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									IFAD SL Workshop

                   Governance, institutional
                  structures and sustainable

          1.   Introduction
          2.   Current response to institutional problems
          3.   What are institutions?
          4.   What is governance?
          5.   Focus on relationships
          6.   Requirements for governance model
          7.   Related structural issues
          8.   Links to sustainable livelihoods principles
          9.   Conclusions

Slide 1                                                      Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

                          1) Introduction

          • Institutional structures are sometimes seen as
            ‘fixed’ – a ‘given’, not a variable. We work around
            them, not with them.
          • Concerns:
             • Accountability
             • Responsiveness
             • Voice / choice
          • Joined-up action is needed

Slide 2                                                  Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

                   2) Current responses to
                    institutional problems
          • We tend to focus on:
             o The agencies rather than the ‘rules’
             o Capacity-building rather than institutional
          • Common:
             o Projects
             o Reform or economic management
          • Less common:
             o Institutional structures and new governance

Slide 3                                              Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

                 3) What are institutions?

          • They consist of rules and agencies
          • Need to distinguish between:
             o Institutional reform
             o Organisational development
             o Process change

Slide 4                                          Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

                   4) What is governance?

          • A political concept
          • Measures that involve setting the rules for the
            exercise of power, and settling of conflicts over
            these rules
          • To understand governance we need:
             o to separate functions, and
             o focus on relationships

Slide 5                                                Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

                   5) Focus on relationships

          • Participation and negotiation
          • Contract:
             o Improve accountability
             o Introduce measurement
             o Increase clarity, but
             o Increase costs and some staff resistance
          • Impact assessment concerns:
             o Measurement definitions
             o Projections
             o Causality and attribution
             o Valuation

Slide 6                                                   Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

            6) Requirements for governance
          We need to think differently about:
            a. Funding
            b. Representation
            c. Accessing information
            d. Legal redress

Slide 7                                         Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

                            a) Funding

          Funding must change to reinforce the new functions,
            structures and systems
          • Institutional effects of centralised mechanisms
          • Separation of funding from planning
          • Community transfers/ vouchers systems

Slide 8                                              Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

                      b) Representation

          Such as:
          • Focus groups
          • Citizen juries
          • Local governance
          • Lobbying and advocacy groups

Slide 9                                    Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

           c) Public access to information

       • Consultative documents and processes
       • Publication of standards
       • User and citizen charters

Slide 10                                        Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

              d) Access to legal redress

       Especially important when relationships are:
          • Explicit
          • Rule-based

Slide 11                                              Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

             7) Related structural issues

       • Decentralisation
          o Administrative
          o Fiscal
          o Political
       • Partnerships
          o Co-operation
          o Co-ordination
          o Collaboration
       Watch out! Partnerships can fuzz the separation of
         functions and sour the relationship

Slide 12                                          Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

           8) Link to sustainable livelihood
       • See notes

Slide 13                                Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

                      9) Conclusions

       6 of the best !
       • Examine relationships – cleavage
       • Power = voice + choice
       • Need new structures for enablers to understand
         citizens / users
       • Standards, rules and rights matter
       • Balance in relationships helps
       • The poor can (Do!) govern themselves well

Slide 14                                         Institutions and SL
IFAD SL Workshop

      • Institutional structures are not a ‘given’
      • Institutions = rules and agencies
      • Governors manage the rules of power
      • Consider function and relationship
      • Issues to consider changing:
         o Funding
         o Representation
         o Accessing information
         o Legal redress
      • There are links to the sustainable livelihoods
      • Conclusions: lots of think about and act on!

Slide 15                                            Institutions and SL

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