USD          USD        USD
Percentage            60%        30%          6%           4%        100%
Fiji                   40,196     20,098        4,020        2,412     66,725
Kiribati               27,362     13,681        2,736        1,642     45,421
Papua New Guinea       33,134     16,567        3,313        1,988     55,002
Samoa                  68,994     34,497        6,899        4,140    114,530
Solomon Islands        23,145     11,572        2,314        1,389     38,421
Tonga                  29,886     14,943        2,989        1,793     49,611
Tuvalu                  6,231      3,115          623          374     10,343
Vanuatu                21,053     10,526        2,105        1,263     34,948
TOTAL                 250,000    125,000       25,000       15,000    415,000

Country               2001       2002          2003       2004       Total
                      FJD        FJD           FJD        FJD         FJD
Percentage            60%        30%            6%         4%        100%
Fiji                   80,391     40,196          8,039      4,824    133,450
Kiribati               54,724     27,362          5,472      3,283     90,842
Papua New Guinea       66,268     33,134          6,627      3,976    110,005
Samoa                 137,988     68,994         13,799      8,279    229,060
Solomon Islands        46,290     23,145          4,629      2,777     76,841
Tonga                  59,772     29,886          5,977      3,586     99,222
Tuvalu                 12,461      6,231          1,246        748     20,685
Vanuatu                42,106     21,053          4,211      2,526     69,895
TOTAL                 500,000    250,000         50,000     30,000    830,000




                                           8
ATTACHMENT C - AREAS AT 1:10,000 SCALE
The following pages show proposed selected areas to be covered by 1:10,000 mapping from
satellite imagery and aerial photography where DTMs are required. The areas from satellite
imagery have been estimated using a one km square grid or by drawing a surrounding
polygon. The area in Km2 is multiplied by USD 34 as the cost for a multi user license of
IKONOS images. These images provide a spatial resolution of 4m and the blue, green, red
and near infrared channel, usable for multi purpose mapping at 1:10,000 scale.

It is expected that QuickBird-1 (launch schedule 3rd quarter 2000) and QuickBird-2 (launch
schedule 1st quarter 2001) will provide higher quality images for a lower price. In addition, the
satellites OrbView-3 (launch September 2000) and OrbView-4 (launch schedule January
2001) will provide competition as providing images of same quality.

Costs, areas and notes regarding aerial photography are shown in blue font.




                                           C-1
Fiji




Rewa Delta and Savura watershed




Vaturu watershed




                                  C-2
Monansavu watershed, The areas inside the dotted yellow line are counted.




Nadi - Lautoka




                                        C-3
Suva

               Area Name                     Area km2     USD
Monasavu watershed                                    62 2,108
Vaturu watershed                                      35 1,190
Rewa Delta + Savura watershed                       320 10,880
Suva *                                                21 5,000
Nadi – Lautoka *                                    100 48,000
Total                                                     67,178
* proposed areas to be covered by aerial photography for DTM production.




                                        C-4
Kiribati




           C-5
    Area Name        Area km2      USD
Tarawa                     647     21,998
Abaiang                    498     16,932
Christmas Islands          791     26,894
Total                              65,824

All squares within the green dotted lines are counted regardless if they cover seawater or
land mass.




                                        C-6
Papua New Guinea




Area Name           Area km2       USD
Lae                        285      9,690
Lae*                         70    34,000
Port Moresby               293      9,962
Total                              53,652

(The squares covering water are not counted for Port Moresby)

* proposed area to be covered by aerial photography for DTM production.



                                        C-7
Samoa




    Area Name        Area km2      USD
Savaii                     2071    70,414
Upolu                      2015    68,510
Apia*                        56    20,000
Total                             158,924

For both islands Savaii and Upolu water areas and land areas within the green dotted
polygons are counted. The area within the red square * is proposed to be covered by aerial
photography for DTM production.




                                        C-8
Solomon Islands




    Area Name        Area km2      USD
Honiara                    141      4,794
Honiara*                    54     31,000
Total                              35,794

The squares covering water are not counted for Honiara. The area within the red square* is
proposed to be covered by aerial photography for DTM production.




                                        C-9
Tonga




      Area Name          Area km2 USD
Tongatapu                      771 26,214
Nuku’alofa*                     42 29,000
Total                              55,214

Area within the green dotted line counted for satellite image data 1:10,000. Area within the
red square is counted for aerial photography for DTM production.




                                         C - 10
Tuvalu




      Area Name         Area km2     USD
Funafuti                      268    9,112
Nukufetau                      68    2,312
Vaitupu                        38    1,292
Total                               12,716

Squares which cover lagoon or open sea are not counted for Nukufetau. For Funafuti all area
within the dotted polygon.




                                         C - 11
Vanuatu




Port Vila




Luganville


    Area Name        Area km2      USD
Port Vila                  418     14,212
Port Vila*                  56
Luganville*                 20      23,000
Total                               37,212

* area to be covered by aerial photograph for DTM production. Port Vila aerial photography
already acquired.


                                        C - 12

				
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