Statistics and Geographical Information Systems _GIS_ by gegeshandong

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									            Statistics and
Geographical Information Systems (GIS)




        Roland Nilsson and Bruno Nilsson




           Draft Report March 2004




          The Seagull Project is co-financed by the European Union
          Baltic Sea Region INTERREG IIIB programme
Contents



   1.       Summary………………………………………..                                          3
   2.       Background……………………………………..                                        6
   3.       Objectives and profiles........................................   6
   4.       Euroregion Baltic and its member regions.…….                      7
   5.       EUROSTAT and regional statistics ……………                            11
   6.       Administration of the database.…………………                            12
   7.       General statistics and specialised statistics.……..                13
   8.       ERB database: statistics, indicators and basic facts.             14
   9.       What is GIS (Geographic Information Systems)?..                   15
   10.      Maps………………………………………………                                            17
   11.      Data requirement………………………………….                                    19
   12.      GIS software……………………………………...                                     20
   13.      Expertise and training…………………………….                                21
   14.      Reflections………………………………………..                                      22
   15.      Proposal for the ERB’s common GIS solution…...                    27



   Appendices:


   Appendix 1 Statistics………………………………                                          28
   Appendix 2 GIS on the island of Bornholm………………..                           33
   Appendix 3 GIS in the Kaliningrad Oblast…………………                            35
   Appendix 4 GIS in Klaipeda County (not reported)…..
   Appendix 5 GIS in the Kurzeme Planning Region…………                          37
   Appendix 6 GIS in the Pomeranian Region………………..                            41
   Appendix 7 GIS in the Warmia and Mazurian Region……..                       45
   Appendix 8 GIS in Blekinge, Kalmar and Kronoberg Counties 46




                                                                                   2
1.    Summary

     One aspect of the work of the INTERREG III B-project Seagull is to decide upon a
     common statistical database for the ERB. The database will subsequently be
     presented in a geographical information system, GIS. Two experts from Sweden, one
     for the statistical database and one for GIS, have been assigned this task, which is
     part of WP 1 within the Seagull-project.

     Statistics
     Apart from the obvious purpose of this report – to establish a number of statistical
     indicators and basic facts in a database describing the Euroregion Baltic, the report
     also contains other suggestions concerning work with or linked to the database.

     The 23 suggested statistical indicators for the regions and sub-regions are:
                x   Average age, by sex
                x   Births/1,000 inhabitants
                x   Deaths/1,000 inhabitants
                x   People age 60+, by sex, %
                x   Net migration/total population, %
                x   People living in urban areas, %
                x   Population density, total population/km2
                x   Rate of unemployment, by sex and age, %
                x   Employment rate, by branch and sex, %
                x   GDP/capita, Euro
                x   Average number of people/dwelling
                x   Average income, by sex, EUR
                x   Land use, by categories of the GIS map, %
                x   Cars/1,000 inhabitants
                x   Directly elected individuals, by sex and age, %
                x   Number of people with higher education by sex/1,000 inhabitants
                x   Number of micro-enterprises and SMEs/1,000 inhabitants
                x   Newly established enterprises/1,000 inhabitants
                x   Number of hospital beds/1,000 inhabitants
                x   Number of doctors and nurses/1,000 inhabitants
                x   Number of guest nights by nationality/total population
                x   Price of a Big Mac, EUR
                x   Cost of 1 minute of Internet access, EUR


     The suggested basic facts for each region and each sub-region are:
                x   Population, total and divided by sex and 10 year intervals
                x   Population of the largest city of the region/sub-region, total
                x   Area, km2
                x   Number of people employed in the three largest branches
                x   Main road network


                                                                                             3
           x   Main railway network
           x   Number of commercial airports incl. passenger turnover
           x   Number of commercial ports incl. passenger and cargo turnover
           x   Number of hospitals
           x   Number of colleges and universities
           x   Important websites


Other suggestions in this report:
           x   The ERB organisation should have close and frequent contacts with
               EUROSTAT.
           x   The main responsibility for the statistical database belongs to the head
               secretariat of the ERB.
           x   The national secretariats are responsible for collecting national data
               and delivering it to the head secretariat.
           x   The database should be updated at the least once a year before the
               summer.
           x   The database should be available on the ERB homepage on the
               Internet together with GIS software.
           x   It should be possible to order a version of the database and GIS soft-
               ware on CD-ROM.
           x   It should be possible to order a printed paper version of the database
               and some basic GIS presentations.
           x   The aim should be to produce indicators and basic facts for the years
               1990, 1995 and 2000.



GIS (Geographic Information Systems)
The four points below show what is required of GIS and what results it should
produce:

'DWD LQSXW DQG RXWSXW The system must to be able to receive data from several
different primary data sources. Examples of these include maps, data from satellite
and aerial photographs, GPS receivers and text and statistical information from field
studies. Likewise, processed data should be able to be exported to data formats other
than the program’s own format.
'DWD SURFHVVLQJ Both spatial data and attribute data must be able to be stored in a
way that facilitates searches. Attribute data is processed by database processors
which can be integrated in the system or stored in external programs. There must also
be functionality for adapting the geometry of the various data layers to each other.
$QDO\VLV It must be possible to search for and analyse both spatial and attribute data.
One example of this is analysis of the spatial relationships between different objects
within and between the layers/themes.




                                                                                           4
3UHVHQWDWLRQ The end result of analysis must be able to be presented in a pedagogic
manner in the form of map projections, diagrams and summary tables. The map
projections should include appropriate symbols and the data in the tables should be
able to be transferred to other systems for processing and presentation.

The conclusion of the discussions at the meeting with GIS and statistics experts in
Ronneby, 27 – 28 November 2003, was that GIS is an effective system for storage,
processing, analysing and presenting common statistics and other information of
importance for the development of the region. In addition, GIS provides excellent
support in connection with the implementation of various types of joint projects.

The technology exists and most of the statistics and other information as well as
maps are in place. In order to build a comprehensive GIS for the entire ERB, it is
important to generate motivation and provide information and training. It is also
important to decide on a level of ambition and agree on how the production and
updating of data will be carried out. An appropriate starting point for this work is to
build up the system step by step. In the course of this process a limited amount of
investment may by needed.

The work group suggests that a co-ordinated GIS is developed within the ERB and
that the future work on this should follow the schedule below.
6SULQJ 
Complete production of a demonstration GIS for the ERB and at the same time
implement a few of the Basic Facts.
Short presentation and demonstration of the GIS for the Steering Committee.
Present proposals and establish responsibilities, an investment plan for two ambition
levels for maps, possible equipment, GIS programs and Internet solutions.
Organise two GIS workshops.
Support ongoing Seagull GIS projects.
Work in cooperation with SEBTrans, Baltsurd, the BalticPalette etc. to take
advantage synergies within GIS.
$XWXPQ 
Continue organising workshops.
Purchase and installation of GIS equipment.
Continued GIS support for Seagull project
Continue cooperation with SEBTrans and other projects.




                                                                                          5
2. Background
One aspect of the work of the INTERREG III B-project Seagull is to decide upon a
common statistical database for the ERB. The database will subsequently be presented
in a geographical information system, GIS. Two experts from Sweden, one for the
statistical database and one for GIS, have been assigned this task, which is part of WP 1
within the Seagull-project.

The INTERREG III B application for Seagull states that the reports relating to the
statistical database and GIS should be presented during Milestone 2, i.e. during the first
six months of 2003. The reports are then to be processed in a workshop during
Milestone 3. The workshop will use the statistical database reports and the GIS as a
basis for discussion. Experts from all of the ERB member regions are to be invited to the
workshop. The predicted outcome of the workshop is a common recommendation
regarding the content of the statistical database and the kind of GIS system to be used.
This report is the result of work carried out in accordance with the Seagull application.
The final workshop was held in Ronneby, Sweden on the 27-28 Nov 2003.

3. Objectives and profiles
The overall objectives and possible content of the database were first discussed
among experts from the ERB member regions at a WP 1 workshop in Poland in May
2003.
The objectives of the database were formulated as follows:
x   The database shall present and describe the ERB and its regions (members) in a
    sound statistical manner.
x   The database shall facilitate comparisons between the ERB and other regions in
    Europe, as well as between regions within ERB (benchmarking)
x   The database shall support the decision-making processes of the Council and
    Board of the ERB
x   The database shall measure changes of essential regional statistical indicators.
x   The database shall be a tool for evaluation and follow-up actions related to the
    JTDP planned as the main result of the Seagull project.

In addition to the above-mentioned objectives, the database shall have the following
profile:
x   It shall consist of existing statistical information that is easy to find and compile.
x   It shall be well established and accepted by the members of the ERB
x   The members of the ERB shall be very familiar with it.
x   It shall be efficiently distributed to the members of the ERB and preferably
    accessible on the Internet
x   It shall be updated frequently – once a year
x   It shall consist of a limited number of regional statistical indicators that are easy
    to understand, even for those who are not experts.
x   It shall be designed so that it can easily be used in a GIS system


                                                                                             6
4. Euroregion Baltic and its member regions
The ERB consists of nine member regions representing six of the countries in the
South Baltic Sea area. The member regions of the ERB are:




Country              Region                     Inhabitants
Sweden               Kalmar county                235,400
Sweden               Blekinge county              150,400
Sweden               Kronoberg county             176,600
Denmark              Bornholm                      45,000
Poland               Warmia-Masurian            1,460,400
Poland               Pomerania                  2,179,100
Russia               Kaliningrad                  887,000
Lithuania            Klaipeda county              415,800
Latvia               Kurzeme region               331,500



The description shows that the difference between the regions in terms of the number
of inhabitants is quite large.
One of the objectives of the database is to present statistics at the level of the ERB
member regions and the lower municipal or district levels in each member region.
The following maps describe the different levels of ERB.




                                                                                         7
Sweden




Latvia




         8
Lithuania




Poland




            9
Denmark




Russia




          10
5. EUROSTAT and regional statistics

6WDWLVWLFV DQG LQGLFDWRUV
The European Union has its own statistical bureau called “EUROSTAT.”
EUROSTAT is located in Luxembourg. Since the ERB’s statistical database will
consist of existing statistical information that should also be easy to access, it makes
sense to investigate whether EUROSTAT could be the central source of information
for the ERB database.
EUROSTAT has long been presenting statistical indicators to make comparisons
between all present and future member states. These indicators have typically
focused on the national level. The need for more detailed statistical indicators at the
regional level is clear. EUROSTAT has a regional statistical database named Regio.
A study of these databases shows that there are substantial gaps in the statistical
information. The Regio database is currently of no interest to the ERB’s statistical
database. In order to obtain a broader range of regional statistics, EUROSTAT
implemented a project some years ago to explore the possibility of setting up and
evaluating a number of regional indicators for the existing and future regions within
the European Union. Unfortunately the project has been halted, at least for the
moment. The reason for this is that other statistical concerns and projects within
EUROSTAT were given higher priority. One in particular concerns statistics for
urban areas and the various geographical parts of urban areas.
Consequently, EUROSTAT cannot deliver regional statistical indicators describing
the ERB at this time. One issue that is yet to be solved is EUROSTAT’s collection
and presentation of statistics for the Kaliningrad region. The suggestion in this regard
and at this time is for the ERB organisation to maintain close and frequent contacts
with EUROSTAT in the future because this will probably be an efficient and cheap
way of developing the ERB database and loading it with statistical indicators from
EUROSTAT in the future.

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EUROSTAT has a regional statistical system with a geographical hierarchy. The
system is called NUTS and there are at least five different geographical levels in the
system. The different levels are simply described with a number, with the lowest
number describing the highest level, i.e. the largest regions in the European Union.
The different NUTS levels are determined by the number of people living in a
specific region. This means that different areas of the ERB consist of different NUTS
levels, which may cause some problems in the future. Today it is much easier to
obtain statistics for the higher NUTS levels than for the lower ones, i.e. it is easier to
obtain statistics for larger regions. The content of the EUROSTAT’s Regio database,
mentioned earlier, clearly shows this.




                                                                                             11
The different areas of the ERB belong to the following NUTS levels:
                      NUTS                                       NUTS
     6ZHGHQ                         5XVVLD
Kalmar county         3             Kaliningrad                  not part
Blekinge county       3
Kronoberg county      3             /LWKXDQLD
                                    Klaipeda county              3
     'HQPDUN
Bornholm              3             /DWYLD
                                    Kurzeme region               3
    3RODQG
Warmia-Masurian       2
Pomerania             2


6. Administration of the database
'LYLVLRQ RI UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV
It is suggested that the main responsibility for the statistical database should belong
to the head secretariat of the ERB, regardless of whether the head secretariat changes
from one member to another over time or if a more definitive solution is agreed
upon. This proposal does not necessarily mean that the head secretariat has to do all
of the necessary work. The head secretariat’s task is to ensure that the database
functions as it should. The actual practical work with the database can be delegated
to a member region or a national secretariat. This will probably be the most efficient
and least costly solution.
The main responsibilities include such tasks as collecting data, storing data, keeping
in touch with all of the members, EUROSTAT and so on. It also means being
responsible for developing the database, probably expanding it, adding specialized
data and, not least, evaluating the benefits and the use of the database. It is very
important that the database develops simultaneously with other important ERB
initiatives. If the database is to live up to the expectations of a tool for evaluation and
follow-up actions, it must be constantly adjusted for such things as the JTDP.
The national secretariats should be responsible for collecting national (member
regions) data and quickly delivering this to the head secretariat.
8SGDWLQJ
Continuously updating the statistical information is probably the most critical and
vital task if the database is to be of high value and of high quality. The database
should be updated at the least once a year before the summer. This should be done
regardless of whether or not all of the new data has been collected or delivered. The
database users will lose interest if it is not updated at least as frequently as this.
Updating it more frequently, e.g. every sixth months, could be considered if the
delivery times of the data from the various members varies. The needs will become
apparent during the first year of the databases actual existence.




                                                                                              12
&RVWV
Most of the cost of the database, apart from administrative costs, relates to the costs
of obtaining data from the producers. The producers are usually national or regional
statistical bureaus and most of the statistics can be obtained free of charge. This can
be done either directly from the producer or indirectly via the various members. The
actual total costs for establishing the database are estimated to be modest, especially
in comparison to other costs related to the work within the ERB and the JTDP.

'LVVHPLQDWLRQ DQG GLVWULEXWLRQ
The database should be presented on the ERB homepage on the Internet alongside
the GIS software (described in another report). This will make the statistical
information very accessible, not only for the central ERB players, but also for anyone
else who has an interest, for example, students and children within the ERB. It will
also be possible to present new data directly as it is updated. If there is a need, for
example for people without Internet access, it should be possible to order a version of
the database and the GIS software on CD-ROM. People without access to a computer
should be able to obtain a printed version of the database and some basic GIS
presentations.
The data should be delivered to the head secretariat in sheet form so that it can easily
be adjusted to the GIS software. All data delivered should have information attached
explaining what period/time/date the data represents.

7. General statistics and specialised statistics
During the course of preparing this report, questions were raised a number of times
by various experts or other WP’s etc. about the need for more specialised statistics
and information. This report deals mainly with general statistics and what the initial
version of a statistical database will look like. There are several reasons for this.
Firstly, there is a limited amount of time available for work with the statistical
database within the framework of Seagull and therefore the work must be focused on
the basic and fundamental functions of a database with data that is relatively easy to
find.
Secondly, collecting/producing/evaluating specialised statistics requires specialised
knowledge and, quite often, new surveys and/or measurements as well. This takes
time and costs money and is not possible with the resources and available time
within the framework of the Seagull project. On the other hand, the work carried out
so far clearly shows that there is a need for specialised and other types of statistics
and/or information in the future. The issue of specialised statistics is mentioned in
the chapter on responsibilities, and in connection with the concluding work of
Seagull on the Joint Transnational Development Programme, there could be reason
to bring up the need for specialised statistics for discussion at a more strategic level.




                                                                                            13
8. ERB database: statistics, indicators and basic facts
The attached sheet, appendix 1, maps the current and reported status in statistics of
the different ERB countries. The deliberations at the second workshop in Ronneby,
which led to the suggestions presented in this report, were based on the information
in the attached sheet.
      ,QGLFDWRUV
The deliberations in Ronneby resulted in the following agreement and suggestions
concerning the statistical indicators to be included in the database. The indicators are
to be presented for each region and sub-region.

x   Average age, by sex
x   Births/1,000 inhabitants
x   Deaths/1,000 inhabitants
x   People age 60+, by sex, %
x   Net migration/total population, %
x   People living in urban areas, %. The definition agreed upon for the term “urban
    area” is that there should be a minimum of 1,000 inhabitants living in a village,
    small town or settlement.
x   Population density, total population/km2
x   Unemployment rate, by sex and age, %
x   Employment rate by branch and sex, %. The branches agreed upon are public
    service, industry, agriculture and “the rest.”
x   GDP/capita, Euro
x   Average number of persons/dwelling
x   Average income, by sex, EUR
x   Land use, by categories in the GIS map, %
x   Cars/1,000 inhabitants
x   Directly elected individuals, by sex and age, %
x   Number of people with higher education by sex/1,000 inhabitants. The agreed
    definition of “people with higher education” is people with a college and/or
    university education.
x   Number of micro-enterprises and SME’s/1,000 inhabitants. The agreed definition
    of micro-enterprises is enterprises with a maximum of 10 employees and the
    range for SME’s is between 11 and 250 employees.
x   Newly established enterprises/1,000 inhabitants, if possible divided by sex
x   Number of hospital beds/1,000 inhabitants
x   Number of doctors and nurses/1,000 inhabitants
x   Number of guest nights by nationality/total population
x   Price of a Big Mac, EUR
x   Cost of 1 minute of Internet access, Euro


%DVLF IDFWV
It became clear during the workshop in Ronneby that the indicators need to be
supplemented by a number of basic facts for each region and each sub-region. The
reason for this is that the indicators are mainly designed to facilitate comparison.



                                                                                           14
Thus important information of a general and more descriptive nature needs to be
presented in another way. The basic facts agreed upon are:
x   Population, total and divided by sex and 10 years intervals
x   Population of the largest city of the region/sub-region, total
x   Area, km2
x   Number of people employed in the three largest branches
x   Main road network
x   Main railway network
x   Number of commercial airports incl. passenger turnover
x   Number of commercial ports incl. passenger and cargo turnover
x   Number of hospitals
x   Number of colleges and universities
x   Important web-sites


2WKHUV
One important aspect that has to be considered is the possibility of making
comparisons over time. Accordingly, the aim should be to produce indicators and
basic facts for the years of 1990, 1995 and 2000. The possibility of doing this and the
possible costs involved have not yet been thoroughly investigated.


9. What is GIS (Geographic Information Systems)?


Definition: “GIS is a computerised information system with functionality for input,
processing, storage, analysis and presentation of geographic data.” 1
GIS is different from traditional data in that instead of merely handling text and
statistics, GIS handles databases with a combination of geographic data and attribute
data (traditional data). Thus, with GIS it is possible to combine geographic
information with graphic capacity.
GIS makes it possible to present the real world in a digital format by, for example,
using images that depict the landscape. These maps are called raster maps. GIS also
includes maps made up of points, lines and polygons on which the user can click to
get information about all of the objects that are depicted on the map. These maps are
called vector maps.
Raster data (Continued data)
x pixels or cells.
x image

Vector data (Discrete data)
x   points
x   lines
x   polygons




                                                                                          15
When producing a GIS, the landscape is divided up into different parts called layers
or themes. Each layer/theme can have different content. One layer/theme may, for
example, show roads, another buildings, and another may illustrate land use. Each
theme and its objects are linked to information presented in attribute tables. An
attribute table may, for example, store data about a point object that represents a city
and include information about the city’s name, number of residents, surface area,
sights to see etc. This information can then be used for various kinds of analysis.
Traditional spatial analysis is based on and interpreted by paper maps. For the
purpose of analysis, information in the map is transferred to transparent sheets that
are placed on top of each other for interpretation. Because this is a very drawn-out
and difficult process, there has been a desire to conduct geographic analysis with the
help of computers for some time. Although this is not a new concept, it did not
become widespread until the beginning of the 1990s. GIS is readily available today
and is used by town and country planners for environmental monitoring, emergency
operations as well as other activity, and its range of applications is constantly
growing.
The word “JHRJUDSKLF” indicates that the system can handle data that is linked to a
geographic place (position). The spatial objects therefore have one or more
coordinates in the database that indicate their position on the earth. The fact that the
geographic objects have coordinates is an important aspect of GIS and sets it apart
from other mapping programs. If the objects are not linked to a certain location, the
programs cannot be called GIS.

The four points below show what is required of GIS and what results it should
produce:
'DWD LQSXW DQG RXWSXW The system must be able to receive data from several
different primary data sources. Examples of these include maps, data from satellite
and aerial photographs, GPS receivers and text and statistical information from field
studies. Likewise, processed data should be able to be exported to data formats other
than the program’s own format.
'DWD SURFHVVLQJ Both spatial data and attribute data must be able to be stored in a
way that facilitates searches. Attribute data is processed by database processors
which can be integrated in the system or stored in external programs. There must also
be functionality for adapting the geometry of the various data layers to each other.
$QDO\VLV It must be possible to search for and analyse both spatial and attribute data.
An example of analysis is to look at the spatial relationships between different
objects within and between the layers/themes.
3UHVHQWDWLRQ The end result of analysis must be able to be presented in a pedagogic
manner in the form of map projections, diagrams and summary tables. The map
projections should include appropriate symbols and the data in the tables should be
able to be transferred to other systems for processing and presentation.
The following components must be available within an organisation in order for GIS
to work:




                                                                                           16
+DUGZDUH: i.e. computers, printers, servers, networks etc. An organisation’s existing
hardware is usually adequate for running a simple form of GIS without the need for
additional investment.
6RIWZDUH: Special GIS programs are available on the market. Some investment is
usually needed here, depending on the level of ambition.
'DWD: The information must contain some form of geographic reference or be able to
be linked to other data that contains geographic references. Some adaptation of
existing data may therefore be necessary.
&RPSHWHQFH: Some training is required to work with GIS programs and to understand
and use GIS information.
In addition to the above, some form of system management/coordination is needed in
larger organisations.


10. Maps
Maps are an important aspect of GIS. They are used as the background for the
information that is presented to show the location of the object. Two types of
background maps are usually used:
x   Overview maps.
x   Detailed maps.

The scale of these types of maps varies depending on the level of detail and the type
of information that is to be presented. The purpose of the overview map, as indicated
by the name, is to show the entire area covered by the study. GIS programs have
functionality for enlarging or zooming in on parts of the map or on certain details.
This is where the detailed maps come in.
Digital maps in vector format can, in some cases, function both as overview maps
and detailed maps. The user uses the attribute information to make selections and
generalisations of details to create the overview map. For example, for the theme of
roads, you may choose to only show roads with low road numbers (national roads).
An appropriate overview map for Euroregion Baltic, and one which will also
essentially function as a detailed map, is MapBSR
*HQHUDO LQIRUPDWLRQ
MapBSR is a project that consists of basic digital data sets for the Baltic Sea region
with a scale of 1:1,000,000. The databases contain layers/themes covering the
following:
x   State and administrative boundaries
x   Seas, lakes and rivers
x   Roads and railways
x   Railway stations and airports
x   Ferry lines
x   Population centres with over 50,000 residents presented as areas
x   Population centres with less than 50,000 residents presented as points.
x   Elevation contour lines and certain altitude points
x   Depth contour lines and certain depth information


                                                                                         17
        The databases are delivered in GIS format and form a suitable background for other
        types of data that can be added.
        Data is produced and maintained by each country’s national mapping agency. The
        map is prepared by the National Land Survey of Finland.
        3URMHFWLRQ DQG UHIHUHQFH V\VWHP


Date:   WGS 84
        Ellipsoid: WGS 84 (=GRS80)
        Map projection: None
        Coordinates: Decimal degrees (longitude and latitude)




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                                                                                             18
)LJXUH 0DS%65 ]RRPHG LQ WR WKH KLJKHVW OHYHO RI GHWDLO 6FDOH 

Certain joint projects may require access to more detailed maps. These are available
in the respective regions in the form of vector or raster maps.
MapBSR is no longer being updated, instead updates are made within the framework
of the Euro Global Map.


     More information: Project MapBSR:     http://www.mapbsr.nls.fi/
      Project Euro Global Map: http://www.eurogeographics.org/EGM/

11. Data requirement


In this report the word data refers not only to the data that is needed to create
background maps as described in chapter 2, but also to the underlying information
that is described as attributes of the object that the user sees on the map (equivalent).
For example, in the case of an airport, the information may include the number of
passengers per year, the various destinations and the airlines that have regular traffic
passing through the airport, etc.
This type of attribute information is usually stored in databases and, in simple
programs, is processed and presented in one or more tables that are linked to each
other – so-called relation databases. This makes it easy to handle statistics that are in
table format by, for example, linking the information to an administrative area as a
basis for various types of analysis and presentations.




                                                                                            19
GIS has the potential to compile large quantities of complex information. It is
therefore vital that the data used is of good quality. A few examples of what should
be documented are:
x   How up-to-date the information is. (How often is it updated?).
x   The information source. (Who created it?).
x   How comprehensive the information is. (Does it apply to an entire area or parts
    of an area?).
x   Accuracy. (For example, positional accuracy expressed in methods for data
    capture and/or error margins in metres).
x   etc.

An important consideration when working with statistics and GIS is minimising the
extent to which the underlying data is altered when it is transferred to GIS. In this
regard, it is important
x   for there to be a reference between the object on the map and the statistics
    presented in a table. There should be an established “key” in the form of a unique
    ID for the purpose of creating a simple relationship between these sets of data.
x   that the table or the databases where the statistics are stored can be directly or
    easily exported to the relevant GIS.

In summary, it is vital to coordinate the data/information in terms of quality and
relevant keys (IDs) so that it can be processed with a reasonable degree of accuracy
within the ERB.


12. GIS software
Since GIS can be used by most organisations for many different application areas,
requiring various levels of processing and presentation, the question should not be
which software to use. Instead, users should focus on what type of activity GIS is to
be used for, and if GIS is to provide support for a particular task, how the data should
be stored and made available so that it can be used for a variety of applications to suit
the task at hand.
7KHUH LV D ZLGH UDQJH RI VRIWZDUH IRU KDQGOLQJ JHRJUDSKLF LQIRUPDWLRQ RQ WKH
PDUNHW 0RVW *,6 VRIWZDUH FRQWDLQV DOO RI WKH EDVLF IXQFWLRQV IRU GDWD SURGXFWLRQ
GDWD VWRUDJH DQG SURFHVVLQJ DQG SUHVHQWDWLRQ RI GDWD DQG DQDO\VLV +RZHYHU VRPH
VRIWZDUH LV PRUH DGYDQFHG LQ LWV DELOLW\ WR KDQGOH YHFWRU DQG UDVWHU GDWD WKDQ RWKHUV
The choice of software should therefore primarily be governed by the DUHD RI
DSSOLFDWLRQ the W\SH RI XVHUV and the QXPEHU RI XVHUV. Moreover, raster and vector
data should influence the choice of software to some extent.
The relationship between GIS software and user categories is described
schematically in the following diagram.




                                                                                            20
        Expert tool                            For specialists who
                                               have mastered all
       e.g.: ArcInfo.            S             aspects of GIS.

Production tool                                To create, process, compile,
e.g.: ArcView, MapInfo.         A              view, receive and distribute.

Built-in GIS                                      functions To process, compile,
e.g.: ArcView,                    B                 view, receive and distribute.
adapted,
                                  C
MapObjects functions.                          To retrieve and view.
“Peep-show”                                    No processing involved.

)LJXUH  7KH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ *,6 VRIWZDUH DQG XVHU FDWHJRULHV

We often talk about a “peep-show” for the simplest application, “a production tool”
for slightly more advanced users and “an expert tool” for the most advanced users.
Modern GIS programs can handle replacement, updating and distribution of data as
well as presentation of analysis etc. on the Internet.
Today, technology is not an obstacle but is instead creating new possibilities.
However, when several parties are working together, forward planning is important
in order to find simple and coordinated solutions to be able to jointly exchange and
process information.



13. Expertise and training
Constructing a modern GIS, as described earlier, is based on four cornerstones.
These are KDUGZDUH in the form of computers, networks, printers etc.; VRIWZDUH –
some form of GIS software is needed; GDWD in the form of information with
geographic references/positioning. And the fourth cornerstone is H[SHUWLVH.
Experience has shown that expertise and training are often neglected when an
organisation is building its GIS.
All staff members who come into contact with information processed in GIS need to
be trained.
Naturally, the extent of the training requirement depends on the way in which an
individual user will come into contact with GIS information. The pyramid in figure 2
will help in the assessment of the training requirement within an organisation.



                                                                                       21
A general rule is that, regardless of the level, all training should include training in
the GIS software to be used as well as general information about what GIS is and
above all, how information is processed in GIS. It is important for users to have an
understanding of what GIS does and how the results will be interpreted.
Accordingly, basic training at the “peep-show” level should last at least half a day.
Where GIS functions are built in to specific applications, a two-day training period is
sufficient. If fundamental training in a GIS program (e.g. $UF 9LHZ, 0DS ,QIR or
other similar programs) is needed, the training will last about a week.


14. Reflections
The conclusion of the discussions at the meeting with GIS and statistics experts in
Ronneby, 27–28 November 2003, was that GIS is an effective system for storage,
processing, analysing and presenting common statistics and other information of
importance for the development of the region. In addition, GIS provides excellent
support in connection with the implementation of various types of joint projects.

What are the prerequisites for building a common GIS?
As indicated in earlier chapters in this report, a GIS is made up of:
x   KDUGZDUH (computers, networks, printers etc.)
x   VRIWZDUH (operating systems, programs e.g. special GIS programs and programs
    for communication etc.)
x   GDWD, in this case geographically referenced statistics, maps etc.
x   H[SHUWLVH to develop and run the system and users who have the basic knowledge
    needed to interpret the information presented.

With respect to hardware, the feeling is that there is nothing to prevent the
introduction of GIS within the ERB. GIS in its current form can be run on the
computers and systems that are currently used in day-to-day work.
The various regions of the countries in the ERB have a relatively good supply of the
software for special GIS programs. It may be necessary to make certain additions
depending on the level of ambition decided upon for the creation of a common GIS.
Harmonisation of statistics is necessary in order for data to be comparable between
the different countries within the ERB. In order to be able to present the information
in a GIS, the information also needs to be geographically referenced. This is a simple
task because it is sufficient to link the statistics to a geographical region, e.g. a region
and /or sub-region. Good background maps are also included in data. Maps that
provide an overview of the entire ERB exist, but their usage may involve some
licensing costs, particularly if they are to be put onto the Internet. In order to be able
to present different types of information linked to more localised areas, detailed maps
of the respective country’s regions are needed. These maps should be obtained from
these regions and be made available for the presentation of more detailed
information. This is particularly important when GIS is to provide support in the
implementation of various detailed projects.
Establishing how the stored information will be kept up-to-date is of utmost
importance. There are a number of different options for this:



                                                                                               22
x   The information is stored and updated within the regions of the respective
    countries and retrieved when it is needed for various applications and projects.
x   The information is stored and updated at a central location within the ERB.
x   The information is stored at a central location but updated by the regions in the
    respective countries.

At this time the weak link in the process of creating a common GIS is the area of
skills and expertise. This does not mean that the respective countries lack expertise,
but rather that there are problems making the systems accessible and to ensure that
the systems are widely and effectively used. Accordingly, steps should be taken to
increase the level of motivation by providing GIS information including
demonstrations. In addition, some theoretical and practical training should be offered
for the to increase people’s understanding and use of the systems. This also enables
decision makers at different levels to have access to better and more comprehensible
information to use as a basis for decisions. The prerequisites are in place for the
development and expansion of GIS in the regions of the respective countries.
Presentation of the results of various types of analysis and comparative statistics
between the regions is the final link in an efficient GIS. The information is not only
intended for presentation internally within an organisation but also throughout the
entire ERB. Furthermore, most of the statistics and other information produced will,
in the long term, be of great value to the general public. The Internet and intranets
are the obvious tools for the dissemination and accessibility of information.
GIS program suppliers often offer several alternative solutions depending on the
purpose and level of ambition for the presentation of GIS.
This can be summarised in the following three levels:
/RZHVW OHYHO RI DPELWLRQ
At this level, simple extensions are added to the GIS program making it possible to
save a GIS application in HTML format and allowing for presentation in a map
window. It is also possible to zoom in on the map to see more detail. By clicking on
an information button, the underlying attributes of the object on the map are
presented. The cost of these simple extensions is in the region of EUR 300-600. The
application can be accessed by a normal browser such as Internet Explorer or
Netscape without any plug-ins.




                                                                                         23
)LJXUH ([DPSOH RI D SUHVHQWDWLRQ ZLWK WKH ORZHVW OHYHO RI DPELWLRQ +70/
,PDJH0DSSHU


+LJKHU OHYHO RI DPELWLRQ
At this level much more functionality is added, making it basically the same as the
functionality in GIS applications created in the GIS program. In simple terms, this
function can be described as the equivalent of the more well-known Adobe Acrobat
Reader. In order to read a document, the user must first download Acrobat Reader
via the Internet free of charge. However, in order to create this type of document, the
user must purchase Adobe Acrobat. Arc Reader, which has been chosen as an
example of this method for publishing GIS information, works in the same way. Arc
Publisher is an extension that is purchased while Arc Reader can be downloaded
from the web at no cost. The cost of the publishing tool is around EUR 3,000.




                                                                                          24
3LFWXUH *,6 DSSOLFDWLRQ VKRZLQJ WKH SRSXODWLRQ SHU NP SUHVHQWHG LQ $UF 5HDGHU
1RWH WKDW WKH IXQFWLRQDOLW\ LV VLJQLILFDQWO\ KLJKHU WKDQ LQ WKH SUHVHQWDWLRQ DW WKH
ORZHVW OHYHO RI DPELWLRQ

+LJK OHYHO RI DPELWLRQ
This is the level of the complete Internet solution for GIS. At this level, users have
the option of building special servers for GIS and it is possible utilise all of the
functions including the GIS analysis function. The cost of this type of system is
much higher. The actual GIS program functionality is around EUR 10,000, but after
adding the cost of servers etc., the total acquisition cost is EUR 30,000-40,000. No
plug-ins are needed to access the information via the Internet.




                                                                                         25
)LJXUH ([DPSOH RI DQ ,QWHUQHW 0DS 6HUYHU 7KLV DSSOLFDWLRQ DOORZV XVHUV WR VHDUFK
IRU VXPPHU FRWWDJHV IRU UHQW LQ .URQREHUJ &RXQW\
6XPPDU\
The technology exists and most of the statistics and other information as well as
maps are in place. In order to build a comprehensive GIS for the entire ERB, it is
important to generate motivation and provide information and training. It is also
important to decide on a level of ambition and agree on how the production and
updating of data will be carried out. An appropriate starting point for this work is to
build up the system step by step. In the course of this process a limited amount of
investment may by needed.




                                                                                          26
15. Proposal for the ERB’s common GIS solution


 The work group suggests that a co-ordinated GIS is developed within the ERB and
 that the future work on this should follow the schedule below.
 6SULQJ 
 Complete production of a demonstration GIS for the ERB and at the same time
 implement a few of the Basic Facts.
 Short presentation and demonstration of the GIS for the Steering Committee.
 Present proposals and establish responsibilities, an investment plan for two ambition
 levels for maps, possible equipment, GIS programs and Internet solutions.
 Organise two GIS workshops.
 Support ongoing Seagull GIS projects.
 Work in cooperation with SEBTrans, Baltsurd, the BalticPalette etc. to take
 advantage synergies within GIS.
 $XWXPQ 
 Continue organising workshops.
 Purchase and installation of GIS equipment.
 Continued GIS support for Seagull project
 Continue cooperation with SEBTrans and other projects.




                                                                                         27
Statistics                                                                     Appendix 1

     A big X means that the statistical information is available at the regional and sub-
     regional level. A small x means that the statistical information is available only at the
     regional level.




                                                                 Kalinin-
                            Sweden Denmark           Poland       grad        Lithuania      Latvia
Population
- by sex                      X           X             X            X            X
- by age                      X           X             X            X            X               X
- family status               X           X                          X
- urban/rural                 X           X                          X            X               X
- marriages                   X           X                          X                            X
- divorces                    X           X                          X                            X
- nationalities/ethnicity     X           X                          X            X               X
- density                     X           X                                       X               X
- religious confession                                                            X
- by education                X           X             X
- average age                 X           X

 Migration
 - international              X           X                          X            X
 - internal                   X           X                          X            X
 - rural population,
total/internat.               X           X                                       X
 - by age and sex             X           X             X
 - net long-term
migration                                                                         X               X

 Births/deaths
 - births, rate               X           X             X            X            X               X
 - deaths, by age and sex     X           X             X            X            X               X
 - deaths, by cause                                                  X
 - infant mortality                                                  X                            X

 Regional GDP
 - per capita                 X           X             X            X            X               X


                                                                                                 28
 Employment
 - by number, sex and
branch                      X   X       X
 - by number and branch     X   X       X   X    X
 - annual average in
industry                                    X
 - by age and sex           X   X   X

 Unemployment
 - registered and acc to
ILO                         X   X       X        X
 - average annual
number                      X   X           X
 - by age and sex           X   X   X            X

Commuting                   X   X


 Houses/dwellings
 - by owner                 X   X       X        X
 - m2 per capita                        X   X    X
 - provision of water
supply                                  X
 - provision of sewerage
system                                  X
 - provision of hot water               X
 - provision of gas                     X
 - provision of
telephones                              X
 - stock of dwellings       X   X   X       X    X
 - dwellings by number
of rooms                    X   X           X
 - dwellings by
ownership                   X   X           X
 - average number of
persons/dwelling            X   X   X

 Land use
 - total land area          X   X       X   X    X
 - by type of land          X   X   X   X   X    X
 - by owner                             X        X
 - by region                            X
 - private land used for
agriculture                                 X    X


                                                29
Cars                        X   X   x   X   X    X

Mobile phones                           X

Local newspaper                         X

TV sets                             x   X

Politicians
- number                    X   X   X   X

Political parties
- number                    X   X       X

NGO
- number incl. political
parties/religious org.      X   X       X

 Education
 -preschool institutions,
number/rate                 X   X   X   X   X    X
 - schools, number/rate     X   X   X   X   X    X
 - specialized and high
schools, number/rate        X   X   X   X   X    X
 - secondary schools        X   X   X   X   X    X
 - students/scholars        X   X       X   X    X
 - number of researches     X   X   x

Incomes/wages
- average wage and by
branch                              x   X
- average income of
population                  X   X       X   X    X
- living subsistence
wage                                    X
- min. cost of vital
products                                X
- purchasing capacity                   X
- average pension                       X
 - minimum pension                      X
- portion of pop. below
poverty level                           X




                                                30
 - income of service
enterprises                                 X

 House owners
 - number                   X   X       X
 - natural/monetary
income                                  X
 - expenses                             X

 Trade
 - import                   X   X       X   X
 - export                   X   X       X   X
 - retail turnover          X   X       X   X
 - wholesale turnover       X   X       X
 - enterprises, number      X   X       X   X    X
 - national and import
goods ratio                             X
 - state sector of
services, rate                          X

 Investments
 - domestic                         X   X
 - foreign                              X   X    X
 - total and share of
foreign investments                     X        X
 - by branch of economy                 X        X
 - by type
(direct/indirect)                       X
 - investment in tangible
fixed assets                                X

 Health care
 - doctors and medical
staff, number/rate          X   X   X   X   X    X
- hospitals, beds,
patients by disease,
number/rate                 X   X   x   X   X    X
 - morbidity                X   X       X
 - sanatoriums and rest
homes, number/places        X   X       X   X    X
 - chemists shops           X   X           X

Transportation




                                                31
 - length of roads by
quality and region           X   X   X   X   X    X
 - length of railways        X       x   X
 - ports, volumes by
type, import/export          X   X       X   X
 - airports                  X   X
 - settlements with bus
connection, provision                    X

Tourism
- restaurants, number        X   X       X   X
- number of tourists by
country and purpose          X   X   x   X
 - number of tourists
enterprises (agents,
operators)                           x   X   X
 - number of beds/rooms
by establishment             X   X   X   X   X    X
 - number of guest
nights by establishment      X   X   X       X    X




Others
 - libraries, number and
rate                         X   X       X   X    X
 - cultural centres,
numbers                      X   X           X    X
 - museums, number and
type                         X   X           X    X
 - recorded crimes
number, by type                                   X
 - fires, number, losses,
cause                                             X
 - air pollution emissions                        X
 - water abstraction                              X




                                                 32
                                                                     Appendix 2


*,6 RQ WKH LVODQG RI %RUQKROP

0LNNHO 7RXGDO $GPLQLVWUDWRU &HQWHU IRU 5HJLRQDO RJ 7XULVPHIRUVNQLQJ
HPDLO WRXGDO#FUWGN

x   What is the GIS status in the respective ERB sub-region today?


       We are currently structuring and systematising our GIS use.
       GIS has been used for years.



x   The status of geographical data and maps today?

We have almost all the maps we need for the present.
- register maps
- topographic maps
- address themes
- technical maps
- orthophotos
- a variety of self-produced themes


x   Projections and co-ordinate systems in use?

Denmark system 45
Denmark UTM 33 ED50

x   GIS program in use?

Mapinfo professional + runtime + viewer
Microstation geographics
Microstation Geooutlook

x   The level of GIS competence and training in your department or among the staff
    in the region.

We have some skilled people, but as we are currently escalating the use of GIS, we
will need to educate more people.


x   Do you use Internet solutions for the distribution of GIS? In such a case – what
    kind of solutions?



                                                                                       33
We are planning to launch GIS, both on the Internet and over our intranet in Q1,
2004.
The backbone for this will probably be MAPSERVER set up as a WMS service.


x   How is responsibility for your region’s GIS organised?


We have a GIS co-ordination group consisting of individuals from the departments
involved.
This group consults with the management group on technical issues.
x   Do you have any ideas about how to use GIS in the future to develop co-
    operation and decision-making processes within the ERB?


The increase in the use of GIS will probably be explosive.
We are considering citizen self-service options in a variety of areas.
We are planning to integrate GIS and environmental database, ESDH systems etc.




                                                                                   34
                                                                        Appendix 3
*,6 LQ WKH .DOLQLQJUDG 2EODVW
+HOHQD     .URSLQRYD    ([SHUW      .DOLQLQJUDG      6WDWH    8QLYHUVLW\    HSRVW
NURSLQRYD#HPDLODOEHUWLQDUX

1. The status of GIS in Kaliningrad
,Q .DOLQLQJUDG FLW\ the status is rather good. The Master Plan of the city is now ready
and will soon be adopted. The digital “On Duty” plan will be ready soon. This
includes information on land users, landowners, land cadastre, addresses, real estate,
some engineering nets etc. (The scale is 1:500, 1:2,000, and overview maps have a
scale of 1:10,000, 1:50,000). We have maps with various types of content. Since
there are many objects in the city, there is a need to create municipal standards for
the exchange of information and these standards are currently being prepared. A
number of technologies are in common use, for example, for the map of Kaliningrad.
www.map.kaliningrad.org
,Q WKH .DOLQLQJUDG 2EODVW: The supply of maps is rather poor. The main focus is on
the creation of land cadastre maps. The products used are MapInfo and Micro Station
SE. A number of maps with a scale of 1:100,000 exist and are used by the Ministry
of Emergency Situations, the State Committee of Nature etc. The so-called “Oporny
Plan” (Basic Plan), which will be mainly topographical, is under production at this
time (scale 1: 10,000).
The Atlas of the Kaliningrad Region was prepared (in 2002) by Kaliningrad State
University. The scale is 1:500,000 or 1:1,000,000 and it is digital and polygraphic.

2. Projection and co-ordinate system used
We use the 1942 Gauss-Krüger projection (at the ellipsoid by Krasovski) and the
national system of coordinates used in the RF. It is easy to convert into other
coordinate systems.


3. GIS programs used
MapInfo, ArcView, AutoDesk-MapGuide, Intergraph - GeoMedia, MicroStation,
Panarama.

4. GIS competence and training
The Kaliningrad State University has a Centre for New Information Technologies
consisting of ten individuals who have a full understanding of GIS and have
considerable experience in working with GIS (e.g. about 90 individuals were
involved in creating the Atlas of the Kaliningrad Region). The individuals at the
Centre are familiar with all of the Russian and foreign technologies, it is diller on
some of the programs, such as Autodesk Map, MapGuide, Onside.
As far as the consumers of the GIS are concerned, many people know about GIS, but
the number of users is limited. GIS users include the Land Committee, the Ministry
for Emergency Situations, LukOil, Kaliningrad Gasification, some homeowner




                                                                                          35
services and certain scientific institutions, such as Atlant-NIRO. There are many
more organisations that could be viewed as potential users.



Internet solutions for the distribution of GIS. Autodesk MapGuide is used for
distribution over the Internet (e.g. www.map.kaliningrad.org)


5. How is the responsibility for your region’s GIS organised?
Each department or organisation creates its own data according to its objectives. For
example, LukOil-Kaliningrad has an archive of oil deposits, the Department of Land
Use has information on land use, etc. However, within the cities there is a need for
common data, and work on this is currently in progress. The City of Kaliningrad is
the leader in all of the areas of GIS technologies. In the region as a whole, the role of
GIS is not yet clearly defined.


6. Ideas on the use of GIS in the future to develop co-operation and decision-making
processes within the ERB.
GIS could expand the horizons of regional cooperation. Investors will find it easier to
find an appropriate location for their investments in the region. GIS will also
facilitate the creation of networks and help to increase knowledge about the
ecological situation and facilitate spatial planning.




                                                                                            36
                                                                                   Appendix 5

*,6 LQ WKH .XU]HPH 3ODQQLQJ 5HJLRQ
$UPDQGV 3X]XOLV 3ODQQHU .XU]HPH SODQQLQJ UHJLRQ
HPDLO$UPDQGV3X]XOLV#EMSDDHXQHWOY

x   The main objectives of GIS in the ERB.

The primary need is to create digital maps and carry out analysis, as municipal
capacity is still low in this area. It is a good idea to provide information on GIS
solutions as this information will be useful for planning purposes, both
internationally and at the regional level. Online GIS courses should be organized for
municipal planners, e.g. as FAQs and for the exchange of experiences, or in the form
of other Internet solutions.
x   What is the status of GIS in the
    respective ERB sub-region today?
                                                              ISu g
                                                            G sin
The Kurzeme planning region consists of              em n    litie f urzem
                                                 inth u icipa so K            io
                                                                          ereg n
5 districts (counties or rajons) and 2 cities
consisting of 100 local municipalities. GIS
is only used in 2 cities – Liepaja and                     V ntspils
                                                            e                            u a a ag sts
                                                                                        D nd g sp a
Ventspils, and in 4 local municipalities, 3                                          Talsura n
                                                                                            jo s
of which are district centres. At the district                                      Talsi
level, only 3 district councils have GIS
(see map).
                                                                        u a
                                                                       K ldîg
The Kurzeme Region Development                                      u îg srajo s
                                                                   K ld a     n
Agency (the former Baltic Sea Coastal
Zone Development Agency) has had GIS
for two months.                                   ie âja
                                                 L p
                                                           G biò
                                                            ro a                 a u jo s
                                                                                S ld sra n

GIS is used in Kurzeme for the
preparation of maps for planning purposes
– both development and spatial planning.                                 isa s gin
                                                                        G reu in
                                                                             u ic litie
                                                                           m n ipa s
It is used to a far lesser extent for the                                   is tco nc
                                                                           d tric u ils
creation of databases and spatial analysis.
In the Kuldiga and Saldus districts it is
also used for tourism purposes and for
work commissioned by municipalities.
The cities of Liepaja and Ventspils use detailed maps for a wide range of planning
activity, especially for territorial and detailed municipal planning.
x   The status of geographical data and maps today?

At this time, the Kurzeme Region Development Agency only collects spatial data on
the situation in the Kurzeme region. Future activities are in the planning stage.
Nevertheless, we plan to create GIS databases in Kurzeme for planning documents
and for use in the preparation of the Kurzeme region’s spatial planning.
x   Projection and co-ordinate systems used


                                                                                                   37
         Coordinates are LKS-92 which are close to WGS 84 Transversal Mercator Projection
         with the central meridian at 24° east and 0.9996 scale coefficient (according to the
         requirements of the Latvian topographic map system TKS-93). LKS-92 TM is used
         for detailed planning.
         x   GIS program used

         GIS program ArcView 3.** and ArcView 8.** are mainly used at the regional and
         district levels. Towns and cities use AutoCAD Map, Geo/SQL in their planning.
         x   GIS competence and education in your department or among the staff for the
             region.

         The Kurzeme Region Development Agency has one individual working with
         planning and this person is responsible for GIS as well. GIS qualification – GIS
         courses and practical work.
         In the Kurzeme planning region a few individuals are trained in GIS usage. Only
         specialists in the cities and at the Kuldiga district council have specialist training,
         others have completed GIS courses and have practical work experience.
         x   Do you use Internet solutions for the distribution of GIS? In such a case - what
             kind of solutions?

         The Kurzeme Region Development Agency has only just started working with GIS
         and at this time, does not use online map services.
         In the Kurzeme planning region, no GIS Internet solutions are used. The Ventspils
         municipality has an intranet providing the council departments with access to city
         maps.
         x   How is responsibility for your region’s GIS organised?

         There are two main GIS options in the Kurzeme region. The first is the presence of a
         GIS specialist in the municipality who is responsible for creating, storing and
         updating information. As a low in this case data is stored in this institution. This is
         typical for cities and other municipalities that use GIS and have specialists.
         The other option is to order GIS information from the State Land Service or another
         planning agency with responsibility for the creation and storage of all data. This
         option is used in small rural municipalities that are unable to create and purchase
         equipment and software and have their own GIS specialist (the Liepaja and Kuldiga
         districts in particular). However such cooperation is only in the initial stages due to
         the lack of firm legislation and monitoring at the State level.
         x   Relevant documentation on GIS to create an image of GIS

         For background maps:
         State Land Service maps, photo images and cadastre data2 .
         The main maps used are 1:50,000 satellite maps for district level planning, photo
         images 1:2,000 for town planning and detailed planning in rural territories, and

2
    http://www.vzd.gov.lv/en/report/2002/


                                                                                                   38
      1:10,000 for municipal planning, e.g. in the case of the Dundaga municipality.
      Available cadastre data 1:10,000 is used for planning at the municipal level. The
      Kuldiga district uses simplified topographic maps 1:10,000 for local level
      planning.1:25,000 maps are used at the municipal planning level as well. Maps with
      a scale 1:5,000 are used for the villages in rural municipalities. Detailed plans are
      prepared with scales from 1:2,000 up to 1:200.
      In Ventspils, maps with a scale 1:500 are used using cadastre data.
      “Janaseta map publishers” digital database Latvia 1:400,000 (old version) and
      1:200,0003, for some districts 1:100,000 map and company “Datorkarte” databasis
      1:200,0004.
      Other digital maps are used for specific purposes. CORINE Land Cover data5
      NATURA territories databases.
      Other sources used in planning processes are the State Geological Survey data in
      SHP, MS Excel format, the state agency “Latvenergo” data in DGN format.
      The State Land Service cadastre data layers:
      MS Excel format: cadastre number for territorial units; cadastre number for real
      property; name of real property
      Kind of terrestrial usage, property servitudes, area of servitudes,

      In DGN format: cadastre borderlines of real property, cadastre border points;
      cadastre number of real property and names.
      The State Land Service map data is linked to a simplified topographic map in DGN
      format:
      Forest, glade, sparse forest, brushwood, bog, orchard, cemetery, growth, park, natural
      herbage, compact building, scar wood, gardens, fields, buildings, ruins, light
      buildings, bridge.
      Lines: carriageway, gravel road, paved road, road with solid coverage, improved
      unsurfaced road, unsurfaced road, vista, tree line, bush line, section/court line,
      quarry, axis of dike more than 3m wide, axis of dike more than 4m wide, pit, water
      flow, dike, water held.
      Points and symbols: pillar of electric line, stone pile, tree, bush, tree clump, sparse
      forest, artesian well, tower, rush plot, bogged place, smokestack, digged place, GPS
      point.
      Text: (used in DGN format): explanation text, hydrographical text, name of hamlet,
      place name, geographical text, geodesic point.
      Layers of the State Land Service map data with scale 1:50,000:
      x   Water flows (river, small river, stream, dump)
      x   Roads (motorway, main road, unpaved road, street, railways),



3
  http://www.kartes.lv/eng/3310_gis_bd.php
4
  http://www.datorkarte.lv/GGI/main_english.htm
5
  http://nfp-lv.eionet.eu.int/clc_db/


                                                                                                39
x   Polygon objects (type of terrestrial usage – building of towns, villages, gardens,
           cottages, forests, orchards, quarries, peat fields, large rivers, agronomic
    territories).
x   Point objects – hamlets, churches, towers, airfields, railway stations, self
    governments.
x   Borders of administrative units
x   Electricity lines and gas supply pipelines
x   Relief
x   Place names


Layers of “Datorkarte” databasis 1:200,000
x   Borders of administrative units
x   Settled places (towns and villages)
x   Character of terrain
x   Relief
x   Water flows
x   Water holds
x   Roads network
x   Railway network
x   Gas pipelines
x   High voltage electricity lines




                                                                                         40
                                                                         Appendix 6
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:LNWRU 6]\GDURZVNL -DURVáDZ &]RFKD VNL
%RWK UHSUHVHQWLQJ 7KH 3UHVLGHQW¶V 2IILFH RI WKH 3RPHUDQLDQ 5HJLRQ
'HSW RI 5HJLRQDO DQG 6SDWLDO 'HYHORSPHQW
DQG WKH 8QLYHUVLW\ RI *GD VN 3RODQG HPDLO j.czochanski@woj-pomorskie.pl

In 1999 the Pomeranian Region’s new administration approached the issue of
implementing a regional Geographic Information System, with an emphasis on data
collection and processing for administrative purposes at the regional level. This is the
first initiative ever taken to create an integrated information system for a large
regional entity while preserving basic applicability for numerous sectors and
institutions representing democratically elected and governmental authorities. It is
worth noting that several previous activities focused only on resources for detailed
geodetic data at the local level, with no connection to the upper levels of decision-
making.
GIS in Pomerania is not only useful for spatial management of the regional territory,
its universality may prove useful in collaboration with neighbouring regions as well
as overseas partners. The possibility of broad dissemination and of ensuring that
stored data is kept up-to-date is an important factor from a promotional and
economic perspective, and is especially crucial during Poland’s accession to the
European Union and for the country’s international activities around the Baltic
region.
The construction of a GIS system for Pomerania coincided with the launch of a
transnational spatial planning project under the Phare Crossborder Cooperation
Programme entitled “Future Transport Pattern and the Sustainable Development of
the TINA Network,” which was paired with the larger scale umbrella project entitled
SEBTrans, implemented in the southeastern Baltic area with aid from the
INTERREG Community Initiative. This partnership scheme was utilised for the
purpose of matching conducted actions, especially in maintaining information
resources. The above influenced the development of the original Geographic
Information System, in Poland and perhaps throughout the Central Europe, which
fulfilled its objective of monitoring and obtaining information and creating an
inventory, for both regional and international needs.
The basic scope of the system was as follows:
Integration of data created in various institutions responsible for managing the
region’s resources (e.g. local and regional administration, state agencies dealing with
environmental monitoring or technical infrastructure, research institutes) within a
digital environment using a GIS format, enabling the mutual exchange of
information. The overall goal is not to build a solitude and cohesive information
system, which is not possible at present due to technical and legal constraints, but to
encourage information exchange standards to minimise implementation costs for
individual sectoral systems and to safeguard the present status and uniformity of
data.




                                                                                           41
Formulation of a monitoring tool for socio-economic and environmental processes to
evaluate the regional conditions and upgrade information for other administrative
and economic players.
Development of a fundamental data pool with central supervision to allow for the
conceptual processing of collected information, verification and access in agreed
technological formats.
Design of an information and implementation tool for regional spatial management
planning and regional strategy.
Creation of a data resource and exchange tool for interregional and international co-
operation, based on Internet facilities.
     7HFKQLFDO EDFNJURXQG
In order to ensure harmony with other GIS systems, we decided to use a European
Reference System (EUREF 89) with a WGS84 ellipsoid. The Polish data pool, which
is maintained in the flat ‘1992’ co-ordinate system, can thus be easily converted to
geographic co-ordinates.
A considerable amount of the data attracted the interest of neighbouring regions and
international partners. Universal, widely known GIS environments (ESRI and
MapInfo computer software) provide the engine of the system, which is open to
international exchange of data. The Pomeranian GIS is rooted from 1:50,000
topographic maps and LANDSAT TM satellite images. Data derived from the
system is transferred into a vector format and is currently adjusted for demonstration
purposes on the Internet. Operation of the system is based upon collaboration of
departments within the President’s Office of the Pomeranian Region (UHJLRQDO
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ), led by the Regional and Spatial Development Department.
The regional system on the Polish side is regarded as a separate project, and its
selected elements are exported to a common, transnational platform, where they meet
data delivered by the Swedish partners. For the needs of this international dimension
of the GIS system, new layers are under construction, whose spatial scope extends
across the regional border carrying supplementary information and revealing the
progressive results of the common INTERREG IIC – Phare/Interreg project in
southern Sweden and northern Poland (Fig.1).

     9LDELOLW\ RI LQIRUPDWLRQ IRU WKH 3RPHUDQLDQ 5HJLRQ

      Interregional information
The process of accession to the European Union, along with intensified economic
ties, result in easier access to information on the standards of individual countries.
Implementation of the system is the first undertaking of its kind in the Pomeranian
Region, and one of the first in Poland to involve internal (regional) and external
(international) data.
Developing an information system in the Baltic region of northern Poland and
southeastern Sweden is valuable from an information, presentation, marketing and
obviously, an economic perspective, due to exposure of a number of important
processes, which respond for the condition of spatial arrangement, infrastructure,
social environment and economy. By presenting them in an integrated manner – the
system can demonstrate an overall quality of analysed areas, measures for their
reasonable management, as well as significance for international co-operation.


                                                                                         42
Simultaneously, it enables changes to be monitored in the status of the basic socio-
economic environment of human activity vis-à-vis natural resources.
The basic data designed and incorporated into the geographic information system for
the Pomeranian Region addresses the challenges of European integration, economic
co-operation, environmental protection, tourism, transport and communication
infrastructure through a series of statistical and spatial indicators. The emphasis is on
development of a network of transport corridors, exposed to research within ongoing
PHARE projects.
The Pomeranian region plays a significant role. Being a coastal region by the Baltic
Sea and hosting ferry connections with the territory of Sweden, it holds the position
of a transit area for the TINA Corridor No. VI, heading south to the Mediterranean,
and is an extension of the I Corridor, linking the eastern with western parts of the
southern Baltic region. Transport network elements, including multimodal
connections, thus constitute a basic framework for collaboration between European
partners and determine the scope of information within the GIS. From the viewpoint
of goods and passenger flows, the natural and tourism elements, which constitute
considerable reference layers in the database, are equally important.
Some of the database elements are being created through collaboration with Swedish
planners in the joint INTERREG IIC – Phare/Interreg project assessing the regional
impact of the transport corridor linking Scandinavia (Oslo – Gothenburg), through
Karlskrona, with Poland, thus encompassing the aforementioned fragment of the
TINA Corridor No. VI (Gdynia/Gdansk – Lodz). As agreed in the project’s action
plan, Polish and Swedish partners are to manage their own regional GIS systems,
which then provide output to the common, transnational information system. The
data processed at that level will be made available to users on the Internet. The
homepage will present both the current status of spatial resources and their allocation
within the development zone along the Corridor, development opportunities in the
areas affected, as well as the impact on the surroundings. Dissemination of the
project’s results on the web will also allow for popularization of the Baltic Sea
Region philosophy and will highlight the common projects and programmes
implemented by the Baltic countries.

      Intraregional information
The Pomeranian Region is characterised by specific natural, historical and tourism-
related values, as well as a clear academic and economic domination along the Polish
coastline. Among the region’s amenities are (fig. 2)
x   A wide variety of unique nature preservation areas covering over 30% of the total
    area, with two national parks (one has been granted World Biosphere Reserve
    status and the other is under the protection of the RAMSAR Convention), nine
    lower-regime landscape parks, several dozens nature reserves, and four areas that
    are within an international network of protected areas in the Baltic Sea Region;
x   Impressive historical and cultural heritage, recognised by UNESCO;
x   Numerous tourist facilities and areas - both in the coastal zone (from monuments
    to yacht marinas) and lake districts (lakes, woods and hills towering over the
    European lowlands);
x   High quality economic and transport facilities, including ones that are already
    operational and others in the planning stage, e.g. the large seaports at Gdansk and
    Gdynia, shipyards, small fishing ports and passenger terminals, international
    airport, and the crossroads of European transport routes.


                                                                                            43
The basic information, which is of potential importance to all prospective system
users, includes data on technical infrastructure, the natural environment, protected
areas, environmentally detrimental objects, and elementary plans for regional
development. With respect to international co-operation, the common objectives of
the Polish and Swedish partners were achieved in the form of a data inventory matrix
containing the required and available information to be delivered from both sides.
Great attention was paid to transport information due to its fundamental importance
for the integration of economic and social space. The GIS was therefore enriched
with data on current road, rail, maritime and air transport networks, as well as on the
planned course of linear technical infrastructure. A decision was also taken to include
facts on the most significant trade, industrial and academic objects, accompanied by
successive layers with nature preservation and tourism management elements. The
whole set of data was supplemented with synthetic indices for individual
administrative areas (communities, municipalities, counties etc.) and targeted at
intraregional co-operation for the purpose of formulating a regional development
strategy and regional spatial management plan.
The very same pool, scoped at information of supra-regional level of reference, is
recommended for interregional and international co-operation. It illustrates the basic
direction of spatial and socio-economic development agreed upon by collaborating
partners across the sea The storage of data in digital format facilitates access for the
requirements of common development programmes and initiatives.
'DWD 'LVVHPLQDWLRQ
The Pomeranian GIS system is envisioned as a comprehensive and essential tool for
numerous institutions that handle information of a geographic, economic and social
nature. Potential beneficiaries of the system thus include local and regional
administrative offices, state-level administration in the region, universities and
research institutes, development agencies and many other players involved in public
activities. The basic pool can be developed and supplemented with detailed thematic
packages in response to requests for official assignments performed by individual
players. It should be remembered that the overall idea of the system is to integrate
actions taken by regional democratic authorities (regional board) and official
representatives of the central government in the region (the governor and governor’s
office), to support management of the regional space, and to enhance spatial planning
mechanisms exemplified by the formulation of regional development strategies and
regional plans.




                                                                                           44
                                                             Appendix 7
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0DUWD *ZLD<G]LxVND 6SDWLDO 3ODQQLQJ 2IILFH RI WKH :DUPLD DQG 0D]XULDQ 5HJLRQ
HPDLO ESSZP#SRF]WDRQHWSO
At the Spatial Planning Office of the Warmia and Mazurian Region we use the
MapInfo Program. In the past we used the old version, MapInfo 4.0. Currently we
have MapInfo version 7.0. In the beginning we used this program as a graphics
program only. Nowadays we are able take advantage of more of the benefits that
MapInfo offers, as each map contains an attached database and is not merely a
picture.
In response to your question about the availability of geographical data and maps, if
we consider essential statistical data only, there is no problem. The problem is with
detailed information about grounds. I am afraid that we cannot use all of the
information that is available on the Internet, but I hope that this will change over
time. As regards to maps, we initially used a map (digital) with a scale of 1:50,000.
The co-ordinate system used is longitude/latitude Equal-Area Projection. MapInfo
enables registration in different sizes, for example, JEPEG.




                                                                                        45
                                                                          Appendix 8

*,6 LQ %OHNLQJH .DOPDU DQG .URQREHUJ &RXQWLHV
5RODQG 1LOVVRQ *,6H[SHUW 6HDJXOO SURMHFW (PDLO PHJDFRQVXOWLQJ#WHOLDFRP

Parties from the three counties:
- Blekinge Region
- Regional Council in Kalmar County
- Association of Local Authorities in Kronoberg County

The Blekinge and Kronoberg offices have a limited overview of the GIS situation in
the respective regions and do not use this form of support themselves. The Regional
Council in Kalmar County has advanced further and has a good overview as well as
access to data and GIS support at its offices.
GIS is, however, well developed in the regions, and is coordinated by the respective
county administrative boards. In light of this, the following is a general description of
the situation with respect the three Swedish regions’ access to GIS through the
county administrative boards.



x   The main objectives of GIS within the ERB?

The overall goals for GIS within the ERB are to:
x   create good map-based overviews;
x   compile complex information to highlight various contexts;
x   conduct and compile complex analysis to form a basis for decisions on ERB
    development;
x   increase the use of GIS within the ERB and to raise the level of expertise in this
    field;
x   present information about the ERB to the general public in a clear and
    comprehensible way.


x   To what extent is GIS used within the respective ERB sub-regions today?

At the municipal level, the extent to which GIS is used varies greatly. In general the
GIS status in larger municipalities is good, while the smaller municipalities are at the
beginning stages of developing GIS to use in their work.



x   Geographical data and maps available today?

Although access to data and maps is very good, it is associated with relatively high
costs.
Maps with a scale of 1:250,000 in vector and raster format (picture) are used as
background maps. The normal scale of detailed maps is 1:50,000, 1:20,000, 1:10,000


                                                                                            46
at the regional level. The municipalities use very detailed maps (primary maps) with
a scale of 1:500. The use of satellite images and aerial photographs in increasing.

x   Which projection and co-ordinate systems are used?

For the most part the Gauss-Krüger (Transversal Mercator) map projection is used.
Reference system: RT 90 2.5 gon W. At sea and in the air and for global
applications, WGS 84 is used.



x   Which GIS programs are used?

At the regional level ARC INFO (ArcView 3.x) is the dominating program.
Within the municipalities the programs used are ArcView or MapInfo.



x   The level of GIS expertise and training in your department or among the staff in
    the region.

With the exception of the Regional Council in Kalmar County, the level of expertise
is very low. The level within the county administrative boards of Kalmar and
Kronoberg, on the other hand, is generally very high. The county administrative
board in Blekinge has limited access to expertise.



x   Do you use an Internet solution for the distribution of GIS? If so, what type of
    solution?

A common server is used for the distribution of GIS (theme level). Some common
mapping and service applications have been developed. http://gis.lst.se

x   How is responsibility for GIS organised in your region?

The county administrative boards have appointed GIS coordinators who are helped
by one or more assistants. At the national level, GIS activity is coordinated by a
network of individuals who are responsible for GIS.
There are also networks for coordination and cooperation within the counties and a
GIS association called “SydostGIS” which is helping to develop GIS.

x   Do you have any suggestions for how GIS can be used in the future to improve
    cooperation and the decision-making processes within the ERB?

Ensuring that important data, such as key figures, is coordinated makes it possible to
compare and present information for the entire ERB.




                                                                                         47
The potential exists to produce and coordinate the use of digital background maps.
These can form the basis for the exchange of information which is important to the
decision-making processes for the purpose of developing the ERB.
In the short term, the logical next stage involves continued development and
cooperation for the purpose of drawing up a common strategy and improving skills.
Examples of simple solutions can be appropriately presented at this stage. In the long
term, GIS should be firmly established as a means of presenting the ERB’s statistics
to be used for joint political development initiatives. Furthermore, this should be
supported by Internet solutions to satisfy peoples’ need for information about the
ERB’s development.




                                                                                         48

								
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