Evidence for Badia benchmark project outcome Latest by WU70cbQ

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									Evidence for Badia Water Benchmark Project Outcome


   Letter from National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension in
    Jordan (NCARE)




                                     1
2
Translation of above first letter

No.: 12/3/778
Date: 2/3/2008


Dr. Theib Oweis


                                    3
Director of Integrated Water and Land Management Program
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Aleppo, Syria

Dear Dr. Oweis,

As you know the National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension
(NCARE) in cooperation with ICARDA and other Jordanian institutions are
implementing the Badia Benchmark project (BBP) in the Central Badia of Jordan,
and the successes achieved in this project has a substantial contribution to the
improvement of the pastoral system in the Badia.

As a result of project achievements, NCARE utilized the project approach and
methodology which is based on the participation of local communities and the use
of scientific procedures in water harvesting by considering the watershed as the
basic unit for interventions in implementing the following two projects during
2007.

   1. Project “Rehabilitation of rangeland and water harvesting in Mafraq area”
      which is funded by the German Technical Office (GTZ) and implemented
      by the National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE)
      in cooperation with the Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry
      Lands (ACSAD): The BBP approach and its methodologies in
      microcatchment water harvesting implemented more than 120 ha with
      fodder shrubs. The areas covered are Deir El Kahf, Mdwar El Gen, Tell
      Ermah, Al Manshiyyeh, Al Dijleyyeh and Braiga. (Attached is the project
      document).

   2. Mashreq-Maghreb project. The project is financed by IFAD and
      implemented by NCARE in cooperation with the Development Project on
      “Natural Resources Management in Karak, Tafelah and Shoubak”. The
      BBM project approach and Methodology were used in the implementation
      of 85 ha by planting fodder shrubs using water harvesting techniques.

I would like to seize this opportunity to thank ICARDA and its staff for the
achievements of the Badia Benchmark which we started to use and applied in
other sites in Jordan Badia, and we also, thank ICARDA for all its collaborative
programs with the National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension
(NCARE), looking for more achievements for the benefit of agriculture in Jordan.

       Sincerely yours,


       Faisal Awawdeh
       Director General

C: Project National Coordinator
   Regional Coordinator, ICARDA WARP




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   Project Proposal of NCARE




     National Center for Agricultural Research and
                 Extension (NCARE)




    Community-based Sustainable Rehabilitation of
            Rangeland of Jordan Badia



                      A proposal Submitted to
                    the Ministry of Environment
              (Environment Compensation Program)




                            Prepared by

     National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension
                             (NCARE)




                          November 2007




                                 5
          Community-based Sustainable Development
            of Potential areas of the Badia in Jordan

                             Table of Contents
Topic                                                               Page

1- Project Summary                                                   3
2- Introduction and Background                                       3
3- Project Main Objective                                            5
4- Project Specific Objectives and Expected Outputs                  5
5- Project target Area                                               6
6- Project Approach                                                  7
7- Project Phases and Activities                                     7
    7-1 Phase I: preparatory phase (six months)                      8
    7-2 Phase II: Intervention phase (48 Months)                     8
    7-3 Phase III: Location management after intervention
     phase (30 months)                                              11
8. Project Management                                               12
9. Partners                                                         12
10. Project Evaluation                                              12
11. Reporting                                                       13
12. Monitoring and Evaluation                                        15
13. Milestones                                                       17
14- Estimated Budget                                                 21
15. Time Schedule for Project Implementation                         22
16. Project Logical Framework

Annexes
Annex 1: Livestock production systems in the Jordan Badia.
Annex 2: Document on site selection and Benchmark project report.
Annex 3: Information on the targeted watersheds.
Annex 4: Images on the target watersheds.
Annex 5: Excel file of budget tables.




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           Community-based Sustainable Development
             of Potential areas of the Badia in Jordan


1- Project Summary

The project objective is the rehabilitation and protection of the degraded Badia
ecosystem based on land use potential and proper grazing management, with full
participation of local communities.

The project approach emphasizes community participation, watershed
management and multi-institutions and multi-disciplinary teams. The target is to
release the pressure on the degraded rangeland and recover the ecosystem
integrity in the Jordan Badia. This will be achieved by reducing the number of
animals settled and utilize the rangeland over its capacity, and develop a grazing
management system after the recovery that will be based on the participation of
the pastoral communities by organizing them into cooperatives or other types of
local institutions. Incentives to support the implementations of such system is
envisaged in the project. For successful technical intervention, the project will
address rangeland use and land tenure policies and the institution that deal with
rangeland management.

The expected outputs will include: Ecosystem recovery, combating
desertification, biodiversity conservation, and improving the livelihood of the local
communities. At the end of the project, around 10000 ha of degraded rangeland
will be rehabilitated by planting proper shrubs and native legumes and grasses,
using suitable water harvesting techniques, and the natural vegetation will be
conserved by applying proper grazing management at the proper time. In
addition, the project will be able to save considerable amounts of water in the
water harvesting structures that will be built, and a substantial increase in the
household income is expected as a result of the income generating activities and
businesses that will be run by the household members, especially women.

More importantly, the project is expected to establish a system in how to deal with
the Badia ecosystem which will be based on the organization of the users, and
implementing with them a grazing management plan supported by government
inductive policies. This will insure the sustainability of the work.

2- Introduction and Background

Jordan Badia represents around 90% of the area of Jordan. It is home to a
substantial proportion of the rural and poorest populations. Water is the over-
riding constraint. The low and highly variable rainfall is often inadequate for
economic crop production. The distribution of precipitation in these areas is highly
erratic both within and between years. Most of the limited rainfall comes in
sporadic, intense and unpredictable storms, usually on crusting soils with low
infiltration rates, resulting in surface runoff and uncontrolled rill and gully water flow.

 Drought and mismanagement of the resources, such as overgrazing and land
cultivation, resulted in severe degradation of the soil and vegetation and as a
result desert expanded and large areas are threatened to become desert. This
situation has serious negative implications on the environment and the
biodiversity, and adds to the global warming problems. In fact, biodiversity is



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under threat as habitat is lost due to over grazing, ploughing for rainfed cultivation
of barley, and subsequent accelerated soil loss and degradation.

Small ruminant (sheep and goats) production has an economic and social
importance for the Badia population. It is considered as a major income source
for the household, provides basic animal food sources for the families, and
creates job opportunities for the Bedouins.

The productivity of these animals is low and less than their potential as recorded
in some neighboring countries. The low productivity is a result of several factors
including: diseases, poor flock management, low feed quality, and low
productivity of the local breed. As a result, sheep owners tended to increase their
flock size to compensate for the low head productivity. The unofficial estimated
sheep and goats number in the livestock census that was carried in 2007 was
around 3.5-4.0 Million head, those reported in the north and center Badia are
about 1,862,096.00 heads of sheep and goats, see table 1 in annex 1.
Consequently, overstocking and overgrazing in the Badia rangeland resulted in
rangeland degradation and in some cases desertification. This situation has been
exacerbated with the political situation and the trans-boarder movement of large
numbers of small ruminants due to the Gulf War, which resulted in the destruction
of vegetation and harms seriously the ecosystem integrity of the northern and
central Badia in Jordan. More information on the small ruminant production
systems in Jordan is presented in annex 1.

Intervention in these extensive areas is needed if land degradation is to be halted
or reversed and the ecosystem integrity to be restored. However, any efforts in
this direction should be implemented with full community participation and with
the anticipation that sustainable recovery cannot be achieved if the number of
animals utilizing the resources and settling in the Badia is far more that the
resource capacity.

Due to its limited resources and perceived lack of returns, investments in
development in the Badia have been low in relation to the number of households
that depend on it. Moreover, given the vulnerability and fragility of the natural
resources, and in the absence of suitable development plans, national policies
have tended towards minimizing intervention and disturbance to the existing
system. Consequently, degradation continues, ecosystem destruction intensified
and rural populations seek alternative income-earning opportunities elsewhere.
Increasing migration from these areas not only creates added economic and
social pressures in urban areas, but can lead to the collapse of traditional
systems of land, water and vegetation management, leading to further
degradation of the Badia ecosystem.

National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE) in cooperation
with national institutions and International Center for Agricultural Research in the
Dry Areas (ICARDA), are successfully implementing a project (Badia benchmark
project) for the sustainable development of the Badia in a pilot site in the middle
Badia region (At Mharib and Al-Majedeyaa).

The project developed innovative methods using a combination of new tools and
conventional methods to select water-harvesting sites in the Badia. Information
on potential sites was collected from various sources: the community, scientific
experts, field visits and discussions, and satellite images. GIS analysis was then
used to integrate biophysical and socioeconomic factors into a comprehensive
site characterization.


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This allowed researchers to compare different sites in both quantitative and
qualitative terms; and identify watersheds with specific characteristics – in this,
watersheds most suited to project activities in the Jordanian Badia.

The Benchmarks Project has helped introduce a new concept – mechanized
microcatchment water harvesting which is the Vallerani system. The "Vallerani"
system is a specially designed tractor-drawn plow that mechanizes the
construction of semicircular water-harvesting bunds. The plow creates,
simultaneously, a ridge to stop runoff water, and a furrow or basin to hold the
water. This does two things: prevents water erosion, and allows farmers to
channel runoff water (which would otherwise be wasted) to grow fodder shrubs
and fruit trees, or rehabilitate natural vegetation.

The willingness of Badia farmers to adopt these technologies has tripled since the
Benchmark Project began. The impact of this large scale intervention in the Badia
had attracted decision makers to visit and monitor the communities’ positive
involvement.

Information on the methodology and the approach that were developed by the
Benchmark project and fourth annual report of the project are in annex 2.

Some successful experiences in Jordan in managing the rangeland was
observed in Maien and Lagun areas in Madaba and Karak governorates,
respectively. In these two areas, rangeland grazing and management was the
responsibility of a cooperative of sheep owners in each of these areas, where the
cooperative collect fees for each head enter the area and decide on the duration
of grazing. The cooperative management was found to be very successful
approach for the sustainable rangeland management.

These experiences will be analyzed to draw the lessons from them to be
considered in the implementation of the project.


3- Project Main Objective:

Long term objectives of the project are to protect the environment, combat
desertification and improve the livelihood of the Badia people.

4- Project Specific Objectives and Expected Outputs

Specific Objective 1: Conservation of the natural resource base and improve the
ecosystem integrity in selected areas of the Jordan Badia.

Expected Outputs

1) Rehabilitation of around 10000 ha of degraded rangeland by planting shrubs
   and legumes and grasses using proper water harvesting techniques, and
   different managements and protection measures.
2) Techniques for providing sustainable supplies of water from rainfall run-off
   for the improvement of rangeland, and for community use, and
   methodologies for designing and implementing such techniques at the
   watershed level, are identified and successfully implemented.




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3) Reduce the number of small ruminant (sheep and goats) accommodated in the
    rangeland and those incoming into the Badia by around 25-30% of their
    original number, to a level that will not negatively affect the natural resource
    and damage the ecosystem, and maintain a balance between the rangeland
    productivity and sustainability.
(4) Prevent the entry of small ruminants to the degraded rangeland during the
    rehabilitation process, until it is recovery and grazing management
    arrangements finalized and agreed with the communities and pastoralists.
(5) Community organizations (Cooperatives, local institutions) developed and
    managed rangeland utilization in a sustainable manner, with active pastoralist
    engagement and continued government support policies.
(6) Improve livestock productivity by introducing technical and management
    interventions and introduce alternative feed resources to release pressure on
    the rangeland, and maintain income while reducing the number of animals.
(7) Conservation of around 800-1000 thousand cubic meters of water annually in
    the different water harvesting structures.


Specific Objective 2: Improved the income of the Badia community by
introducing income generating activities, create employment opportunities, and
improved marketing channels.

Expected Outputs
1) New income generating activities targeting the household in particular women
   will be introduced and incentives for their adoption will be provided by the
   project. Such activities might include apiculture (bee keeping), crafting, milk
   processing, ecotourism, and others.
2) A milk processing small plant will be established, after confirmation of its
   feasibility, for the communities to improve the value added of their products.

Specific Objective 3: Development and implementation of incentives support
system for sheep owners and pastoralist to sustain their livestock production
outside the rangeland

Expected Outputs:
(1) An incentive system is adopted by the project and accepted by pastoralists.

Specific Objective 4: Development of a policy and institutional framework for the
implementation of appropriate rangeland conservation and water saving
strategies that will conserve rain water and promote the conservation of natural
resources.

Expected Outputs
1) Analysis of potential policies and institutional constraints and recommended
   policy measures for mainstreaming sustainable rangeland conservation and
   rainwater water management in the national policies, including land tenure
   issues
2) Social, environmental and economic indicators are made available to
   decision-makers and other stakeholders, and use them to assess the project
   impact.




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Specific Objective 5: Enhanced capabilities of national institutions staff and
Badia community members and stakeholders in dealing with rangeland
conservation and rehabilitation and the integrated development of the Badia.

Expected Outputs
1) Project staff, from the implementing national institutions and, other partner
   institutions, qualified for conducting integrated and participatory rangeland
   management and development.
2) Beneficiaries of the project qualified to implement and adopt technologies,
   organize communities to develop collective actions and have effective
   common resource management,
3) Policy makers and relevant decision makers aware of the importance of
   organizing communities in cooperatives or other local organizations for
   sustainable rangeland and rain water management.

5- Project target Area:

The target area is the area that receives between 100 to 200 mm of annual
rainfall in the northern and central Badia. The ecosystem in the area has been
severely degraded due to many factors, most important of which is the damage
due to the Gulf War. The area still has a potential for improvement.

The available data showed that there are 18 watersheds suffer from degradation
and have a potential for rehabilitation and restoration of the destroyed ecosystem.
These watersheds are presented in Figure 1. Annex 3 includes detailed
information on the targeted watersheds that will be addressed by the project. This
information will be updated and verified by project team by visiting the site and
meeting with the target communities; this will be discussed further in the project
implementation phases in this document.

More information and GIS and Google Images on the targeted watersheds are
available in Annex 4 as a hard copy and also available as electronic copy.

6- Project Approach:

      The project will be based on community participation at the different
       stages of the work.
      Watershed will be considered as the working unit for water harvesting and
       soil protection interventions, and plantations
      Multi institutions and multidisciplinary teams.

7- Project Phases and Activities

The project will be implemented in three phases, and the activities will be linked
to these phases. The phases are: (1) Preparatory phase, (2) Intervention
implementation phase, and (3) Location management after intervention phase.
However, these phases are interrelated and integrated and does not indicate a
rigid separation of the activities. Some activities might need to continue and inter
from one phase to the other, for example, if the technical interventions were not
completed in the time allocated for it in phase two due to severe drought or
unexpected circumstances, then the activity will be completed in the following
years which might enter to the third phase. The project duration will be seven
years.




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7-1 Phase I: Preparatory Phase (6 Months):

In this phase baseline information studies on the physical and socioeconomic
characteristics of the targeted watersheds and the communities utilizing the
resources in these watersheds will be conducted.

Activities:

 7.1.1 Biophysical Characterization of potential watersheds (The 18
       watersheds indicated earlier and included in annex 2), this will include:

       - Soil physical and chemical properties, depth, soil degradations and
         cause of degradation, suitability for project interventions (for planting
         shrub and other species).
       - Land characteristic; slope, stones, suitability for water harvesting
         interventions.
       - Ecosystem characteristic: vegetation cover, plant and animal species
         and species diversity, dominant and degraded species, level of plant
         deterioration and their causes, rangeland productivity.
       - Annual rainfall, rainy days, rain storms and intensity.
       - Watershed hydrology.

 7.1.2 Socioeconomic Characterization of the communities utilizing the
       targeted watersheds. This will include:

       - Social and economic information on the households: Household
         composition; men, women, children, their ages and occupations, source
         of income etc. Women role in house income generation
       - Willingness of community members to cooperate with the project.
       - Information related to animals and feed resources: number and types of
         animals, flock size, grazing duration in the rangeland, feeding calendar
         and source of feed, animal movement during the year, major disease
         that affect the flocks. Animal products, marketing channels, milk
         processing.
       - Land tenure: type of land tenure in the targeted watershed; privately
         owned, common property of the tribe (tribal fronts), government
         property.
       - Local institutions: present of local institutions such as cooperatives and
         their role in rangeland management, other local institutions; local
         committee, tribal management arrangements, etc.

   Field visits, soil and plant samples, GIS and RS images will be used to
   document the resource situation before the project interventions. Social and
   economic analysis will be conducted by using Rapid Rural Appraisal,
   Participatory Rural Appraisal approaches, and formal surveys as needed,


7-2 Phase II: Intervention Phase (48 Months)

Based on the information generated in the preparatory phase and the results of
the baseline studies, the watersheds and the communities that will be covered by
the project activities will be identified.

Technical and socio-economic interventions will be identified based on the
detailed analysis of each watershed.


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7.2.1 Technical Interventions:
      - Water harvesting techniques for water conservation and shrub and crop
        plantation using the Vallirani water harvesting machine. The techniques
        might include; Micro catchments, contour ridges and contour strips and
        water spreading.

     - Plantations of shrubs. Drought tolerant native medicinal plants might be
       grown for family use in certain areas, where harvested water is
       adequate.

     - Designs of the small storage earth dams check dams. Haffir (ponds),
       and cisterns and develop tender specifications and develop and sign
       contracts for their implementations.

     - Introduce technologies and management practices to improve livestock
       productivity. (Animal health, improved strains, and milk processing and
       marketing).

     - Introduce income generating activities for community members
       especially women. This will include, but not limited to, the following
       activities: honey bee production, medicinal and herbal plant production
       and processing at home gardens, milk processing, chicken production at
       home gardens, craft work, ecotourism activities and others.

7.2.2 Socioeconomic Interventions:
      - Negotiate with communities and develop and agreed with them on an
        action plan on the water harvesting and plantations interventions to be
        implemented.

     - Negotiate with communities arrangements to reduce their flocks’ size to
       a number that could be accommodated in the rangeland after
       rehabilitation, and agreed on the incentives that will be provided to
       pastoralists for this reduction and for removing their flocks from the
       rangeland during it is rehabilitation and recovery.

     - Feasibility study for the establishment of milk processing plant.

     - Enabling the development of alternative feed sources to support the
       livestock that can not be allowed to graze in community pastures during
       the rangeland recovery period. This will be a result of discussion with
       the communities, which might include in-kind compensations of feed
       (barley grains, tibbin, and wheat barn.

     - Identify potential institutional constraints to the management of large
       catchments (common property management) and assess the options
       for relieving these constraints, including the sustainable community
       resource management options, legislation, policy measures, etc.

     - Conduct analysis of the existing policies regarding the badia areas and
       develop in consultation with different stakeholders and policy makers,
       effective policy options for sustainable rangeland conservation and
       desertification combating in the Badia of Jordan.




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     - Develop with the participation of the community economic, social and
       environment impact indicators to be used to study the project impact at
       the economic, social and environment levels.

7.2.3 Human Capacity Development and Public Awareness Activities:
      Training technical staff at the different levels on the management of
      rangeland, water harvesting, animal disease identification and protection
      etc.

     - Farmers (men and women) training will be given emphasis specially in
       the area of grazing management, animal feeding, animal health, water
       harvesting and livestock product processing. Special attention will be
       given to women especially in areas related to the income generation
       activities which were presented in the previous section.

     - Workshop and seminars for technical staff and farmers to update their
       knowledge in the new development in the field of specialty or interest.

     - Study tours, field days and discussion groups to enhance the knowledge
       on improved natural resource conservation among community
       members, herders, extension agents, and other stakeholders.

     - Database establishment: the project will establish a data base that will
       cover the Badia area and will be an automated data base, easy to store
       the data and retrieve the information. The example that was developed
       by the Benchmark project will be used as model and modified according
       to the major issues addressed by the project. The data base system
       used for the benchmark project is in annex 1.

     - Public awareness program. This program will address the public to raise
       their awareness on the important of Badia and the threats it is facing as
       a result of the irrational use. Also the program will show the Badia
       tourism opportunity and the historical places that Badia accommodate.
       Tools of this program will vary from published materials (leaflets,
       brochures, posters etc), radio and TV programs and alike.

7.2.4 Incentive Systems to Compensate Herders
  One of the major issues that should be considered in the project is that
  rehabilitation of the degraded ecosystem cannot be achieved with continuing
  overgrazing and overstocking of the rangeland. Moreover, the rehabilitation
  efforts will not be successful while the livestock continue to graze the
  degraded rangeland. This situation will not allow for the re-growth of the
  native vegetation of annuals and perennials of legumes and grasses. It does
  not also allow for the establishment and growth of the newly planted shrubs or
  annuals. Therefore, the project strategy in the rehabilitation process will
  consider two approaches; (1) reduction of the small ruminant numbers, and
  (2) keeping livestock out of the degraded rangeland during the rehabilitation
  phase (4 to 5 years).

 In consultation with the community members especially herders, a
 compensation incentive system will be developed, to compensate for the
 reduction in livestock numbers and for the removal of the flocks from the
 degraded rangeland.

 Some of the proposals that might be considered are the followings:


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      1- To support the herders to initiate intensive sheep production system and
          lamb fattening and provide them with in-kind support in the form of feed.
          This will encourage herders to change their production system from the
          extensive (Transhumant) to intensive system in their villages. This
          approach will insure sustainability of the activity.
      2- To compensate for the losses that result from the reduction of flock
          numbers by providing in kind or in cash compensation. These alternatives
          and others should be discussed with herders and arrive to acceptable
          system that the project shall apply. Project budget envisage such program
          and allocate fund for herders compensations.

7-3 Phase III: Location Management after Intervention Phase (30 Months):
This phase will be focusing on the management of the targeted site where
interventions were implemented. The activities under this phase will include the
followings:

    7.3.1 Introduce Cooperative Rangeland Management Approach
    The objective of the cooperative rangeland management component is to
    achieve stocking level to the desired level allowing perennial herbs, grass and
    shrubs to generate and grow the size they were before the Gulf Crisis in a way
    that benefits and strengthens rather than penalise the Bedouin community.
     Building community support by engaging pastoralists in the active
      management of their rangelands with clear outcomes and confidence in
      continued government policy support,
     Instituting a stocking level management system that includes explicit livestock
      numbers per unit area (for example, by grazing permits or other system of
      allocating grazing units to pastoral groups for a specific period in designated
      areas). The system will have verification protocols and will be integrated with
      veterinary and agricultural extension services and a sheep and goat
      registration system.
    7.3.2 Maintenance of Water Harvesting Structures and Planted Shrubs
    Maintenance of the water harvesting structures and the planted areas with
    shrubs will be continues process that will sustain the interventions and extend
    the benefits for years to come. The maintenance will include cleaning the dams
    from sediments, repairing the broken water harvesting micro-catchments due to
    animal movement during grazing, and replacing the dead shrubs. The
    maintenance should be done in full cooperation of the involved communities,
    and community members should be trained by the project on how to do the
    maintenance.

    7.3.3 Economic, social and environment impact assessment.
    Impact Assessment studies will be conducted at the middle and at the end of the
    project life.1


8. Project Management:

The project will be managed by a Project Management Unit which will be
established at NCARE that will be responsible on the administrative, technical
and financial management of all projects supported by the Ministry of
Environment under the Compensation program. The unit will have flexibility in
dealing with urgent issues but will follow NCARE regulations.

1
    For detailed M&E system see section 12 and the Project Logical Framework (section 16)


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9. Partners:

NCARE will be the responsible institution in implementing the project and will
prepare the progress and annual reports and financial statements as described in
the implementation agreement.

NCARE will cooperate with several local institutions in the project implementation
as follows:

Ministry of Agriculture: For the shrub seedling production in the Ministry
       nurseries, animal health, and in policy related issues.

The University of Jordan and Jordan University of Science and Technology:
      specialist in rangeland management, veterinary services and animal
      breeding.

Badia Research and Development Center: utilizing their facilities and station in
      the northern Badia (Rwashed) and benefiting from their staff in organizing
      the Bedouin communities.

Royal Geographic Center: For RS and GIS maps for the watershed and in the
      montoring the changes in the vegetation cover following the interventions.

Hashemite Fund for Badia Development: Benefit from their contacts and
     connections with Badia communities and from their projects implements d
     in the Badia.

Jordan Cooperative Corporation: To Assist in establishing Cooperatives, and
      to benefit from their previous experience in running the rangeland
      cooperatives in Ma’een and Lajun.

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA):
       ICARDA has a long experience and expertise in the Badia development,
       and project related to desertification combating. ICARDA initiated the
       Badia benchmark project and selected Jordan to be the main site for the
       Badia development in the region. In addition several regional projects
       addressing rangeland degradation and desertification combating such as
       the Mashreq/ Maghreb project and the CCD project was implemented by
       ICARDA in Jordan in cooperation with NCARE and other national
       institutions. ICARDA have well known experts in different areas related to
       project activities, beside it is long experience in human capacity building.
       ICARDA will provide the project with senior experts in the following areas:
       Water harvesting, hydrology, Socioeconomics, policy, marketing,
       monitoring and evaluation, project management (reporting and workplan
       development). In addition it will organize training in areas needed by the
       project and fall within the ICARDA expertise.

NCARE will develop a contract with each institution which outlines the term and
conditions of the collaboration.

10. Project Evaluation:
Mid term evaluation of the project will be carried out by a team of experts (2 to 3
experts) to assets the progress that has been. The evaluation will suggest and



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recommend any needed modifications in the work. The evaluation mission shall
take place by the end of the forth year of the project. A final evaluation will be
conducted by the end of the project (year 7) to assess project achievements and
realization of the set objectives.

11. Reporting:
Reporting will be the sole responsibility of NCARE. The following reporting
schedule will be followed:

Technical reporting:
(a) Six monthly progress report..
(b) Annual report by the end of the year
(c) Final consolidated report by the end of the project.
(d) Annual workplan and budget.

Financial reporting:
A financial report will be issued and submitted annually.

12. Monitoring and Evaluation

In general, M&E is a continuum of observation, information gathering, analysis,
documentation, supervision, and assessment. More specifically, monitoring is the
observing or checking of activities and their context, inputs, processes, and
results. It also involves the communication of these results to the appropriate
level of management and the storage of this information for future evaluations.

Monitoring is observing or checking on project activities and their context, results,
and impact. Its goals are (a) to ensure that inputs, work schedules, and outputs
are proceeding according to plan (in other words, that implementation is on
course), (b) to provide a record of input use, activities, and results.

Evaluation is judging, appraising, or determining the worth, value, or quality of a
project, whether it is proposed, on going, or completed. This is done in terms of
its relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and impact.

The proposed overall M&E system will support strategic management and
empowerment of communities, and, at the same time, the PMU and partners
have to manage the development process effectively. This will involve building on
the existing purpose of the M&E system related to accountability (mainly to
donors) and operational management. More emphasis would be needed to also
use the M&E system for downward accountability. The whole project would be
viewed as a strategic initiative to test the arrangements for developing and
enforcing a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to pursuing
sustainable ecosystem conservation including rangeland rehabilitation.
The M&E system will have a two level structure. At the first level it will allow data
to be collected, and at the second level that it be stored and processed before
being returned to the various M&E users.

At level one – collection of data – a performance indicators monitoring network
will be maintained which is directly linked to the beneficiary public and to the
implementation of the components.

At level two – storing and processing of data – the structure will include a spatial



                                         17
storage (data bank) and management information system (MIS) that will make
possible to track project progress so that timely decisions might be taken on
actions piloted locally, as well as on those concerning project management at
different levels.

In this project, "process monitoring" will be implemented since it will develop a
sense of accountability in project staff towards the donors and beneficiaries and
towards their own development needs, solve problems through better
identification, analysis and communication of causes and appropriate solutions,
provide continuity of information and knowledge, and “Empower” communities to
undertake actions that will improve their livelihood and protect the ecosystem.

The main purpose of the project monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system is to
allow the measurement of project impact and progress and subsequent
availability of this information for managers, beneficiaries, partner institutions and
civil society in general.

This purpose will be achieved through tracking changes towards the project
objectives, outputs and inputs, and make changes in the project if necessary
during implementation, hence providing a basis for decision-making, promoting
accountability for resource use against objectives and providing and receiving
feedback from stakeholders, and to generate inputs for dissemination of project
results and lessons learned

The M&E system will cover both, the monitoring and evaluation activities. The
Monitoring activities will cover monitoring the day-to-day activities of the project
based on the selection of indicators and methodologies for the different project
dimensions (socioeconomic and environmental) providing periodic reports; and
monitoring     project    impacts   to    demonstrate    trends     in    rangeland
rehabilitation/degradation and ecosystem protection/deterioration over the life of
project, including environmental, socio-economic, community involvement and
behavior change indicators.

Evaluation activities on the other hand, will complement the monitoring activities
by measuring the effectiveness of actual impact, hence providing feedback and
helping improve the effectiveness of the project.

Monitoring and Evaluation for Impact System
Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (PM&E), which should be implemented in
this project, involves the assessment of change through processes that involve
many people or groups, each of whom is affecting or affected by the impacts
being assessed. Negotiation leads to agreement on how progress should be
measured and the findings acted upon. It is a challenging process for all
concerned as different stakeholders must examine their assumptions about what
constitutes progress – and together deal with the contradictions and conflicts that
can emerge.

The information gathering and organization for the main goal are baseline
surveys that will be undertaken in the preparatory phase (phase 1) of the project.

Defining appropriate communication mechanisms should be based on the
identified information needs of different stakeholders as well as a good
understanding of which media would be most appropriate for each of the different
target groups.



                                         18
Draft M&E findings will be discussed with implementing partners and primary
stakeholders in order to get feedback on accuracy, reach joint conclusions and
agree on next steps. Once the M&E findings are agreed upon, these can be
communicated to funding agencies, cooperating institutions, government
departments and other projects. This second set of final findings will fulfill
accountability needs but can also serve for advocacy purposes.

Adequate institutional arrangements and institutional and human capacity are
essential for any M&E project.

An M&E unit for the project will be established within the socio-economic studies
program at NCARE. The project will provide sufficient resources to guarantee
adequate institutional and human capacity to insure effective functioning of the
unit. The M&E unit should collaborate with M&E units in other co-implementing
institutions (e.g., extension agencies, research centers, private sector
implementers, enterprise development centers) and in decentralized regions
(e.g., provinces and districts, responsible for north and central Badia) where
project activities take place or have influence.

13. Milestones

End of Year 1:
    Biophysical and socioeconomic characterization of potential watersheds
     completed.
    Negotiations with communities completed, and agreed upon intervention
     with the communities determined and incentive system form compensation
     agreed upon.
    Designs of water harvesting interventions are ready for implementation
    Animal disease survey and diagnosis will be conducted and plans for
     interventions will be identified and a vaccination program will be
     implemented.
    Household surveys completed.
    A project database establishment started. will be established.

End of Year 2:
    2000 hectares of degraded rangeland will be rehabilitated by protection and
     plantation with shrubs and annuals using proper micro catchments water
     harvesting structures.
    10 Pound will be constructed with a capacity of 12000-15000 cubic meter of
     water each.
    2 large earth dams will be completed with a capacity of 80000-100000 cubic
     meter of water each.
    20 cisterns will be constructed with a capacity of 50-80 cubic meter of water
     each.
    Livestock health protection program will be implemented in the target area.
    10 small businesses will start.
    10 specialized training courses and workshops will be conducted.
    Folks sizes will be reduced by 20 to 30%.
    Animals are removed from the degraded rangeland areas.
    Incentive system for compensation of pastoralists is developed and
     functioning well.




                                       19
End of Year 3:
    3000 hectares of degraded rangeland will be rehabilitated by protection and
     plantation with shrubs and annuals using proper micro catchments water
     harvesting structures.
    10 Pound will be constructed with a capacity of 12000-15000 cubic meter of
     water each.
    3 large earth dams will be completed with a capacity of 80000-100000 cubic
     meter of water each.
    20 cisterns will be constructed with a capacity of 50-80 cubic meter of water
     each.
    Livestock health protection program will be implemented in the target area.
    10 small businesses will start.
    10 specialized training courses and workshops conducted.
    Communities cooperatives will be established
    Policy and institutional analysis study will be completed.

End of Year 4:
    3000 hectares of degraded rangeland will be rehabilitated by protection and
     plantation with shrubs and annuals using proper micro catchments water
     harvesting structures.
    10 Pound will be constructed with a capacity of 12000-15000 cubic meter of
     water each.
    3 large earth dams will be completed with a capacity of 80000-100000 cubic
     meter of water each.
    20 cisterns will be constructed with a capacity of 50-80 cubic meter of water
     each.
    10 small businesses will start.
    10 specialized training courses and workshops conducted.
    Social, environment and economic impact indicators will be completed.
    Mid-term project review will be conducted.

End of Year 5:
    2000 hectares of degraded rangeland will be rehabilitated by protection and
     plantation with shrubs and annuals using proper micro catchments water
     harvesting structures..
    10 Pound will be constructed with a capacity of 12000-15000 cubic meter of
     water each.
    2 large earth dams will be completed with a capacity of 80000-100000 cubic
     meter of water each.
    20 cisterns will be constructed with a capacity of 50-80 cubic meter of water
     each.
    10 small businesses will start.
    10 specialized training courses and workshops conducted.
    Grazing management plan will be developed and implemented by
     community cooperatives.

End of Year 6:
    Grazing management plan will be developed and implemented by
     community cooperatives.
    5 small businesses will start.
    5 specialized training courses and workshops conducted.
    Maintenance of water harvesting structures will be conducted.




                                       20
End of Year 7:
    Grazing management plan will be developed and implemented community
     by cooperatives.
    5 small businesses will start.
    5 specialized training courses and workshops conducted.
    Maintenance of water harvesting structures will be conducted.
    Economic, social and environment impact assessment studies will be
      performed.
    Final evaluation of the project will be conducted.


14- Estimated Budget

The required budget for the implementation of the project for five years duration is
estimated at 10266.70 thousand US$. Details on the different budget items are
presented in Tables 1,2, 3 and 4. The Tables are also available with more details
in annex 5 in an Excel format.




                                        21
Table 1: Estimated Budget (1000 US$) for the seven years duration of the project. (More details in annex 5)

              Item               Year 1    Year 2    Year 3    Year 4    Year 5    Year 6    Year 7    Total                 Budget Notes
Personnel +                                                                                            2603.4    Project manager, hired staff, labor,
                                   388.2    372.6     360.6     360.6     372.6    388.2     360.6               and local consultants.
Operational costs                  100       75        75        75        75          75     50        525      Materials for field work, reports and
                                                                                                                 bulletin production
Shrub plantation and               20        30        30        30        20          20     20        170      Seedling and plantation costs and
maintenance activities                                                                                           maintenance of sites.
Travel cost                        75       100        100       100      100          50     50        575      Vehicles and machine maintenance
                                                                                                                 and staff perdiems
Capital equipment *               750       450                                                        1200      Vehicles, Tractors and other
                                                                                                                 equipments
Contracted Services                150      750        750       300      150                          2100      Constructions of WH structures
                                                                                                                 (Dams and Haffirs), contracts with
                                                                                                                 local construction comp.
Income generating activities                100        60        60        60          60     20        360      Support the initiation of income
                                                                                                                 generating activities and sustaining
                                                                                                                 them
Pastorals compensation                       50        100       100      100          100    50        500
fund
ICARDA back stopping **            105      112.5     56.25     93.75     56.25    63.75     97.50      585      Technical expertise and services and
                                                                                                                 human capacity development
                                                                                                                 activities
Human capacity building                      75        75        75        30          30     10        295      Training courses, study tours, public
                                                                                                                 awareness programs, etc
Meetings, traveling                10        30        30        30        20          10     10        140
workshops and seminars
Feasibility study for the milk     30                                                                   30
processing plant
Milk processing plant                       150                                                         150      If the feasibility study support the
                                                                                                                 establishment of such plant
Project evaluation                                               50                            50        100
Total                            1628.20   2295.10   1636.85   1274.35   983.85    796.95    668.10    9333.40
Contingency around 10%                                                                                  933.30   Any emergency situation, inflation etc
Grand Total                                                                                           10266.70




                                                                                  22
Table 2: Capital equipments estimated budget

                     Item                      Number                   Cost 1000 US$
                                                                 Unit cost          Total cost
Vallarani WH Machine*                             4                   45                 180
Laser Guide devices*                              4                   25                 100
Tractors 120 HP*                                  4                   75                 300
Pick up vehicles                                  8                   30                 240
GPS devices                                       10                    0.600               6
Auto weather stations                             10                  15                 150
GIS Maps                                                                                   74
Miscellaneous tools and equipment                                                        150
Total                                                                                   1200
        These equipments will be used for the construction of micro-catchments water harvesting
         structures where shrubs will be planted.




Table 3: Project staff cost estimates (US$)

             Staff                Number                         Cost in US$
                                               Monthly cost      Number of         Total costs
                                                per person         months           (000 US$)
                                                                  required
Project manager                       1             2000               84             168
Specialists in soil (1), water            21        1200              930            1116
(2), machinery (1), rangeland
(1), animal production (1),
animal health (1),
socioeconomics (2), GIS (1 for
6 months), extension (2)
Local consultants in rangeland,       2             6000            12 months           72
GIS
Drivers                                 6            600               504            302.4
Casual labors                        15              450              1260            567
Administrative staff                  5              900               420            378
Total                                                                                2603.4




                                               23
Table 4: ICARDA technical backstopping and services provided to the project with their
            estimated costs.

Field of Expertise               No of days       Total costs
                                during project    US$
                                   durations
Water harvesting expert                  120      90.00         Costs is 750US$
                                                                per day including
                                                                consultancy fee,
                                                                travel and
                                                                accommodation
Hydrology expert                          60      45.00

Socioeconomics                           270      202.50
/marketing/policy/Impact
Assessment
Project management expert                190      142.50
(Reporting and workplan
development etc)
Specialized training                              105.00        Training courses
on: water harvesting, grazing                                   and dates and
management, monitoring and                                      training costs will be
evaluation, and needed                                          discussed and
areas.                                                          agreed at the time
                                                                of training
Total                                             585




                                                 24
           15. Time Schedule for Project Implementation

Activity                                              Y1    Y2   Y3   Y4   Y5   Y6   Y7
Phase I: preparatory phase (six months):
Biophysical characterization of potential
watersheds
Socioeconomic characterization of the
communities utilizing the targeted watersheds.
Phase II: Intervention phase (48 Months):
Technical interventions:

Implementation of water harvesting techniques
for water conservation and shrub and crop
plantation.
Plantations of shrubs and drought tolerant native
medicinal plants and annual legumes and
grasses.

Designs and contract the implementation of
small storage earth dams, Haffir (ponds), and
cisterns.
Introduce technologies and management
practices to improve livestock productivity.
Income generating activities for community
members especially women.
Socioeconomic interventions:
Negotiate with communities and develop and
agreed with them on an action plan on the
interventions to be implemented.
Negotiate with communities arrangements and
incentives plan to reduce their flocks’ size and to
remove flocks during rehabilitation period.
Feasibility study for the establishment of milk
processing plant.
Development of alternative feed sources to
support the livestock outside the rangeland
Identify institutions and their activities and
constraints.
Conduct policies analysis and develop effective
policy options.
Develop economic, social and environment
impact indicators.
Human Capacity Development and Public
Awareness Activities:
Training technical staff at the different levels
Training community members, stakeholders,
and sheep owners.
Workshop and seminars.
Database establishment.
Public awareness program.
3 Phase III: Location management after
intervention phase (30 months):
Introduce cooperative rangeland management
approach.
Maintenance of water harvesting structures and
planted shrubs.
Monitoring and Evaluation.
Conduct economic, social and environment
impact assessment.
Mid-term Evaluation and final Evaluation




                                                           25
16. Project Logical Framework

Narrative Summary                                                     Objectively Verified Indicators            Means of Verifications           Assumptions& Risk
General Objective (Goal):                                             Ecosystem recovered and                    -National and project           Assuming financial support
To protect the environment, combat desertification and improve        environment of the target areas            statistics and results.         is sufficient and national
the livelihood of the Badia people.                                   protected, and household livelihood        -Survey                         institutions collaborate fully
                                                                      improved in the pilot areas as a result
                                                                      of project interventions.
Specific Objective 1:                                                 - By the end of the project 10000 ha       - Project reports,              - Assuming financial support
Conservation of the natural resource base and improve the               of the degraded rangeland areas          - Project evaluation              is sufficient and national
ecosystem integrity in selected areas of the Jordan Badia.              will be rehabilitated by protection        missions reports                institutions collaborate
                                                                        and technical interventions.             - Community members               fully
                                                                      - By the end of the project 40 pounds,       interviews                    - No conflicts will occur
                                                                        10 earth dams, and 80 cisterns, and      - Sheep owners statements         among the communities in the
                                                                        other water harvesting structures          and judgments                   target area.
                                                                        will be established.                     - Data on plant recovery        - Activate economic integrity
                                                                      - Biodiversity will be improved.                                             by-law
                                                                      - Number of the small ruminants will
                                                                        be decreased by 25-30%, or as the
                                                                        rangeland status required.
                                                                      - Livestock will be removed from the
                                                                        degraded rangeland and
                                                                        pastoralists will be provided with
                                                                        proper incentives to sustain the
                                                                        productivities of their flocks.
                                                                      - Productivity per head of small
                                                                        ruminants will be increased by 20-
                                                                        30%.
Specific Objective 2:                                                 - Income of the household will             - Surveys results.              -Enhancing marketing
Improved the income of the Badia community by introducing               increase by 10-20% as a result of        - Interviews with               capacity for the established
income generating activities, create employment opportunities,          the introduced income generating           community members.            projects
and improved marketing channels.                                        activities.                              - Project reports
                                                                      - 40-50 new businesses started by
                                                                        the target communities.
Specific Objective 3:                                                 - Small ruminants removed from the         - Surveys results.              -enforcing the land-use
Development and implementation of an incentives support                 degraded rangeland.                      - Interviews with               regualtions
system for sheep owners and pastoralist to sustain their              - Pastoralists got incentives by             community members.
livestock production outside the rangeland.                             proving them with feed to                - Project reports
                                                                        compensate for the feed their flocks
                                                                        got from grazing the rangeland.
Specific Objective 4:                                                 - Study the current policies and           - Document of the studies       -adequate climate conditions
Development of a policy and institutional framework for the             existing institutions in the Badia and     and the impact
implementation of appropriate rangeland conservation and                suggestions for their improvement.         assessment
water saving strategies that will conserve rain water and             - Impact assessment studies
promote the conservation of natural resources.

Specific Objective 5:                                                 - Communities’ capability in Badia         - Training materials and        Available funding and
Enhanced capabilities of national institutions staff and                development and sustainable                evaluation reports            community participate in the
Badia community members and stakeholders in dealing                     resource management issues and           - Survey results on farmers     capacity building program
with natural resource conservation and integrated                       application of results increased.          participation in technology
                                                                      - Project staff capacity in water            transfer.
development of the Badia.                                               harvesting, livestock, and grazing       - Project reports.
                                                                        management improved.                     - Media coverage and
                                                                      - Communications and interaction             public interviews.
                                                                        between and among communities
                                                                        and technical staff improved.
                                                                      - Better public awareness levels on
                                                                        Badia threats and potential
                                                                      - Around 50 training courses,
                                                                        seminars, workshops, visits, and
                                                                        public awareness activities will be
                                                                        completed.
Outputs:                                                              See Milestones, section 10 in the
                                                                      document.
Specific Objective 1
Outputs
1) Rehabilitation of around 10000 ha of degraded rangeland
     by planting shrubs and annual legumes and grasses using
     proper water harvesting techniques, and different
     managements and protection measures.
2) Techniques for providing sustainable supplies of water
     from rainfall run-off for the improvement of rangeland,
     and for community use, and methodologies for
     designing and implementing such techniques at the
     watershed level, are identified and successfully
     implemented.
3) Reduce the number of small ruminant (sheep and goats)
     accommodated in the rangeland and those incoming into
     the Badia by around 25-30% of their original number, to a
     level that will not negatively affect the natural resource and
     damage the ecosystem, and maintain a balance between
     the rangeland productivity and sustainability.
(4) Prevent the entry of small ruminants to the degraded
     rangeland during the rehabilitation process, until it is
     recovery and a grazing management arrangements
     finalized and agreed with the communities and
     pastoralists.
(5) Community organizations (Cooperatives, local institutions)
     developed and managed rangeland utilization in a
     sustainable manner, with active pastoralist engagement
     and continued government support policies.
(6) Improve livestock productivity by introducing technical and
     management interventions and introduce alternative feed
     resources to release pressure on the rangeland, and
     maintain income while reducing the number of animals.
(7) Conservation of around 800-1000 thousand cubic meters of
     water annually in the different water harvesting structures.

Specific Objective 2
Outputs
                                                                                      26
(1) New income generating activities targeting the household in
    particular women will be introduced and incentives for their
    adoption will be provided by the project. Such activities
    might include apiculture (bee keeping), crafting, milk
    processing, ecotourism, and others.
(2) A milk processing small plant will be established, after
    confirmation of its feasibility, for the communities to
    improve the value added of their products.




                                                                   27
Specific Objective 3
Outputs
(2) An incentive system is adopted by the project and
    accepted by pastoralists.

Specific Objective 4
Outputs
(1) Analysis of potential policies and institutional constraints
    and recommended policy measures for mainstreaming
    sustainable rangeland conservation and rainwater water
    management in the national policies
(2) Social, environmental and economic indicators are made
    available to decision-makers and other stakeholders, and
    use them to assess the project impact at the last year of
    the project.
Specific Objective 5
Outputs
(1) Project staff from the implementing national institutions and
     other partner institutions qualified for conducting integrated
     and     participatory     rangeland       management       and
     development and are able to monitor and evaluate the
     progress and performance of similar projects.
(2) Beneficiaries of the project qualified to implement adopted
     technologies, organize communities to develop collective
     actions    and     have     effective     common      resource
     management,
(3) Policy makers and relevant decision makers aware of the
     importance of changing policies to improve water
     management and able to use modern tools for
     developing new policies.




            Annual Project Report to IFAD

                                                                                                                       DRAFT
                                               Community-Based Optimization of the Management of Scarce Water
                                               Resources in Agriculture in Central and West Asia and North Africa
                                                                             Project
                                                                (Water Benchmarks of CWANA)
                                                                                       4th Annual Progress Report
                                                                                                                     2006-07
                                                                                           Financed by:
                                                                     International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
                                                                    Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD)
                                                                        OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID)
                                                     International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
                                                                               (ICARDA)

Table of Contents
LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................................15
LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................................16
1.1 BADIA BENCHMARK SITE–JORDAN ............................................................................................21
A. PROGRESS OF WORK ...................................................................................................................... 21
Introduction................................................................................................................. ............................................ 21
General Objective .................................................................................................................................. ................. 21
Purpose ................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Outputs.................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Progress and achievements ....................................................................................................................... 22
Activity 3.1: Implementation of water harvesting interventions ............................................................ 22
Objectives................................................................................................................... ............................................. 22
Outputs.................................................................................................................................................................... 22
Methodology ................................................................................................................. .......................................... 22
Results and discussion: ..................................................................................................... ...................................... 24
3.1.1 Mapping and general characterization........................................................................................................... 26
Objective ................................................................................................................... .............................................. 26
Output ........................................................................................................................... .......................................... 26
Methodology: .......................................................................................................................................................... 26
Results and discussion: ..................................................................................................... ...................................... 26
Site mapping.............................................................................................................................26
Project sites characterization ................................................................................................................................. 27
a. Generalized site description................................................................................................................................ 28
b. Soil Description................................................................................................................................................... 28
c. The dominant soil types....................................................................................................................................... 28
3.1.2 Monitoring ..................................................................................................................................................... 31
Objectives................................................................................................................................................................ 31
Outputs.................................................................................................................................................................... 31
Methodology ................................................................................................................. .......................................... 31
Weather and rainfall data .........................................................................................................31
Soil data ...................................................................................................................................31
Results and discussion: .............................................................................................................................. ............. 32

                                                                                                                             28
Weather and crop water requirements data..............................................................................32
Rainfall data................................................................................................................ ............................................ 36
Mharib Site: ..............................................................................................................................36
Al-Majidiyya Site: ............................................................................................................. ........38
Soil data .................................................................................................................................................................. 40
Soil Analysis:............................................................................................................... .............40
Wetted Soil Depth and/or Soil Moisture: ..................................................................................42
Soil Bulk Density:......................................................................................................................42
Infiltration Rate: .......................................................................................................... .............43
Activity 3.2: Demonstration of micro-catchments and fodder plantation for increasing range
production in the Badia of Jordan ..................................................................................................... 44
Introduction............................................................................................................................................................. 44
Objectives................................................................................................................... ............................................. 45
Outputs...................................................................................................................................................... .............. 45
Materials and methods............................................................................................................................................ 45
Study sites.................................................................................................................................45
Treatments................................................................................................................................45
Measured variables........................................................................................................... ...................................... 45
Survival ............................................................................................................................. .......46
Biomass production....................................................................................................... ............46
4
Rain use efficiency ....................................................................................................................46
Experimental design and data analysis.....................................................................................46
Results and Discussion....................................................................................................... ..................................... 46
Survival ....................................................................................................................................46
Dry matter production ....................................................................................................... ..................................... 47
Browse weight..........................................................................................................................4 7
Rain use efficiency .................................................................................................................................................. 48
Conclusions.................................................................................................................. ........................................... 48
Acknowledgement ................................................................................................................................................... 48
References................................................................................................................... ............................................ 49
Activity 3.3: Demonstration of micro-catchments WH for increasing barley productivity................... 50
Objective ................................................................................................................................................................. 50
Output ...................................................................................................................... ............................................... 50
Methodology ............................................................................................................................. .............................. 50
Results..................................................................................................................................................................... 51
Recommendations:............................................................................................................. ..................................... 51
Activity 3.4: Natural vegetation and biodiversity conservation.............................................................. 52
Introduction: ............................................................................................................... ............................................ 52
Causes of rangeland degradation ............................................................................................................................ 52
Objectives................................................................................................................................................................ 52
Outputs.................................................................................................................................................................... 53
Biodiversity study sub component........................................................................................................................... 53
Methodology ........................................................................................................................................................... 53
Results and discussion: ..................................................................................................... ...................................... 54
Vegetation cover percentage.................................................................................................. ...54
Plant species .............................................................................................................................55
Annuals and perennials....................................................................................................... ......58
Species richness ...................................................................................................................................................... 59
Richness .................................................................................................................... ...............60
Evenness...................................................................................................................................60
Diversity indices............................................................................................................ ............60
SIMPSON’S Diversity indices...................................................................................................60
Simpson’s index of diversity 1–D............................................................................................................................. 60
Simpson’s reciprocal index 1/D.............................................................................................................................. 60
SHANNON’S H and E...............................................................................................................61
Activity 3.5: Demonstration of micro-catchments WH for increasing fruit tress and shrub
productivity......................................................................................................................................... 62
Site Specification........................................................................................................... .......................................... 62
Objectives....................................................................................................................................................... ......... 62
Outputs............................................................................................................... ..................................................... 62
Methodology ................................................................................................................. .......................................... 62
a. Runoff basins and Semicircular bunds experiment .............................................................................................. 63
b. Contour Ridges Experiment ................................................................................................ ................................ 63
Results...................................................................................................................... ............................................... 64
Runoff basins and semicircular bunds experiment....................................................................64
Contour Ridges experiment.................................................................................................... ...65
Recommendations ................................................................................................................................................... 66
Runoff basins and Semicircular bunds experiment ...................................................................66
Contour Ridges experiment.................................................................................................................................... . 66
Activity 3.6: Mechanization water harvesting structure and transplanting shrub seedlings................ 66
Objectives..................................................................................................................................... ........................... 66
Activities.................................................................................................................................................................. 66
3.6.1 Implementation of VWH.................................................................................................. ............................... 66
Monitoring and evaluation of Vallerani machine over large areas......................................................................... 66
5
Performance parameters of the machine:................................................................................................................ 67
Fuel consumption:............................................................................................................ ....................................... 69
Introducing a mechanized transplanting option to the WH system.......................................................................... 70
3.6.2 Establishment of Atriplex from young seedlings ............................................................................................. 70
Treatments................................................................................................................................70
Sub-Treatments .................................................................................................................. .......71
Split Variables: ...................................................................................................................... ...71
Lay out: ................................................................................................................................................................... 71
Approach..................................................................................................................... .............71
Parameters assessed:.............................................................................................................................................. 71
Preliminary results: ........................................................................................................ ........................................ 71
3.6.3 Mechanization of Transplanting:........................................................................................ ........................... 73
3.6.4 Introducing a tractor Laser-guiding system.................................................................................................... 74
Activity 3.7: Database management and updating ................................................................................. 82
Introduction............................................................................................................................................................. 82

                                                                                                                             29
GIS Mapping of the intervention sites...................................................................................................................... 82
Data collection and entry.................................................................................................... .................................... 85
3.1 A. Intervention sites........................................................................................................................................... 85
B. Rainfall data ............................................................................................................ ........................................... 87
Dynamic link to access available data..................................................................................................................... 87
Project output 4. Analysis of potential economic and institutional constraints and recommended policy
measures to support the integration of water harvesting in agricultural systems.............................................. 90
4.1 Conduct of analysis of the existing policies and institutional setups that govern the Badia and develop
alternative options, which Support the integration of water harvesting within the production system.............. 90
4.2 Development of Quantifiable Indicators. ........................................................................................................... 90
4.3. Conduct an economic cost-benefit analysis of the introduced interventions for their direct and indirect
impact....................................................................................................................... ......................................... 90
4.4 Modeling Water Allocations .............................................................................................. ................................ 90
4.5 Technology Adoption and Impact (Ex-Post) ...................................................................................................... 90
Activity 4.3: Cost-Benefit analysis of water harvesting techniques ....................................................... 90
Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... ...... 90
DESCRIPTION OF WATER HARVESTING TECHNIQUES .....................................................................92
Contour ridges:.................................................................................................................... ................................... 92
Runoff strips:........................................................................................................................................................... 92
2.1 Demonstrated Technologies ................................................................................................................ 92
2.1.1. Barley Cultivation .......................................................................................................................... 92
2.1.2. Fodder Shrubs............................................................................................................................... 93
3. Objectives .............................................................................................................................................. 94
4. Methodology .......................................................................................................................................... 94
4.1. Break-Even Analysis........................................................................................................................ 94
4.2 Benefit -Cost Analysis ............................................................................................................................... ........ 94
4.3 Assumptions of Cash Flow Calculation ............................................................................................................. 95
Results and discussion ...................................................................................................... ...................................... 96
5.1 Results of barley cultivations ..............................................................................................96
5.2 Results of fodder shrubs................................................................................................. ................................... 99
6. References............................................................................................................................................ 104
Project output 5. Enhanced capabilities of national programs and the integration of researchers,
extensions, farmers, and decision-makers in a regional program for sustainable management of water
resources. .................................................................................................................. ...................................... 105
Activity 5.1: Technology dissemination................................................................................................. 105
Objectives.............................................................................................................. ................................................ 105
Outputs.................................................................................................................................................................. 105
Results................................................................................................................................................... ................ 105
6
5.1.1: Field days......................................................................................................................105
5.1.2: Regional visits...............................................................................................................105
Farmers and Researchers from Jordan visited Syria..............................................................105
Farmers and Researchers from Syria visited Jordan..............................................................106
5.1.3: Dissemination of the Vallerani system..........................................................................106
Activity 5.2: Public awareness............................................................................................................... 106
Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................. 106
Outputs.................................................................................................................................................................. 106
Results................................................................................................................................................................... 106
Newspapers awareness articles ..............................................................................................106
Documentary film............................................................................................................. .......107
Activity 5.3: human capacity development............................................................................................ 107
Activity 5.4: Project staff meetings ........................................................................................................ 107
B. WORPLAN FOR THE 2007–’08 SEASON...................................................................................... 107
Project output 3: Techniques for providing sustainable supplies of water from rainfall run-off for economic
production from rangeland, field crops and fruit trees and methodologies for designing and
implementing such techniques at the field and watershed levels...................................................................... 107
Activity 3.1: Implementation of water harvesting interventions .......................................................... 107
Soil and water conservation activities ................................................................................................................... 107
3.1.1 Maintenance of implemented WH interventions: .......................................................................................... 108
Objectives................................................................................................................... ........................................... 108
Expected Outputs ............................................................................................................................. ..................... 108
3.1.2 Implementing drainage-way shaping and stabilization ................................................................................ 108
Objectives................................................................................................................... ........................................... 108
Expected Outputs .................................................................................................................................................. 108
3.1.3 Monitoring ................................................................................................................................................... 109
Objectives................................................................................................................... ........................................... 109
Expected Outputs .................................................................................................................................................. 109
Methodology ................................................................................................................. ........................................ 109
Weather and rainfall data ................................................................................................... ....109
Soil data .................................................................................................................................109
3.1.4 Implementation of water harvesting interventions........................................................................................ 110
Objectives: ............................................................................................................................................................ 110
Expected Outputs:............................................................................................................ ..................................... 110
3.1.5 Mapping and general characterization................................................................................... ...................... 110
Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................. 110
Expected Outputs ............................................................................................................ ...................................... 110
Requirements................................................................................................................. ........................................ 111
Activity 3.2: Demonstration of micro-catchments and fodder plantation for increasing range
production in the Badia of Jordan. .................................................................................................. 111
Suggested Activities: ............................................................................................................................................. 111
Determine percent canopy cover for:......................................................................................112
Sampling Guidelines:..............................................................................................................112
Data entry: ................................................................................................................. .............112
Determine species frequency................................................................................................................................. 112
Data entry: ................................................................................................................. .............112
Species richness ............................................................................................................ ..........112
Data entry ...............................................................................................................................112
Biomass Determination........................................................................................................ ................................. 112
Total and grazable biomass for: .............................................................................................112
Activities for determination of total and grazable biomass of shrubs.................................................................... 112

                                                                                                                             30
Biomass prediction equation................................................................................................................................. 113
Activities to achieve the above task: .......................................................................................113
Data entry ...............................................................................................................................114
Rain-use Efficiency ............................................................................................................................................... 114
7
Grazing ................................................................................................................................................................. 114
Recommendation................................................................................................................................................... 114
Activity 3.3: Demonstration of micro-catchments WH for increasing barley productivity................. 115
Objectives............................................................................................................................................. ................. 115
Expected output..................................................................................................................................................... 115
Methodology ................................................................................................................. ........................................ 115
3.3.1 Planting barley using different seeding rates and water harvesting techniques........................................... 115
3.3.2 Planting barley at farmers’ fields by using traditional method. ................................................................... 115
Data Collection:...................................................................................................................... .............................. 115
Equipments............................................................................................................................................................ 115
Activity 3.5: Demonstration of micro-catchments WH for increasing fruit tress and shrub
productivity....................................................................................................................................... 116
3.5.1 Water harvesting demonstrations for fruit trees at Al-Manshia Village ....................................................... 116
Objectives: ............................................................................................................................................................ 116
Methodology ................................................................................................................. ........................................ 116
Demonstration Sites ......................................................................................................... .......116
Activities.................................................................................................................................116
Team Members:................................................................................................................ .......117
3.5.2 Demonstration of micro-catchments WH for increasing fruit tress and shrub productivity at Jordan
University of Science and Technology (JUST) ................................................................................................. 117
Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................. 117
Methodology ................................................................................................................. ........................................ 117
Activities................................................................................................................... ..............117
Research Team:.......................................................................................................................118
Activity 3.6: Mechanization water harvesting structure and transplanting shrub seedlings.............. 118
Team Members:.......................................................................................................................119
University of Jordan......................................................................................................... .......119
Activity 3.7: Database management and updating ............................................................................... 119
Activity 4. 1: Institutional, policy and market reforms options for the Badia ..................................... 119
Justification........................................................................................................................................................... 119
Objectives................................................................................................................... ........................................... 119
Activities................................................................................................................................................................ 119
Expected outputs:.................................................................................................................................................. 120
Activity 4. 2: Monitoring technology transfer....................................................................................... 120
Justification: ......................................................................................................................................................... 120
Objectives................................................................................................................... ........................................... 120
Activities................................................................................................................... ............................................. 120
Expected outputs ................................................................................................................................................... 120
Activity 4. 3: Environmental impact and economic viability of water harvesting technologies.......... 121
Justification................................................................................................................................... ........................ 121
Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................. 121
Activities................................................................................................................... ............................................. 121
Expected Output.................................................................................................................................................... 121
5.1 Community- based technology dissemination and sustainability..................................................................... 122
Community participation in technology dissemination:......................................................................................... 122
5.2 Public Awareness program............................................................................................................................. 122
5.3. Human Resource Capacity Building........................................................................................ ....................... 123
C. NATIONAL WORKING TEAM ...................................................................................................... 125
II. RAINFED BENCHMARK AND SATELLITE SITES..........................................................126
2.1. Rainfed Benchmark Site–Morocco.................................................................................................. 126
Expected outputs of the project .............................................................................................................................. 126
Activities................................................................................................................... ............................................. 126
A. PROGRESS OF WORK .................................................................................................................... 127
8
Activity 3: Assess ex-ante impact of new options of supplemental irrigation system .......................... 127
Introduction........................................................................................................................................................... 127
Output of the activity: ........................................................................................................................................... 127
Methodology ................................................................................................................. ........................................ 128
Wheat varieties adapted to supplemental irrigation ...............................................................128
Optimum Nitrogen rate ....................................................................................................... ....128
Optimum planting date............................................................................................................128
Deficit irrigation .......................................................................................................... ...........128
Achievements......................................................................................................................................................... 128
Marginal analysis ........................................................................................................... ........129
Partial budget for Nitrogen trials ...........................................................................................129
Dominance analysis for Nitrogen trials ..................................................................................129
Marginal analysis for Nitrogen trials .....................................................................................130
Conclusion .................................................................................................................. .......................................... 131
References................................................................................................................... .......................................... 131
Activity 4: Analyze existing policies and institutional setups regarding improving water use
efficiency and develop recommendations for improvement;........................................................... 131
Final report on water policy in Morocco: Current situation and future perspectives ........................................... 131
Output of the activity: ........................................................................................................................................... 132
Methodology ......................................................................................................................................................... 132
Achievements................................................................................................................. ........................................ 133
I–Water sector in Morocco ..................................................................................................... .............................. 133
1–Main actors .........................................................................................................................133
2. A constraining natural context............................................................................................ .............................. 134
3. Relatively limited potentialities............................................................................................................. ............ 135
4. A harmonious hydraulic infrastructure policy ................................................................................................... 135
II. The legislation of water.................................................................................................................................... 136
1. The code of agricultural investments ................................................................................................................. 137
2. Structures of intervention in the field of irrigation ............................................................................................ 137
3. Impressive achievements................................................................................................................................... 138
3.1. Large-scale irrigation (LSI):.......................................................................................................................... 138

                                                                                                                            31
3.1.1 Involvement of farmer organisations in water management:........................................................................ 140
3.2 The Small and the medium-scale irrigation (SMSI)......................................................................................... 141
3.4 The private irrigation: an evolution towards modern technology ................................................................... 142
3.5 Efficient use of water..................................................................................................................... .................. 142
III Impacts of the irrigated agriculture in Morocco............................................................................................... 143
IV Conclusion: future perspectives? ...................................................................................................................... 144
References............................................................................................................................................................. 146
ACTIVITY 5. Develop, test and promote production techniques, alternative innovative
approaches and practical tools such as models and decision support systems giving
enhanced output per unit of water. .................................................................................................. 146
Introduction........................................................................................................................................................... 146
Output of the activity: ........................................................................................................................................... 147
Sub-Activity.5.1. Test of wheat varieties under supplemental irrigation ............................................. 147
Methodology: ................................................................................................................ ........................................ 147
Achievements................................................................................................................. ........................................ 147
Sub-Activity 5.2. Optimum planting date of wheat under supplemental irrigation............................. 147
Methodology ................................................................................................................. ........................................ 148
Achievements............................................................................................................................................... .......... 148
Sub-activity 5.3. Effect of increasing Nitrogen rate on wheat ............................................................. 148
Methodology ................................................................................................................. ........................................ 148
Achievements......................................................................................................................................................... 148
Sub-activity 5.4. Deficit irrigation on wheat ......................................................................................... 149
Methodology ..................................................................................................................................... .................... 149
9
Achievements......................................................................................................................................................... 149
Sub-Activity 5.5. Effect of planting date on sugar beet production ..................................................... 152
Methodology ......................................................................................................................................................... 152
Achievements................................................................................................................. ........................................ 152
Sub-Activity 5.6. Fertigation of citrus (Bradia) .................................................................................... 152
Methodology ......................................................................................................................................................... 152
Achievements................................................................................................................. ........................................ 154
Assessment of installation .......................................................................................................154
Climatic data................................................................................................................ ......................................... 154
Establishment of irrigation and fertigation program............................................................................................. 154
Soil moisture ......................................................................................................................................................... 155
Physiological parameters ..................................................................................................................................... 156
Vegetative growth ........................................................................................................... ...................................... 156
Sub-Activity 5.7. Development of decision tools: Calibration, Validation and evaluation of
Cropsyst model ................................................................................................................................. 157
Introduction........................................................................................................................................................... 157
Methodology ................................................................................................................. ........................................ 157
Achievements......................................................................................................................................................... 157
Planting date...........................................................................................................................157
Variety...................................................................................................................... ..............159
Deficit irrigation ................................................................................................................................................... 159
Training workshop ........................................................................................................... ..................................... 161
Field day (detailed report is available).................................................................................................................. 162
B. WORKPLAN FOR THE 2007–’08 SEASON................................................................................... 162
C. NATIONAL WORKING TEAM ...................................................................................................... 162
2.2. SATELLITE SITE–ALGERIA.......................................................................................................163
Global objective of the project.............................................................................................................................. 163
Specific objectives................................................................................................................................................. 163
A. PROGRESS OF WORK .................................................................................................................... 164
General activities and meetings............................................................................................................. 164
ACTIVITY 1. COLLECTION OF GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE SITELITE SITE........... 164
Geographical and administrative situation.......................................................................................................... .. 164
Borders..................................................................................................................... ............................................. 164
Soil characteristics......................................................................................................... ....................................... 164
Forestry sector (See Annex 1)............................................................................................................................... 164
Topography................................................................................................................... ........................................ 164
Soil occupation.............................................................................................................. ........................................ 165
Water resources (Annexes 3–6) ............................................................................................................................. 165
General information concerning agricultural sector in Khemisti commune.......................................................... 165
Socio-economic aspects ................................................................................................................. ....................... 165
General statistics .................................................................................................................................................. 166
ACTIVITIES 2. CARACTERISATION OF THE SITE AND THE FARMS..................................... 166
Water and irrigation parameters ........................................................................................................................... 166
Long-term monthly climatic data (Annexes 24–25) ............................................................................................... 166
Amount of wastewater used................................................................................................................................... 166
Durum wheat yields .......................................................................................................... .................................... 166
Agricultural practices ........................................................................................................................................... 166
Tillage and sowing ..................................................................................................................166
Basic fertilization (phosphorus)............................................................................................. ............................... 167
Sowing................................................................................................................................................................... 167
Nitrogen fertilization............................................................................................................................................. 167
Weed control ................................................................................................................ ......................................... 167
10
Harvest.................................................................................................................................................................. 167
Destination of corn production .............................................................................................................................. 167
Durum wheat transformation................................................................................................... ............................. 167
Economic performances of the farm ...................................................................................................................... 1 68
Production costs (Annex 26) ................................................................................................. ..168
Cost/benefit ................................................................................................................ .............168
Wastewater characterization ................................................................................................................................ 168
ACTIVITY 3. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF THE TREATED WASTWATER USED
AND OF THE SOIL......................................................................................................................... 169
Physico-chemical analyses of the soil and wastewater.......................................................................................... 169
Physical analysis of the soil ....................................................................................................169
Before irrigation of site 1 (Annex 28) .................................................................................................................... 169
Interpretation of the results.....................................................................................................169
                                                                                                                           32
Before irrigation of site 2 (Annex 29) .................................................................................................................... 169
Interpretation of the results.....................................................................................................169
Analyses of Wastewater ...................................................................................................... .................................. 169
Results of the analysis of wastewater used before irrigation (of the station of decantation of Khemisti)
(Annexes 30–32)......................................................................................................................169
Interpretation of the results of toilets analyses .......................................................................169
Conclusion .................................................................................................................. .......................................... 170
Results of the analyses of treated wastewater and of the soil during irrigation .................................................... 170
Chemical analyses of water ....................................................................................................170
Microbiological analyses of water..........................................................................................170
Chemical analyses of the soil (Annexes 42–45):.....................................................................170
Interpretation of the bacteriological analyses ........................................................................170
Interpretation of physical and chemical analyses ...................................................................171
Salinity .................................................................................................................... ...............171
Conclusion and recommendations ......................................................................................................................... 171
ACTIVITY 4. FIELD TRIALS.............................................................................................................. 171
Materials and methods.......................................................................................................................................... 171
Experimental protocol.............................................................................................................171
Measurements .................................................................................................................... .....172
Installation of the trials......................................................................................................................................... 172
Results and discussion ...................................................................................................... .................................... 173
Plant height............................................................................................................................173
Number of spikes/m2................................................................................................................173
Number of kernels per spike....................................................................................................173
One thousand seed weight.......................................................................................................173
Grain yields (quintalsx/ha) .....................................................................................................174
B. WORKPLAN FOR THE 2007–’08 SEASON................................................................................... 174
C. NATIONAL WORKING TEAM....................................................................................................... 174
2.3. SATELLITE SITE–TUNISIA ........................................................................................................175
Overall objective (rainfed benchmark) ............................................................................................... ................... 175
c) Activities 2006–2007......................................................................................................................................... 175
Introduction................................................................................................................. .......................................... 175
Specific objectives................................................................................................................................... .............. 175
A. PROGRESS OF WORK .................................................................................................................... 175
Activity 1: Aid decision system .............................................................................................................. 176
Output 1: Production of experimental data for AquaCrop .................................................................................... 176
Results and discussion ...................................................................................................... .................................... 176
Output 2: Use of AquaCrop for simulation at field level ....................................................................................... 177
Results and discussion ............................................................................................................................. 177
Activity 2: Regional Modeling ............................................................................................................... 179
Output 3: Regional modelling, the (Y= ƒ(ΣPi/Ti
*))   Model..................................................................................... 179
11
Results and discussion ............................................................................................................................. 179
Output 4: Outscaling......................................................................................................... .................................... 181
Results and discussion .......................................................................................................................................... 181
Field Visit.............................................................................................................................................................. 182
B. WORKPLAN FOR THE 2007–’08 SEASON................................................................................... 183
C. NATIONAL WORKING TEAM ...................................................................................................... 183
2.4. SATELLITE SITE–SYRIA............................................................................................................184
A. PROGRESS OF WORK .................................................................................................................... 184
Activity 1:............................................................................................................................................... 184
Objective:.............................................................................................................................................................. 184
Methodology: ................................................................................................................ ........................................ 184
Main achievements: .......................................................................................................... .................................... 184
B. WORKPLAN FOR THE 2007–’08 SEASON................................................................................... 185
III. IRRIGATED BENCHMARK AND SATELLITE SITES ...................................................186
3.1. IRRIGATED BENCHMARK SITE–EGYPT....................................................................................186
A. PROGRESS OF WORK .................................................................................................................... 186
Activity 1. Socio-Economy studies......................................................................................................... 186
General objectives and purpose of the activity:..................................................................................................... 186
Output ................................................................................................................................................................... 186
Methodology and actions taken during the period................................................................................................. 186
Achievements........................................................................................................................................... 187
1. Monitoring & Evaluation Items ......................................................................................................................... 187
1.1. Old Land Site (El-Makata):............................................................................................................ 187
- Cropping pattern and rotations for both transects .............................................................................................. 187
Water productivity and water return...................................................................................................................... 188
Summer 2006 ................................................................................................................. ....................................... 188
Winter 2006–’07 ................................................................................................................................................... 188
Water management at the farm level ..................................................................................................................... 191
Environmental effects...................................................................................................................... ...................... 192
Water allocation (availability and source) ............................................................................................................ 192
1.2. New land site (El Bustan): ............................................................................................. ................................. 192
Cropping pattern................................................................................................................................................... 19 2
Water productivity and water return...................................................................................................................... 192
Summer 2006 ................................................................................................................. ....................................... 192
Winter 2006–’07 ................................................................................................................................................... 193
Water pollution ............................................................................................................. ........................................ 195
Water source ................................................................................................................ ......................................... 195
Improved soil fertility and soil salinity .................................................................................................................. 195
Access to water resource....................................................................................................................................... 195
Control of water table ........................................................................................................................................... 195
Social factors ........................................................................................................................................................ 195
Farmer’s income in summer season (2004–2006) ................................................................................................. 195
1. 3. Marginal Land Soil Site (El-Serw)................................................................................................................. 196
Cropping pattern................................................................................................................................................... 196
Water productivity and water return...................................................................................................................... 196
Summer 2006 ........................................................................................................................................................ 196
Winter 2006–’07 ................................................................................................................................................... 197
                                                                                                                           33
- Environmental Outputs:....................................................................................................... ............................... 199
+ Pollution............................................................................................................................................................ 199
+ Improved soil fertility and soil salinity............................................................................................................... 199
- Social Outputs..................................................................................................................................................... 199
12
+ Farmer’s income in summer seasons (2005, 2006)............................................................................................ 199
Net return of crops in winter seasons (2004–’05–2006–’07) ................................................................................ 200
Upstream and downstream conflicts:..................................................................................................................... 200
Access to water resource....................................................................................................................................... 200
Health....................................................................................................................... ............................................. 200
Activity 2: Crop simulation modeling.................................................................................................... 201
Methodology ................................................................................................................. ........................................ 201
Main achievements and results .............................................................................................................................. 201
Activity 3: On-farm trials....................................................................................................................... 202
Specific objectives.......................................................................................................... ....................................... 202
Sub-activity 1: Characterization of the sites fr on-farm trials.............................................................. 202
1. Methodology .............................................................................................................. ....................................... 202
2. Achievements.............................................................................................................. ....................................... 202
Soil properties of Monofia site:............................................................................................................................. 202
Soil properties of new land: .................................................................................................................................. 203
Method of measurement of irrigation water .......................................................................................................... 204
Source and time of chemical fertilizer application: ............................................................................................... 204
Winter crops:................................................................................................................ ..........204
Sub-activity 2. Test and demonstration interventions........................................................................... 205
1. Methodology .............................................................................................................. ....................................... 205
The old lands..........................................................................................................................205
Marginal lands, El-Serw........................................................................................................................ ............... 205
New Land .................................................................................................................... ...........206
2. Achievements and main findings of the interventions used:............................................................ 206
Raised bed (Wide Furrows): .................................................................................................. ............................... 206
- Old Land site: ..................................................................................................................................................... 206
- Planting Methods of Berseem:................................................................................................. ........................... 208
- Salt affected soil (El-Serw site): .......................................................................................................................... 208
2. Deficit Irrigation ............................................................................................................................... 210
- Old land site: .............................................................................................................. ........................................ 210
- Salt affected Soils (El-Serw site): ................................................................................................................. ....... 210
Wheat .....................................................................................................................................210
Berseem...................................................................................................................... ............211
New Lands............................................................................................................................................................. 211
Wheat .....................................................................................................................................211
Faba bean ...............................................................................................................................212
Conclusion: .............................................................................................................................................. 213
1. Raised bed (Wide Furrows) effects: .................................................................................................. 213
Old Land site: ....................................................................................................................................................... 213
Wheat .....................................................................................................................................213
- Salt affected soil (El-Serw site): .......................................................................................................................... 213
Berseem planting method........................................................................................................................ 213
2. Deficit Irrigation effect on WUE........................................................................................................................ 214
Old land site:......................................................................................................................................................... 214
Salt affected soils (El-Serw site): ........................................................................................................................... 214
Wheat .....................................................................................................................................214
Berseem..................................................................................................................................214
New Lands.................................................................................................................... ......................................... 214
Wheat .....................................................................................................................................214
Faba bean: .................................................................................................................. ............214
Sub-activity 3. Dissemination of the Project interventions: ................................................................. 214
Methodology ................................................................................................................. ........................................ 214
Link to other Projects: .......................................................................................................................................... 215
1. East Delta Rural Development Project:............................................................................................................. 215
13
2. Middle Egypt Crop Intensification Project:....................................................................................................... 215
3. Projects Managed by the Ministry of Irrigation and Water resources, through the Water Improvement
Sector....................................................................................................................... ........................................ 215
Link to the national improvement programs for major field crops. ....................................................................... 215
Dissemination of the IBS technology on field crops in major Governorates. ........................................................ 215
1-Farmer field school............................................................................................................................................ 215
2-Field days: ......................................................................................................................................................... 216
3-Harvesting day: ............................................................................................................. .................................... 216
Bulletins ................................................................................................................................................................ 216
Newspapers........................................................................................................................................................... 216
published.................................................................................................................... ........................................... 216
Workshops.................................................................................................................... ......................................... 216
Visits...................................................................................................................................................................... 216
Publicity of the project.......................................................................................................................................... 216
Activity 4: Policies and institutional setups .......................................................................................... 217
Achievements......................................................................................................................................................... 217
B. WORKPLAN FOR THE 2007–2008 SEASON ................................................................................ 218
Activity 1; Socio-economy studies ......................................................................................................... 218
Activity 2: Crop simulation modeling.................................................................................................... 219
1. Crop Stress......................................................................................................................................... ............... 219
2. CropWat............................................................................................................................................................ 219
3. CropSyst:................................................................................................................. .......................................... 219
Study the effect of:................................................................................................................................. ................ 219
Activity 3: On-farm trials....................................................................................................................... 219
Objective and purpose ....................................................................................................... ................................... 219
Materials and Methods ......................................................................................................................................... 220
1. Sites selection........................................................................................................... ...........220
2. Methods of measurement of irrigation water..................................................................................................... 220
Groundnut in the new land.................................................................................................................................... 220
Rice in 5 farms and cotton in 1 farm in the marginal land. ................................................................................... 221
2. Wheat in six farms in the marginal lands........................................................................................................... 222
                                                                                                                            34
3- Wheat in 4 farms in the new lands............................................................................................ ......................... 222
Soil Samples for analysis and for moisture content determination .........................................222
Dissemination of the IBS results will be conducted through: .................................................222
C. National working team...................................................................................................................... 223
3.2. SATELLITE SITE–SUDAN...........................................................................................................224
A. PROGRESS OF WORK .................................................................................................................... 224
B. WORKPLAN FOR THE 2007–’08 SEASON ..................................................................................................... 225
IV. SUMMARY OF REGIONAL PROJECT ACTIVITIES .....................................................226
4.1. REGIONAL ACTIVITIES FOR 2006–’07......................................................................................226
Experts Technical Support...................................................................................................................... 226
Thematic groups.................................................................................................................................... 226
Monitoring and Evaluation Framework development ......................................................................... 226
Publications .......................................................................................................................................................... 226
Training ................................................................................................................................................................ 226
Web site....................................................................................................................... .......................................... 226
Newsletter ............................................................................................................................................................. 226
4.2. PROPOSED REGIONAL ACTIVITIES FOR 2007–2008 ................................................................227
Thematic group meetings and activities:............................................................................................... 227
Monitoring and Evaluation:.................................................................................................................... 227
14
V. BUDGET FOR 2007–’08..........................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
ANNEXES.........................................................................................................................................228
I. BADIA BENCMARK ANNEXES.......................................................................................................228
Project output 3: Techniques for providing sustainable supplies of water from rainfall run-off for economic
production from rangeland, field crops and fruit trees and methodologies for designing and
implementing such techniques at the field and watershed levels...................................................................... 228
Activity 3.2: Demonstration of micro-catchments and fodder plantation for increasing range
production in the Badia of Jordan. .................................................................................................. 228
II. RAINFED BENCMARK ANNEXES.................................................................................................235
III. ALGERIAN SATELLITE SITE ANNEXES......................................................................................236




                                                                                                                     35
Recommendations:
Runoff basins and Semicircular bunds experiment
Runoff basins produced better soil water storage and canopy diameter results than semicircular
bunds due to the closed system exhibited by the runoff basins which allowed for larger
accumulation of runoff water. Thus higher soil water storage and consequently higher plant growth
expressed as canopy diameter, compared to the open system exhibited by the semicircular bunds
which has lower soil water storage due to runoff water loss around bund ends. Moreover, microcatchment
area, regardless of micro-catchment type, did not affect the amount soil water storage
and canopy diameter, which would suggest the use of the smaller micro-catchment rather than the
larger catchment area for all fruit trees selected for the experiment.

Contour Ridges experiment
Catchment area (spacing) did not have an impact on the amount of the soil water storage, which
suggests the use of the smaller spacing (catchment area) rather than bigger catchment area which
would maximize the number of contour ridges per unit area.
Moreover, the growth parameters measured (plant height, vegetation cover, and biomass)
exhibited a consistent pattern, where results showed similar values under both spacing treatments
which also suggests the use of the smaller spacing rather than the larger spacing or catchment area.

ACTIVITY 3.6: MECHANIZED WATER HARVESTING STRUCTURE AND TRANSPLANTING
SHRUB SEEDLINGS.
Objectives:
Implementation of Vallerani water harvesting (VWH) techniques on a large scale on the new sites
using Jordanian Vallerani machine and the Landini tractor.
Monitoring and evaluation of:
        • Performance parameters of the machine over large areas
        • Fuel consumption
        • Technical problems and possible gaps in the system
        • Introducing a mechanized transplanting option to the WH system, and
        • Introducing a tractor Laser-guiding system.
Activities:
3.6.1 Implementation of VWH
In the 2006–07 season, the Jordanian Vallerani machine mounted on Landini Tractor (138 hp)
worked on three sites: Al-Majidiyya for 4 days, Mharib for 8 days and Mafraq region for 6 days,
where it worked approximately 200, 850, and 600 dunums respectively. These areas included both
experimental and demonstrational locations. The mechanization work covered not only the
implementation of Vallerani systems, but also all other mechanized systems introduced in the
experiments.
Monitoring and evaluation of Vallerani machine over large areas
During the implementation of VWH systems, machine performance parameters and fuel
consumption were measured by the mechanization team using the same methodology followed in
preliminary trials described in a previous report.

                                                                    66




                                                                    36
      Project submitted by NCARTT to GTZ


                                      The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

                                             Ministry of Agriculture


                National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT)


                                               In cooperation with

                      Arab Center for the Studies of Arid zones and Dry lands (ACSAD)



 Proposed Workplan for Community based Water harvesting and Rangeland Rehabilitation Project in
                                       Mafraq Areas



                                        Donated by GTZ-Lebanon office

                                                 Prepared by:
                                            Jordanian National Team


                                                  August, 2006




                                                   Table of Contents


Content                                                  Page
Introduction    ……………………………………………………..                   3

Overall goals ……………………………………………………                       5
Workplan Components                                                    9
       Component I: water harvesting…………………………….         8

       Component II: Vegetation Cover ………………………….        18
       Component III: live stock ………………………………….          23

       Component IV: Socioeconomic……………………………...         24

       Component V: Public awareness……………………………...
       Component VI: Human Capacity Building…………………...   25
Capital Items                                                          30
Time schedule ………………………………………………………                      37
Estimated Budget …………………………………………………..                                 40
Project Management and Coordination …………………………….         40

List of Project Staff …………………………………………………                41




                                                          37
 Work plan for Community based Water harvesting and                                 Rangeland Rehabilitation Project in Mafraq
                                               Areas


1-Introduction:
The total area of the country is about 89.206 km2. Nearly 87% of this area receives around 100mm of rain per year with a potential
annual evaporation of about 2000mm. Therefore most of Jordan's area is under arid environment. Water is a vital resource for all
agricultural production systems. Water resources in Jordan are greatly affected by the prevailing climatic conditions, and mainly by the
seasonal erratic rainfall distribution. The volume of runoff produced in flash floods, as a result of high intensity rain, is rapidly lost
without being captured and utilized.

Recent information clearly indicates that productivity of the natural resources in Jordan has started to decline. The rapid population
growth add to the problem by exerting pressure on the already limited natural resources, which are failing to meet the increasing
demands. Such demands are causing the deterioration of natural resources and extending agricultural activities towards marginal lands
(Agricultural strategy, MOA, 2002).

Un-safe agricultural practices such as using improper crop rotation, the use of wrong ploughs, frequent cultivation of the land and
shifting cultivation jointly or separated caused the destruction of the natural soil cover, increase in soil salinity, and the decrease in soil
fertility. This situation caused changes in both physical and chemical soil properties and resulted in a drop in land productivity. In
general, if these factors are not addressed in a manner based on the sustainability of natural resources will lead to desertification in the
near future (The effect of bad practices on the agricultural environment in Jordan, 1998).

Water harvesting (WH) techniques are considered as effective tools in combating desertification and in improving land productivity.
However, the efficient use of this tool will be guaranteed only if local communities accept to use these tools to help them in improving
their livelihoods. Now that the limitations of over-reliance on groundwater sources have begun to come to light, it is very important to
make use of the past practices and experiences that have been developed and perfected over centuries by the local population, and to
seriously start relying on water harvesting techniques as a sustainable way to meet water demands (Water Husbandry Project in the
WANA Region. Final Report. 2002).

A special approach will be selected in proposing the different activities of this plan. This approach will tackle the problems and needs of
the local society. The main problems identified are the decrease in land productivity, accelerated soil erosion, soil degradation, and the
absence of safe and sustainable production systems that are supported by the local society. Thus, devising practical means to utilize
resources, in a suitable and sustainable manner is a great challenge to be dealt with. Water harvesting is an excellent tool that can
stabilize, sustain, and improve crop yield if properly employed in farming-systems together with the concept of "safe land use".

The term “water harvesting” is given to any work done on land surfaces to benefit from rain water, either directly by storing runoff water
in the soil profile so that the net runoff volume is reduced and hence soil erosion, or indirectly to store the surface runoff in a reservoir to
be used later for different purposes (supplemental irrigation of crops, drinking, or for groundwater recharge). Water harvesting can be
simply defined as the collection, storage, and management of rain water and runoff water for useful purposes.

The main element for water harvesting techniques is the ratio between the runoff area (catchments area) and the run-on area (cultivated
area or storage area). The runoff area is optimized if it produces enough runoff. The run-on area, where water is stored or plants are
grown, must have enough storage capacity or adequate water holding capacity to supply the planted crop with water. Thus; the amount of
harvested water from a certain area is a function of the amount of runoff that can be produced from that area.
There are many water harvesting and soil conservation techniques. Field selection of these techniques depends on the location
topography, soil characteristics, rainfall characteristics, and landuse. The type of technique and its spacing depends directly on land slope
and soil depth.

Finally, the following factors must be considered when designing water harvesting techniques:

      1.   Rainfall distribution during the season.
      2.   Rainfall intensity.
      3.   Soil infiltration rate and land surface characteristics.
      4.   Soil water holding capacity (soil depth and texture).
      5.   Type of crop to be planted (water requirements).
                                                                      38
2- Overall Project Goal:

To spread the use of water harvesting structures as a sustainable and renewable water resource to maintain the land and livestock
productivity and help in combating desertification.

3 - Work plan Components:

3:1 Component I - Water Harvesting


   3:1:1 Activities

       1. Site selection.
       2. Community awareness and negotiations.
       3. Collection and analysis of available data on climate, water resources, soil, land use, socioeconomic conditions and community
           common activities and property rights at the selected areas
       4. Site characterization using GIS System
       5. Soil characterization
       6. Surveys to evaluate the adoption and impact of water harvesting techniques in the area
       7. Design of water harvesting techniques
       8. Construction of water harvesting structures
       9. Plantation of selected sites
       10. Site monitoring using field data and GIS based system.
       11. Awareness day and field visit for community members
       12. National workshops to discuss and disseminate results.

3:1:2 Objective
     The overall objective of this component is to improve land productivity in the semi arid range land of Mafraq through effective
     implementation of various water harvesting techniques.


3:1:3 Justification
     Water resources and rainfall in the arid and semi arid areas of east Jordan is limited and highly variable resulting in low land
     productivity. Non cultivated areas in the east of Mafraq city, Sabha and Subhia, are used as range land. It has been hypothesized
     that implementation of water harvesting on these land can greatly improved its productivity and support raising livestock which is
     the mean activity of the population in these areas.


 3:1:4 Methodologies
     1.   Site identification through multiple field visits.
     2.   Community awareness and involvement through public meetings.
     3.   Study the site characteristics including topography, slope, soil surface conditions, soil classification and soil depth.
     4.   Based on preliminary data the following three water harvesting techniques are proposed:
            a. Vallerani. This technique is simple and easy to implement on the large scale. The results and experiences obtain with this
                technique can be compared with other areas in Jordan at which Valerani technique was implemented.
            b. Contour ridges. This technique is suitable for the area and can be implemented at 10 m interval. Contour ridges have
                been also implemented on other areas in Jordan.
            c. Conservation terraces. This technique has not been implemented in Jordan and can be suitable for areas with mild slope.
                Conservation terraces are constructed along the contour, similar to contour ridges, but with broad level base that allow a
                complete infiltration of collected water. This technique may be more suitable for range land since the area for plantation is
                larger than that of the contour or Vallerani technique. The spacing between terraces can be fixed at 10 m interval.


  3:1:5 Site monitoring
   Site monitoring is carried out for performance assessment of water harvesting activities. This should include rainfall depth, soil
   moisture storage in the total area, changes in the vegetation cover, soil loss from the sub-watershed by monitoring the sediment
   concentration of runoff outside field boundary and socio economic impact and social acceptance to water harvesting activities.


 3:1:6 Expected outputs
   The principal outputs of the project are:
    1.Identification of proposed range land areas and implementation of water harvesting techniques in these areas to improve land
      productivity and community live hood.
    2.Summarizing the experiences of this project and other projects related to water harvesting implemented in the surrounding areas,
      including the bench mark project.
    3.Guidelines for evaluating the potential for and constraints to the adoption of water harvesting, at the level of project sites and
      surrounding areas.
    4.GIS-based methodology for identifying potential water harvesting sites and designing water harvesting techniques at watershed
      level.
    5.Improve the management and usage capacity of local community for range lands with water harvesting.

   3:1:7 Water harvesting team
                                                                     39
Dr. Majed Abu-Zreig, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Team leader
Dr. M. Dabbas, (soil characterization)
Eng. Safa Mazahreh (GIS expert)
Eng. Lubna Mahasneh (GIS expert)




                                                             40
3.2 Component II - Vegetation Cover

3.2.1 Fodder Shrubs Plantation sub component

3.2.1.1 Objectives:
      1. To demonstrate to the local communities the benefits of water harvesting for improving fodder shrubs production under low
          rainfall conditions.
      2. To maximize the rain use efficiency in the natural Rangeland.
      3. To improve fodder shrubs production.
      4. To improve grazing management in the Badia region.
      5. To plant (1000) Dunum in Tal Rmah ,Rawdet Elamir Ali and,Dair Elkahef


3:2:1:2 Justification
   The low rainfall areas are subject to severe degradation due to continuous     drought and land misuses by man such as plowing,
   shrubs uprooting, coppicing, and over grazing. Fodder shrubs plantations under water harvesting techniques form the solution to
   rehabilitation of those degraded rangelands. Fodder shrubs such as Atriplex and Salsola are characterized by drought tolerant, high
   productivity and palatability for feed animals under dry conditions.


3:2:1:3 Methodology:
   Continuous ridges as well as intermittent pits will be opened using the Vallerani plow. Three different spacing between the fodder
   shrubs will be used (2, 3 and 4 m) at the Continuous ridges, while 2 plants will be planted at the intermittent pits.
   Shrubs: Atriplex (Atriplex halimus), Rotha (Salsola vermiculata), and low amount of Acacia, Cactus and any available fodder shrubs
            will be planted.


3:2:1:4 Measurements:
     Plant data:
        1. Survival rate at three times (March, June, and August, 2007).
        2. Yield and biomass through the dimensions measurements; plant height, shortest diameter, and longest diameter.

     Rainfall data:




                                                                 41
3:2:1:5 Expected outputs
      Awareness of the local communities about the important of fodder shrubs plantation under water harvesting techniques and
       protection.
      Plant genetic materials conservation in the Badia region.
      Approve the integration between plant and animal production.


3:2:1:6 Time of implementation
   November and December 2006 (table 1 show the timetable for the fieldwork during 2006/2007 season).
   * Note: transplants. If the actual planted area is 1000Dunum then we need 61600 shrubs.

3:2:2 Biodiversity study sub component
3:2:2:1 Introduction
Jordan is located in the eastern Mediterranean region between 29˚ 20' to 32˚N and 34˚ to 39˚ E. the climate of the country is arid to semi-
arid and characterized by dry hot summers and mild wet winters with extreme variability in rainfall within and among years. More than
90 % of the country's land, known as the Badia, receives less than 200mm average annual rainfall. The relatively high rainfall area in
Jordan is limited and restricted to the western and northern highlands and gives rise to the most productive land agriculturally. However,
this area has been affected by rapid urban developments and thus agricultural developments are taking place on marginal lands, including
the low rainfall zone (< 200 mm) (JAZPP 1999).
Jordan versus global biodiversity; Flora of Jordan is very rich and highly diverse. The total number of recorded vascular plant species in
the whole universe is about 250,000 area is not more than 89,000 km² has a vascular flora with 2500 species this mean the country has
0.01 of the total world flora. EL-Eisawi et. al. (1997).

3:2:2:2 Objectives
     1.   To better understand the eco-system.
     2.   To develop tools for local communities for utilization for endogenous taxa.
     3.   Vegetation classification and taxa of the study area (plant species)
     4.   vegetation mapping by integration of geographic Information System (GIS)
     5.   Monitoring the changes of biodiversity during project period in the protected site.


3:2:2:3 Methodologies:
   Preliminary visits to the sites (during August and June, 2006) will be held to identify the plant species at the flowering stage at this
   time of the year. Continuous monitoring survey will be carried every season all over the coming year. Regular reports will be
   submitted to the Project manager. The following will be done as preparation procedures:
         Demonstration locations will be selected within the project area during August to June/2006
         Permanent transects will be marked at each location.
         Quadrates (100*100 cm) will be located along each transect.
         Quadrates will be fixed and labeled by serial number.
         The geographic positioning system (GPS model Garmin 12 will be used to determine the longitude of these sites depending on
          the information that was received from 12 satellites. The Digital Barometer-Altimeter (Model Air-HB-IL) instrument will be
          used to determine the Altitude of the site depending on the atmospheric pressure and temperature.
         Botanical composition of each quadrate will be studied during the project period, considering the following data:
            1. Percentage cover (visual estimation as percent of ground covered by plant canopy of the species), stone cover and root mat
                cover percentage will be estimated.
            2. Species richness.
            3. Plant Taxa will be identified fully to the species level according to the available flora references.
            4. Plant height.
            5. Plant diversity.
            6. Species frequency, abundance, density and relative density will be calculated

3.2.2.4 Procedures:
Transect method will be used to define the species diversity and species richness in the study area. Transects will be placed down in the
area and a quadrate of 100cm2 will be layed down at 10m intervals. Plant species will be listed and species richness, number of individual
plants will be determined. The data will be tabulated as shown in the following table (Sundara Rajan, 2001). Plant density; plant
frequency; frequency%; plant abundance; and the biomass of green plants in a study area; will be calculated.
                                                                                                3.2.2.5 Expected Outputs:
  Transect         Quadrate       Number of         Species      Family name     Comments
                                                                                                      1. List of plant taxa available
  Number            number       plant species       Name
                                                                                                      2. Vegetation cover: plant species,
             plant density, species percentage, plant frequency percentages.
         3. Flora map of the vegetation cover through GIS system.
         4. List of endangered, rare and endemic plants
         5. Possibility of vegetation covers restoration.


3.2.3: Barley production Sub Component

   3.2.3.1 Activity:
                                                                     42
   Barley landraces production under different water harvesting interventions at Sabha Village. From 7-10 demonstration sites with
   10dunum for each demonstration site will be planted at farmers fields.


   3.2.3.2 Justification
   Over 90% of the Jordan’s area is included in the arid zone, where the amount of rainfall is less than 200mm.The farmers, researchers,
   policy makers in Jordan are facing challenge in how to raise the productivity of this area, and increasing the biological efficiency of
   cropping systems such as conserve soil moisture, better integration livestock and crop production.
   This work plan, for production barley in arid areas, stress on the importance of increasing barley productivity by the introducing
   modern planting techniques, therefore, the main objective of this work plan is to: Improve barley production; by maximize the rain
   use efficiency in the low rainfall areas, through introducing modern planting techniques.


   3.2.3.3 Methodologies:
   1. Contour ridges:       )‫األكتاف الكونتوريه (المتون الكونتوريه؟؟؟‬
   Contour ridges will be established using the mold board plow. The ridges will be mainly used for planting shrubs, but planting barley
   within the ridge where the shrub is planted will be also used. Three different spacing between the constructed ridges in the field,
   along with planting shrubs, shrubs with barley, three levels of plant density for shrubs, and different types of shrubs will be also used.
   2. Shrub Seed collection and Seedling production:
     Plans for introducing and collecting shrub seeds will be executed during the period from October to March. Plans for the production
     of seedlings by the community and the Government nurseries will be developed and implemented. Two plastic houses will be
     constructed at the site with an area of 0.5du per plastic house. Water sources (cisterns or small reservoirs) for the irrigation of the
     seedlings produced in the two plastic houses will also be constructed.
   3. Runoff strips:
       Barley will be planted in strips using the proper seed drill, with unplanted strips in between as catchments area. The catchments
       area will allow rainfall water to be harvested in the barley planted strip, which will maximize the available water for barley, and
       as a result, the barley crop will give reasonable straw and grain yield. The ratio between the planted strip and the catchments area
       is suggested to be 2:2, 2:3 and 2:4 (Cultivated/catchments). However, adjustment to these ratios will be made according to the
       width of the seed drill and to the land and soil characteristics. Plantation should be done as much as possible following the land
       countour, which require skillful driver.
   4. Narrow runoff strip
       This is similar to the technique used in 1.2 (runoff strips) but the strips are much narrower and will be developed by modification
       of the between row distance in the seed drill.
       In this system, Barley will be planted in rows using proper seed drill after proper modification. The distance between rows will
       range between 50 to 100 cm, based on the land characteristics and the available seed drill. Modification on the seed drill to adjust
       for row spacing will be done before the season. Two seeding rates (such as 4and 6 kg/du or as recommended by the specialists)
       will be used.
       Barley cultivar:
       Local (Baladi): A high yielding, drought resistant, two rows improved variety will be evaluated in some of the sites. The
       recommended variety by NCARTT and ACSAD will be considered.
       Seeding rate:
       Four and six Kg/dunum, or as recommended by the specialists.


     3.2.3.4 Time of implementation:
     Construction of the ridges should be completed by October 2006. Shrub and barley plantation will be done in November 2006.


     3.2.3.5 Measurements:
          1. Date of emergence, heading, maturity.
          2. Biomass, Dry matter, at tailoring, heading, at maturity
          3. Rainfall.


     3.2.3.6 Vegetation cover team
     Adnan ElYasinin, Nasab AlRawashdeh, Manar Talhouni, Amer Karadsheh, Husin Saleh, Yahya Satari, Yahya Naser, Awad
     Kabneh, Nisreen AlShawahneh, Asem Al-Rossan, two research assistant from Khanasri Station.

3.3 Component III - Livestock Component

3.3.1 Introduction:
 Sheep population was (1.476) million, (0.547) million heads of goats and (13.500) heads of camels (2003). The total number of sheep,
goat and cattle have increased until the mid nineties by approximately 50 % and decreased again towards the end of nineties by
approximately 30 % due to the prolonged drought during the past years. In the project area (Sabha) the total number pf sheep 118561
head and 1405 head of goats.



                                                                        43
Sustainable small ruminant production in Jordan can be achieved by intensification of production systems, and development of local
breeds. Improvement of small ruminant production efficiency can be done by developing, evaluating and disseminating improved sheep
and goat genotypes, and by evaluating and applying “on farm” advanced techniques in reproduction and management.

Awassi sheep are well adapted to the harsh conditions of the rangelands in the area. Sheep owners traditionally leave lambs for prolonged
suckling, sometimes exceeding 90 days. Research has shown that lambs suckling for 30, 60 and 90 days did not significantly affect 6-
month body weight. Therefore, instead of Iamb suckling for a long period, the farmer can practice early lamb weaning, which will
increase his net return through the sale of milk.

Whatever the flock size is big or small; flock management will not be successful without using records. Data which should be known for
flock management is simple, which include: animal health status, feed consumed by animals, reproduction efficiency, animal live
weights. The main object of records is to offer details and information about the whole flock or individuals. Moreover; records conceder
as a main part of genetic improvement planning policies for the flock, records also are beneficial for sheep owners for daily decisions,
practices evaluation, and long run planning.


3:3:2 Activities

3:3:2:1 Lambing Management and Early Weaning
3.3.2.1.1 Justification
Sheep owners traditionally leave lambs for prolonged suckling, sometimes exceeding 90 days. Research has shown that lambs suckling
for 30, 60 and 90 days did not significantly affect 6- month body weight. Therefore, instead of Iamb suckling for a long period, the
farmer will be encouraged to practice in lambing management, recording and early weaning, which is expected to increase his net return.
3.3.2.1.2 Objective
Demonstrate to farmers the benefits of lambing management, recording and early weaning in increasing milk production and increasing
farmers’ net return.
 3.3.2.1.3 Methodologies:
       The lambing management, recording and early weaning will be conducted on the farm. This procedure should be included as part
        of the farm activities.
       Four flocks will be chosen fifty lambed ewes and their lambs in each flock will be ear tagged during lambing season.
       The tagged ewes as well as un-tagged ewes will have the same feeding and will have an equal number of twins.
       The tagged lambs will be weaned 60 days after birth, but will be gradually weaned at 3 weeks of age by milking the ewes once a
        day. The lambs will be given a concentrate containing a high level of protein (This will continue until full weaning is achieved at
        the age of 8 weeks. The separation period of lambs from their mothers will gradually increase, by one hour/day.
       The rest of the lambs will be weaned at 90 days of age or as the farmer practice of weaning.
       If the number required is not available at one time, then the weaning will be practiced on the available number in different groups.
       Recording system will be introduce (software) to train the farmers how to use it to easiest the work and save time during the
        lambing season.
3.3.2.1.4 Measurements
 Lamb weight on two consecutive days at start and end of the trial (before their morning feed, feed consumed by lambs, feed consumed
by ewes during lactation, milk production, marketable lamb price and income generated, economic analysis should be made. farmer
opinion will be monitored.
3.3.2.1.5 Expected Outputs:
  Improve the income of sheep owners by selling more milk.
  Enhance the awareness of sheep owners on this technology to use it in future by them self.
  Prepare extension bulletin.
3.3.2.1.6 Time of implementation:
December, 2006


3.3.2.2 Lambs Fattening
3.3.2.2.1 Justifications
The continuous increase in population is expected to increase demands for animal products (milk and meat). Increasing animal
productivity is essential to cover the increase in demand, through the use of fattening procedures.
3.3.2.2.2 Objectives
  1. Increase farmers’ income by increasing the productivity of Awassi sheep.
  2. Increase the production of red meat.
3.3.2.2.3 Methodology:
Four flocks will be chosen, 25 lambs for each after weaning (45-60 days) will be ear tagged. The remaining lambs will be fed according
to the farmer schedule. Tagged lambs will be fed on ration with good nutritional value to accelerate the growth rate (According to NRC,
1985). The farmer will be trained on how to convert from ration to another and how to use ration with high concentrate and low
roughage. Lambs will be weighed every two weeks to calculate the growth rate and feed conversion.


3.3.2.2.4 Expected Outputs
                                                                     44
     1. Improve the income of sheep owners.
     2. Enhance the farmers to use this activity as one of the important activities in the farm.


3.3.2.2.5 Data Collection
Weight of lambs at weaning, weight of lambs every two weeks, weight of lambs at 150 days of age, growth rate from weaning to 150
days of age will be calculated, feed consumed by lambs, feed conversion and the return will be calculated.


3.3.2.2.6 Time of implementation
     January\2007


3.3.3 Livestock team:
     Faisal Al Barakeh, Khaleel Jawasreh, Vetrenary from Northern Badia Directorate. Basman Mohammed, Hani Shboul.


3:4 Component IV - Socioeconomics
 3:4:1 Introduction
  The overall aim of this component is to provide information on the study Sabha area for management of scarce water resources in
  agriculture in Badia of Sabha area. The specific objectives are to conduct socio-economic studies to assist in the selection of the
  project site and to conduct studies required during project implementation, including economic evaluation of proposed technologies,
  adoption and impact assessment.
  With growing water scarcity and increasing competition across water-using sectors, the need for water savings and more efficient
 water use become an urgent issue in water resources management. Water resource allocation research aims to understand how water
 management approaches will affect food production, rural livelihoods, poverty, and the environment and to suggest equitable and
 efficient mechanisms for water use. The optimal allocation of scarce land and water accompanied with selection of appropriate crops
 and cropping systems will maximize total net agricultural profit. Equally important is the availability of irrigation technologies, water
 distribution infrastructure, appropriate soil types, inputs with proper costs and the market.

  The production system in Sabha Badia is very fragile system, with severe resource degradation specialty soil and vegetation. This is
 resulted from insufficient rainfall, overgrazing, plant uprooting and mismanagement of the resources by the users. Alternative practices
 and collective management strategies are desirable in order to conserve the resource base to become more productive and sustainable in
 order to meet the increased demand for feedstuff and red meat. Therefore, the collective action and participatory approach management
 of watershed and rangeland seems to be one of an attractive idea to improve the livelihoods of people in the low rainfall areas.
 Therefore, analyses and interpretations are needed on different management options towards a balanced resource management in the
 Sabha Badia area; by taking into account also the government's commitments in utilization of resources.


 3.4.2 Activities
 3.4.2.1 General and specific characteristics of selected Areas, and communities in the project site, and identification of baseline
         Information and performance indicators.
 3.4.2.2 Negotiation with targeted communities.
 3.4.2.3 Monitoring technology transfer, identification of performance indicators and economic evaluation of developed
         technologies.



 3.4.2.1 General and specific characteristics of selected Areas, and communities in the project site, and identification of baseline
            Information and performance indicators.
3.4.2.1.1 Justification:
Description of the socioeconomic characteristic of the selected areas and communities in the project site is essential step for measuring
the project impact and providing the sustainability indicators. It will also assist in the development of the technical work plans and the
approaches to be followed in dealing with the communities. The information will predict the expected evolution of the production and
marketing system in after implementing the project activities


3.4.2.1.2 Objectives:
       Describe the basic economic characteristics of the selected communities including population characteristics, source of income,
        Resource Property rights, Land Fragmentation, Agricultural Production system, Rangeland Utilization.
       Identify the problems that constraints the improvement of the selected areas management system.


3.4.2.1.3 Activities and methods of data collection:
      Primary data collection will be utilized in this study to collect data on communities, agricultural production, marketing channels,
       level of infrastructure, farming practices and other socio-economic aspects. The two methods are: RRA and PPA
      Secondary data will be collected from available published and unpublished sources.
      Formal interviews with selected stakeholders and players in the selected communities.


                                                                      45
     Formal questionnaire will be prepared to describe the basic economic and social characteristics and main resources of the selected
      communities.


3.4.2.1.4 Expected outputs
     The overall objective of this component is to provide the researcher in the project and policy makers with a set of specific
      characteristics of the agricultural, human and environmental resources of selected areas and rural communities in the project site.
      To achieve this the following information should be collected and analysed.


3.4.2.1.5 Areas Characteristics:
   Resources, production system, type of land, income source, property rights, status for use. Production/ farming system, status of
   natural resources degradation, water use / water resources, status on water productivity under current farming practices, property rights
   and institutions, indicators on production, vegetative cover, available technology, policies and the constraints.


3.4.2.1.6 Communities Characteristics
     Endowment Resources, family production systems, family size and structure. Flock movements, typology: family size; large, medium
     & small. Flock size: large, medium and small; enterprise: livestock, crop and mixed Income sources: level / distribution; farm; off-
     farm; labor family hired. Gender; education; exposure to new technologies; conventional practices. Institutions; employments;
     production performance (water, crop and livestock) for all activities; feeding calendar; marketing; credit policies. Indigenous
     knowledge of local communities.


3.4.2.1.7 Working team
Dr Khaled Alzubaidi, Eng Khaled Bashabesh, Enas Grabyah, Moawya Redaydah


3.4.2.1.8 Time of Implementation
August, 2006


3.4.2.2 Negotiations with targeted communities
3.4.2.2.1 Justification:
Participations of beneficiaries and community members in the planning and implementation of activities in their areas is very essential
for the success of any efforts aiming at the improvement of livelihood of these communities. As these communities now face complex
issues outside the traditional arenas for agriculture and home economics, therefore negotiation with them will help understand their
priorities and needs. This project will shows that participatory approach can serve as a viable model in helping communities face social
and economic change.


3.4.2.2.2 Objective:
Comprehensive local needs assessment in which communities analyzed local resources and developed plans for the future resource
conservation is an essential step for project successful and sustainability.


3.4.2.2.3 Activities and methods of data collection:
         Initiation communication channel with communities’ leaderships to ensure their corporation and cooperation.
         Meeting with farmers and community members of the selected communities and discuss with them project activities and agreed
          on their priorities.
         Field visit to communities' leaderships, farmers associations, NGOs. And institutions working in the project areas, and agree on
          their role in project implementation


3.4.2.2.4 Expected output
Report on farmers and stakeholders opinions about the project activities, local needs, priorities and services required from governmental
agencies. The agreed upon activities that will be implemented by the project and the role of the community in the implementation; the
role of the local and governmental institutions in project implementation; agreement among community members (tribes) on the
implementation arrangement; suggestion on incentives to be provided by the project to the participating individual or for the benefit of
the community.



3.4.2.2.5 Location:
Selected community(s)


3.4.2.2.6 Time of Implementation:
September, 2006



                                                                    46
3.4.2.3 Monitoring technology transfer, identification of performance indicators and economic evaluation of developed
        technologies.
3.4.2.3.1 Justification:
Evaluation has become critical in the functioning of development programs. Performance indicators are an important measure of project
performance and the responsiveness of the stakeholders in meeting local objectives. They enable project management to reflect local
priorities and tailor best value to suit local circumstances. They also provide managers with better information on project implementation
and achieved output according to the planned activity.


3.4.2.3.2 Objectives:
Indicators in general have clear definitions that ensure consistency and enable comparison with others. Further indicators will be
developed over time to address the range of services and issues appear in the future. Therefore, Key Performance Indicators should be
quantifiable measurements, agreed to beforehand, that reflect the critical success factors of the project.


3.4.2.3.3 Activities and methods of data collection:
Collection of appropriate indicators for efficiency, equity and environmental sustainability.


3.4.2.3.4 Productivity indications:
 (1)   Water productivity / Kg/m3
 (2)   Resource evaluation.
 (3)   Livestock watering. WR/head, source, cost
 (4)   Barley production, productivity kg/d., grazing, stubble
 (5)   Fruit trees / Medicinal plants (kg/tree or kg/du).
 (6)   Shrubs productivity.
 (7)   Rangeland productivity and biomass
 (8)   Rangeland biomass and biodiversity, legumes and palatability
 (9)   Water productivity per production system. (Crop/livestock system


3:5 Component V – Public Awareness
3.5.1 Introduction
Public awareness is considered the backbone of any developmental process in any country. It was recognized worldwide as the crucial
element of agricultural sector and the corner stone of the knowledge base component needed for agricultural development.
Needless to say, that all fields of agriculture are strongly linked to public awareness, which serves as a catalyst for improvement. No
doubt that, if used properly, public awareness can make the required changes in the community. On the contrary, any negative aspect in
the agricultural sector can be a result of poor public awareness.
In order to reduce poverty in these communities and to improve rural livelihoods, there must be some achievements on the ground, such
as yield increase, land improvements, removal of constraints which will allow for agriculture and rural areas to recover, thereby
enhancing the impacts of the project.
The project is one of the leading projects implemented in Sabha area. The project is using water harvesting techniques to benefit from
rainfalls properly for their optimum use and to helping the recovery of the plant cover.


3.5.2 Objective
Disseminate the ideas of the project properly, in order to introduce its advantages to the other communities, and to guarantee the adoption
of its achievements.


3.5.2 Justification
To reduce poverty in the target communities and to improve rural livelihoods, there must be some achievements on the ground, such as
yield increase, land improvements, removal of constraints which will allow for agriculture and rural areas to recover, thereby enhancing
the impacts of the project.


3.5.3 Activities
   1. Extensive efforts must be made to involve all local leaders and decision makers as well as rural residents including family
      members in deterring the short and long term objectives of the project. Participation of all people will make the implementation
      easier, the adoption faster and the achievements bigger.
   2. There must be a comprehensive introduction of the goals and objectives of the new phase. Places, dates and locations of
      implementations, types of activities that will be implemented and other information must be known by all community members.
      Needless to say that the advantages and disadvantages (if any) must be introduced, so people will know in advance what they are
      getting. Local residents must be fully aware of all the details.
       No doubt that all kinds of contacts must be used to inform the local residents of the description of the incoming project. Face-to-
       face communication as well as group gathering and mass media can be used to achieve this goal. Certain brochures must be
       prepared in advance for any future meetings at the local level. Decision makers (parliament members, Governors, Highly ranked
       officers etc.), must be invited t convince local people of the advantages of the project.
                                                                     47
      3. The implementation of the new phases must be fully planned and prepared in advance, so people are able to see all the
         implementation steps from the start to the very end.
      4. Since the majority of rural people depend largely on agriculture as a main source of income, poverty levels are clearly related to
         land degradation, therefore, without substantial improvement measures, many local residents will be hesitant to participate. They
         must be convinced of the final outputs of the project and how their lives will be affected if the project is implemented properly.
         Therefore, priority actions are urgently needed to strengthen the final outcomes of the project.
      5. Mass media must play an important role in very single step of project implementation. Interviews of local leaders as well as
         ordinary citizens must be archived during all the project phases. There must be also documentation of all steps from the very
         beginning to the end. This help in enhancing the capacity of agricultural specialists, farmers, and rural communities to maintain a
         sustainable agriculture and to introduce new, modern and up-to-date techniques on farm management, water conservation
         technologies if there is to be a sustained improvement in rural living standards.
      6. Participation of neighboring communities, who have similar leadership, topography, and problems, is a must. Invitation of such
         communities will make the job easier in the future and will help facilitating the implementation of the project phases, hence,
         achieving the goals and objectives faster and increasing the adoption process. A comparison of what on the ground in terms of
         achievements with what was will increase the adoption process.
      7. Interviewing those who already adopted the technique before, during, and after the season can lead to enhancement of all the
         goals and objectives.
      8. No doubt that conducting some training sessions for local people and for selected individuals will give the project the continuity
         after the final implementation phases and in future work. This will reduce dependence on the public sector and will assist in
         project sustainability. It is worth noting that training few individuals to do the job as a private work will create a base for the
         private sector to do the job instead of the public sector.
      9. Conducting continuous evaluation of each phase can avoid negative elements and can improve abilities and enhance skills of
         workers.
      10.   It is of great importance to provide the local residents, during the start of the project, with all the facilities required for the
            successful implementation of the project. Seedlings, seeds, water, fertilizers, labor and many others are a must. Transportation
            of local residents from and to project sites must be provided.
      11.   Posters, brochures, leaflets and other printed materials must be prepared at the beginning and end of the project. Posters must be
            used in schools, government offices, and other places to show the achievements of the project. Documenting the achievements
            through a video tape and distributing it to local schools, libraries, government offices, etc.


3.5.4 Expected outputs
Increase public awareness, which is an essential element of the project, will have to come from a substantial improvement of land and the
rise of agricultural production and improvement of its quality. This can be achieved if the project is planned carefully, implemented
properly, and evaluated regularly.


3.5.5 Time of implementation
During the whole project period


3.5.6 Public awareness team:
Jamal AlRshidat , Shaban BAnat, Majed Dibajeh, Amneh Etall, Firyal Arabiat


3:6 Component VI – Human Capacity Building


3.6.1 Objective
Enhancement of the capacity of national programs and the integration of researchers, extensions, farmers and decision-makers in a
regional program for sustainable management of water resources in the region.


3.6.2 Activities
 1)     Regional training programs for national researchers and extensionists. Possible courses include: Improvement of on-farm water use
        efficiency, Irrigation techniques, Water harvesting, sustainable water resources management, constraint and opportunity analysis,
        community processes, and integrated watershed management.
 2)     Regional workshops, including traveling workshops, and seminars for researchers and decision-makers.
 3)     Meetings of specialists and decision makers including the three agroecologies for exchange of views and research results.
 4)     One PhD scholarship in water and soil sciences and one MSc in Rangeland studies.


3.6.3 Expected Outputs
 1)     Skilled and qualified national researchers in water resource management
 2)     Greater integration of sustainable water resource management into national development programs
 3)     Enhanced public awareness among decision-makers of the principles of sustainable and efficient scarce water resource
        management.



                                                                       48
4 -Time Schedule
Summary of activities and time schedule during the project four years period

   *Note: Above activities                                                                                               are designed to be
         simultaneously                                                               Year         Year        Year      implemented. X count is
         relevant to the     Activities                                               2006         2007        2008      number of months to undertake
         the activity            1. Site selection
                                                                                        xx
                                 2.   Community awareness and negotiations.
                                                                                       xxx
                                 3.   Collection and analysis of available data on
                                       climate, water resources, soil, land use,
                                       socioeconomic conditions and
                                       community common activities and
                                       property rights at the selected areas
                                                                                       xxx
                                 4.   site and soil characterization
                                                                                      xxxxx
                                 5.   RRA and PRA and baseline information
                                                                                      xxxxx
                                 6.   design of water harvesting techniques
                                                                                     xxxxxxxx    xxxxxxxx    xxxxxxxx
                                 7.   construction of water harvesting structures
                                                                                     xxxxxxx    xxxxxxxxxx   xxxxxxxxx
                                 8.   plantation of selected sites
                                                                                      xxxxx      xxxxxxxx    xxxxxxxxx
                                 9.   livestock activities and measurements
                                                                                     xxxxxxx    xxxxxxxxxx   xxxxxxxxx
                                 10. Site monitoring using field data and GIS
                                     based system.
                                                                                                 xxxxxxxx    xxxxxxxxx
                                 11. Awareness day and field visit for
                                     community members and capacity building
                                                                                      xxxxx       xxxxx        xxxx
                                 12. National workshops to discuss and
                                     disseminate results.
                                                                                                              xxxxx




                                                                              49
   Table 1: Timetable for the work plan during 2006 / 2007.
                                      2006                                            2007
Activity                Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr   May    Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep
Work plan
Site selection
Negotiation with the
communities
Site characterization
RRA and PRA and
baseline information
questionnaire
Intervention and
Water Harvesting
Structure
Barley planting
Shrubs planting
Native plants site
selection
Livestock activities
Lambing
Management and
Early Weaning
Lambs Fattening
Measurements of soil
and water component
Measurements of
vegetation cover
components
Measurements of
livestock component
Socioeconomic data
collection
Native plants
measurements and
plant classification
Training (1)
Field day
Public awareness
activities
Maintenance of the
structure
Reporting




                                                                                50
5- Estimated Budge


                                Estimated budget for 2006-2007-2008 by budget line item and activities’ components

                         Item               Allocated        Year             Year               Year         NCARTT
                                             Budget          2006             2007               2008        Contribution
                                             ($US)                                                            (In-kind)
                         Personnel and         22500           7500                  7500          7500              44.000
                         consultancy
                         Travel                 15.000          5.000                5000          5000              15.000
                         Operations cost        30.000         12.000                 9.000         9.000             5.000
                         Capital                19.000         19.000
                         equipment

                         Training , TT          32.500         11.500                11.500        9500               2.000
                         and
                         scholarships
                         Manag.                   6.000         2.000                 2.000         2.000             3.000
                         Meetings and
                         miscellaneous
                         Total                 125.000                                                               69.000
* Note: Livestock component budget is US $ 4.000 per year
        Barley component budget is US $ 2.000 per year
        Socioeconomic Component is US $ 2500 per year

 1. Personnel and consultancies:
     Covers the consultancy fees and salaries of staff employed by the project. This item also covers the cost of local labor or
     temporarily hired staff.
 2. Travel
     Covers travel and perdiam cost of project staff, including the expense incurred for travel by coordinators/Scientists, community
     leaders etc. NCARTT and other governmental staff.
 3. Operation cost:
     Operational cost includes all the materials and supplies (consumables), operation and maintenance of vehicles, tractors rental,
     reporting, communications, etc.,
 4. Capital equipment:
     Covers the cost of vehicles, computers, equipment, constructions at the site, etc
 5. Training and technology transfer:
     Covers the cost of short and long term training courses, graduate studies cost, seminars, workshops and traveling workshops for
     technicians and farmers, field days and meetings. The cost will include, travel, perdium, fees, and cost of training materials and
     supplies, and brochures production and other related costs.
 6. NCARTT in kind contribution:
     Consists of the time of their staff who is involved in the project which is estimated as 15 staff with15 to 25% of their time in
     addition to full-time national coordinator. NCARTT will also provide vehicles and tractors needed the fieldwork. They will
     contribute their meeting and training facilities for project activities. The graduate students who will study for their degrees are
     expected to be an NCARTT staff, therefore their salaries during their studies will be paid by the Center, and the project will pay
     their university fees and research expenses. NCARTT will also provide the digital maps for the project target area.


6. Capital Items
     1.    Portable TDR, one unit
     2.    Total Station, one unit
     3.    Weather station, one unit
     4.    One laptop,
     5.    One digital camera


7- Project Management and Coordination

   The project will be implemented by the National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT) in
   cooperation with the national institutions and NGOs in Jordan and ACSAD. NCARTT appointed from its staff a project national
   coordinator for the project who will have the responsibility of coordinating the implementation within the Center and with the other
   national institution, prepare the workplans and responsible for budget expenditures according to the approved budget line items. He
   will also responsible on the preparation of quarterly progress report and annual report of the project.


8- National Technical Committee: A national technical committee was established and chaired by NCARTT, DG. The members of the
    committee include the themes coordinators, the national coordinator, and ACSAD consultant. The committee will discuss the
    technical wok plans before submission to the steering committee, and make sure that technical work plans meet project objectives. It
    will discuss project annual results and suggests changes as needed. The committee will also maintain high level of coordination and
    integration between the different themes.

                                                                        51
   ACSAD is managing and coordinating the project at the regional level. It will provide the needed technical backstopping and assist in
   work plan development and execution, participate in project meetings and workshops, and provide training for the project staff.
   ACSAD will be responsible on managing the project finance through its ACSAD Amman Office and the Center’s Headquarters
   ACSAD appointed a consultant for the project who will assist the project staff in implementing the project according to the objectives
   as stated in the project document. He will coordinate his work with the national coordinator for proper implementation. He will
   review the project documents and annual reports and represent ACSAD In the national SC and the national TC. He will maintain the
   proper linkage between the project and ACSAD project manager and staff.



9- List of Project Management and Technical Staff
Technical Staff Members (Staff involved in the project in the first year)
NCARTT
Dr. Khlid Zubaidi, National coordinator
Dr. Adnan ElYasin
Dr. Mohammed Dabbas
Dr. Jamal AlRshidat
Eng. Safa Mazahreh,
Eng. Yaser Mohawesh,
Eng. Lubna Mahasneh
Eng. Yahya Al Saatary
Eng. Nisreen Shwahneh
Eng. Amer Karadsheh
Eng. Nasab Rawashdeh
Eng. Manar Talhouni
Eng. Awad Kaabneh
Eng. Yahia Nasr
Eng. Amal ElKhateeb
Eng. Huseen Saleh
Eng. Moawieh Radaideh
Eng. Einas Gharaibeh
Eng. Khaled Bashabsheh
Eng. Marwan suifan
Eng. Hamzeh Rawashdeh
Eng. Lui Kra'an
Eng. Amin Okour
Eng. Moutasem Aboushi
Mrs. Firyal Arabiat
Mrs. Amneh Atall
Mr. Shaban Banat
Mr. Majed Dibajeh


Ministry Of Agriculture
Eng. Abdallah AlShurufat
Eng. Riad Baqaien


Universities
Dr. Majed Abu Zriq - JUST


ACSAD
Dr. Abdallah Droubi
Dr. Eihab Jnad
Specialist in livestock
Specialist in rangeland
Specialist in agricultural socioeconomic




                                                                   52
                                                   MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING
                                                                        BETWEEN

                                                      Agricultural Research Center (ARC)
                                              GREAT SOCIALIST PEOPLE’S LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA

                                                                           and
                                   International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)

                                                                       (Year 2007)


Preamble:

To strengthen the on-going collaboration between the Agricultural Research Center (ARC) of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) in the areas of applied agricultural research, human resources
development and capacity building,

And to build on the previous Letter of Intent for collaboration between ARC and ICARDA, jointly signed by Eng. Mohammed Ferkash Haddad,
Director General of ARC, and Dr Mahmoud Solh, Director General of ICARDA, on 6 May 2006 at ICARDA Headquarters, Aleppo, Syria,

A joint Coordination Meeting was held at ARC Headquarters in Al-Baida, Libya, during the period 22-26 October 2007 under the auspices of H. E.
Dr. Abubaker Al-Mansouri, General Secretary of the General People’s Secretariat for Agriculture, Animal and Marine Wealth (GPSAAMW) in
Jamahiriya, with the participation of Dr. Mahmoud Solh, ICARDA's Director General and Eng. Mohamed Ferkash Haddad, Director General of
ARC, as well as scientists and experts from the two Centers and from GPSAAMW, to discuss and develop the following collaborative research
projects:
      1) Water harvesting
      2) Improvement of cereal (wheat and barley) productivity;
      3) Improvement of small ruminants (sheep and goat) productivity

The objectives of the collaboration between ARC and ICARDA are to:
      1) Enhance ARC’s capacity and relations with regional and international centers to be on a par with advanced research institutions;
      2) Enable ARC to benefit through ICARDA from experiences at other CGIAR Centers in priority areas for Al-Jamahirya; and
      3) Enhance the cooperation between ARC and ICARDA in the area of sustainable agricultural development for food security in Al-
         Jamahirya.

In order to achieve the above objectives and research program, it was agreed:

Article 1  The three agreed-upon research projects form one Integrated Research Program.

Article 2  The development of human resources through specialized training and MSc and PhD degree training is an important component of each
of the three projects, with thesis research focused on solving national agricultural priority issues, in addition to institutionalizing capacity building.

Article 3  The two parties shall form an Executive Committee as follows:
          General Secretary, GPSAAMW:                                               President
          Director General, ARC:                                                    Member
          Director General, ICARDA:                                                 Member
          ARC 'Overall Coordinator' of the joint Integrated Program                 Member
          ICARDA 'Overall Coordinator' of the joint Integrated Program              Member

Article 4  The Executive Committee is responsible for the following duties:
      a)   Developing the necessary strategy for project implementation;
      b)   Assessing, monitoring, evaluating and approving project work plans;
      c)   Allocating and approving the necessary budget for each project;
      d)   Distributing the allocated funds within each project, according to financial and accounting procedures and regulations in force;
      e)   Overseeing the work of the Overall Program Coordinators and Research Project Coordinators to ensure projects are implemented correctly
           and efficiently.

The Executive Committee shall meet once a year, alternatively at ARC and ICARDA.

Article 5  A Steering Committee, comprising the two Overall Program Coordinators and the Research Project Coordinators from ICARDA, ARC
and GPSAAMW, shall be formed and shall be responsible for the following:
      a)   Implementation of research activities according to the approved plan of work;
      b)   Recommending programs for training and capacity building;
      c)   Organizing joint workshops;
      d)   Reviewing and assessing the budgets allocated to each project;
      e)   Proposing suitable plans and activities to meet the agreed-upon objectives;
      f)   Presenting regular three month progress reports for the three projects;
      g)   Evaluating the role and performance of research team members in the three projects.

Article 6  The two parties approved, in principle, the three proposed concept notes (Annexed to this Memorandum of Understanding) and agreed
that a trust fund in the amount of US$ 31,534,000 (thirty-one million, five hundred and thirty-four thousand US dollars) is allocated over a period of
five years to cover the expenses as detailed in the following table:

                                  Project                                         US$' 000
 Water harvesting                                                                       14,250
 Improvement of wheat and barley productivity                                            8,700
 Improvement of small ruminants (sheep and goat) productivity                            8,584
 Total                                                                                  31,534
                                                                            53
Article 7  ARC will transfer the allocated annual funds in US dollars to a bank account specified by ICARDA, which will be used according to the
annual plan of work and budget approved by the Executive Committee.

The allocated funds for the first year will be transferred upon approval of the first year’s plan of work and budget by the Director General of ARC and
the Director General of ICARDA.

Article 8  The Director General of ARC and the Director General of ICARDA will nominate their respective Overall Program Coordinators and
Research Project Coordinators.

Article 9  ARC is responsible for:
a)    Providing the necessary human resources to implement the agreed planned activities.
b)    Facilitating the movement of ICARDA scientists and their access to national institutions and areas where collaborative programs are executed
      in Jamahirya.

Article 10  ICARDA is responsible for:
a)    Providing the joint collaborative program with the necessary scientific and technical backstopping according to the agreed annual work plan
      and budget.
b)    Submitting to ARC an annual technical report for each collaborative project, and a detailed final technical report at the completion of each
      project.
c)    Submitting to the General Secretary of GPSAAMW and the Director General of ARC an annual technical and financial report for the overall
      collaborative program. The financial statement shall contain a breakdown of costs incurred according to the agreed line items in the annual
      budgets.


ARTICLE 11  PUBLICATIONS AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
a)    Results obtained through collaborative research shall be published under the name of both parties. Costs of printing and publishing joint
      publications will be shared equally between both parties.
b)    All inventions, improvements, original works and/or discoveries, which are conceived or made during collaborative projects by one or more
      employees of either party will remain the property of that party, which will have the right to seek intellectual property protection. Each party
      would grant the other party the right to use such inventions, improvement, original works and/or discoveries internally for research purposes
      only. Each party would grant all partners in the national agricultural research systems of developing countries the rights to such inventions,
      improvement, original works and/or discoveries internally for non-commercial purposes. Each party will not transfer to third parties or sell or
      commercialize in any form the intellectual property conceived or made during collaborative projects without prior written approval of the other
      party.



ARTICLE 12  TERMS OF AGREEMENT

a)    This Memorandum of Understanding shall enter into effect two months after budget approval and the transfer of allocated funds.

b)    This Memorandum of Understanding may be amended and/or cancelled upon written request of either party and by written consent of both
      parties.

c)    This Memorandum of Understanding is concluded in five originals in both the Arabic and the English languages. The English
      language version is a translation of the Arabic language version, and the Arabic language version will be used in all interpretations of this
      Memorandum of Understanding.

As agreed by the contracting parties and signed by their authorized representatives as shown below,

Signed:

 On behalf of                                        On behalf of
 AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER                        INTERNATIONAL     CENTER     FOR
 Libya (ARC)                                         AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN THE DRY
                                                     AREAS (ICARDA)


 Eng. Mohamed Ferkash Haddad                         Dr Mahmoud Solh
 General Director                                    Director General




                                                                      Approved by
                                 General People’s Secretariat for Agriculture, Animal and Marine Wealth
                                             Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

                                                             Dr. Abubaker Al-Mansouri
                                                                    General Secretary

                                                       Signed on October 24, 2007 at Al-Baida
                                                                           54
   Jordanian Media Clips
       o Extract from the newspaper “Al-Ghad Al-Urduni”, on 23.4.2006, on “ Badia Project succeds in restoring vegetative
          cover to Al-Muwaqar area”




                                                          55
o Extract from Al-Rai newspaper, 23.4.2006, “ Water Harvesting Project in the Badia establishes sustainable development”




                                                      56
o Extract from “Al-Dustor” newspaper on 23.4.2006, “ Creation of an integrated system for development and water
  harvesting in Badia for sustainable development”




                                                     57

								
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