Amphibians of by WU70cbQ

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									                                   Amphibians
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Division of Parks and Recreation                            Home Page
Program Credits and Information
                          There are 3 kinds of
                            Amphibians in
                              Minnesota

                            Touch around..
                          Can you find them?




 What is an
 Amphibian?
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                To View the

               Herpetologist’s
                   Notes

                About Frogs




You Found an
 Amphibian!

  A Frog!
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                                         Frog
                                         Facts


   Amphibians of Minnesota:

                                      Minnesota
    All About                           Frogs



Frogs!
     TOUCH a tab to turn the page!



                                      Amphibians
Herpetologist:    Ben A. Hopping




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      Frogs are Amphibians!                    Frog
                                               Facts
*They are Cold-Blooded
  They are the same temperature as
  their surroundings. If it’s cold,
  they’re cold! If it’s hot, they’re hot!
*They Lay Eggs                                  Minnesota
  Depending on the species, a frog can            Frogs

  lay hundreds of eggs each year! They
  can be found wrapped around lake-
  bottom weeds or in shallow ponds.
*They Have 2 Lives
  Frogs live in the water, but are adapted
  to land (they have lungs and legs!)



    Frogs eat bugs. Their long, thin tongue
     is attached to the front of their lower    Amphibians
         jaw and curls into their mouth.




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        Tree Frogs                              True Frogs                       Frog
 Smaller than toads or true frogs,   Long-legged, narrow-wasted, & smooth-       Facts
have toe pads, and webbed fingers.     skinned. Fingers are not webbed.




                                                                         Minnesota
    Cope’s Gray         Gray                Bullfrog      Green Frog       Frogs
     Tree Frog        Tree Frog




    Spring Peeper    Northern              Northern      Pickerel Frog
                    Cricket Frog         Leopard Frog




             Western                       Mink Frog      Wood Frog           Amphibians
            Chorus Frog

                    TOUCH a frog to learn more!




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                   Spring Peeper                                                                Frog
                                                                                                Facts
                                                                                Touch to
                                                                                Hear Call

                                       Size: 3/4 - 1 1/4 inches (1.9-3.2 cm)
                                       Voice: Short, loud, high-pitched peep. Many
                                       Peepers singing together sound like sleigh bells.      (BACK)
                                                                                             Minnesota
                                       Identification: Tan with a dark X on its back.          Frogs



Life stages: A single female can produce 800-1,000
eggs, which are laid singly or in clusters of two or three.
Eggs are attached to vegetation and hatch in two to
three days. Transformation occurs within eight weeks.
Maturity is reached within one year.
Breeding habitat: Breeds in fishless, temporary wetlands
associated with forested habitat.
Summer habitat: Forested areas, especially areas with
brushy undergrowth. May be heard calling in the fall.
Winter habitat: Terrestrial. Body can withstand partial                                      Amphibians
freezing.
                                                              Range map for Spring Peeper




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                      Northern                                                                       Frog

                    Leopard Frog
                                                                                                     Facts


  Size: 2 - 3 1/2 inches (5.1-9 cm)
  Voice: A long, deep snore lasting several seconds and
  ending with a chuckling (chuck-chuck-chuck).
                                                                                                   (BACK)
  Identification: Brown or green with dark spots. Spots
                                                                                                  Minnesota
  are rounded and have light borders. There are two color
                                                                                                    Frogs
  mutations of the leopard frog in Minnesota: the Burn's
  leopard frog which lacks spots, and the Kandiyohi
  leopard frog which has flecking between spots.
                                      Life stages: Females can lay more than 6,000 eggs
                                      which may vary from submerged egg masses in
                                      northern populations to a surface film of eggs in
                                      southern populations. The black eggs are attached to
                                      aquatic vegetation. Eggs hatch in 13-20 days and
                                      transform in 70-100 days. Sexual maturity is reached
                                      within two to four years.
                                      Breeding habitat: Marshes, wetlands, and fishless ponds.
                      Touch to
                      Hear Call       Summer habitat: A frog frequently found in grasslands,
                                      wet meadows, and forest edges. During the summer            Amphibians
                                      they may travel one to two miles from water.

Range map for N. Leopard Frogs        Winter habitat: Aquatic.




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               Western Chorus                                                                   Frog

                    Frog
                                                                                                Facts



                                          Size: 3/4 - 1 1/4 inches (1.9-3.2 cm)
                                          Voice: A short, ascending trill-like b-r-e-e-e,
                                          resembling a thumb drawn along the teeth of         (BACK)
                                          a comb. May call after cool summer rains.          Minnesota
                                          Identification: Their individual ranges in the       Frogs
Life stages: Females attach clumps of
                                          state are not clearly known. Skin color ranges
up to 100 eggs to vegetation. Eggs
                                          from tan to shades of gray or red. Three dark
hatch within 18 days. Tadpoles
                                          stripes extend from the head down the back
transform within three months,
                                          and an additional line runs through the eye.
becoming mature within one year.
                                          A white line extends along the upper lip.
Breeding habitat: Temporary shallow
ponds,    flooded       fields,   river
backwaters, lake edges, and ditches.                                Range map
                                                                      for W.
Summer habitat: Associated with a
                                                                    Chorus Frog
variety of habitats, including urban
environments, but often found in
grasslands or forest edges.
                                                                                             Amphibians
Winter habitat: Terrestrial.
                                                                       Touch to
                                                                       Hear Call




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                        Cope’s Gray                                                             Frog

                         Treefrog
                                                                                                Facts


Size: 1 1/4 - 2 inches (3.2-5.1 cm)
Voice: A fast, metallic buzz like trill.
Identification: Closely resembles the
                                                                                              (BACK)
Gray Treefrog and can only be
                                                                                             Minnesota
distinguished in the field by their call.
                                                                                               Frogs
Coloration is normally solid green or
mottled gray. Bright yellow-orange           Life stages: Eggs are laid in loose clusters
coloring on inner surface of hind legs.      of up to 40 eggs and are attached to
Large adhesive pads on tips of fingers and   vegetation near the surface of the water.
toes enable them to climb vegetation.        The eggs hatch in three to six days,
Skin secretions may be irritating to the     transforming within two months. Sexual
mucous membranes of human eyes and           maturity is reached within two years.
nose.
                                             Breeding habitat: Shallow wetlands. Wet
                                             meadows and shrub swamps.
                  Range map for
                   Cope’s Gray               Summer habitat: Prairie wetlands, shrub
                    Treefrogs                swamps, and woodlands. Also inhabits
                                             urban yards and may be seen clinging to
                                             windows on summer nights.                       Amphibians
                               Touch to      Winter habitat: Terrestrial. Body can
                               Hear Call     withstand partial freezing.




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                   Gray Treefrog                                                               Frog
                                                                                               Facts


 Size: 1 1/4 - 2 inches (3.2-5.1 cm)
 Voice: A musical, birdlike trill. The
 call is similar to the Cope's gray
 treefrog, but slower. They may call                                                         (BACK)
 while perched in tree branches.                                                            Minnesota
                                                                                              Frogs
 Identification: Closely resembles the
 Cope's gray treefrog and can only be
 distinguished in the field by their     Life stages: Clusters of up to 30 eggs are
 call. The gray treefrog has twice as    attached to vegetation near the surface of the
 many chromosomes as the Cope's          water. The eggs hatch in three to six days.
 gray treefrog.                          Tadpoles transform within two months.
                                         Adults reach maturity within two years.
                                         Breeding habitat: Shallow wetlands within or
                                         near forested habitat.
                                         Summer habitat: Closely associated with
                                         woodland and forest habitats. Often found in
                         Touch to        residential areas where it may be seen on
                         Hear Call       windows feeding on insects attracted to lights.    Amphibians

                                         Winter habitat: Terrestrial.Body can withstand
                                         partial freezing.
Range map for Gray Treefrogs



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            Northern Cricket                                                                   Frog

                 Frog
                                                                                               Facts


Size: 5/8 - 1 1/2 inches (1.6-3.8 cm)
Voice: A fast, repeated clicking, like two
pebbles being struck together.                                                               (BACK)
Identification: A tiny, warty, non-climbing                                                 Minnesota
treefrog. Toes are heavily webbed and toe                                                     Frogs
pads are absent. Dark triangular spot
between eyes is typically present.
                                        Life stages: One female can lay 200 eggs in
                                        surface clusters of 10 to 15 eggs each. Eggs are
                                        attached to vegetation in water. This species
                                        becomes sexually mature within one year.
                                         Breeding habitat: Prefers to breed in wetlands
                                         and streams with adjacent mud flats and
                                         abundant emergent vegetation.
                                         Summer habitat: Typically near water.
                                         Winter habitat: Terrestrial. Little is known
                                         about overwintering habits of cricket frogs in     Amphibians
                                         Minnesota. Research in Illinois and Ohio
                                         indicates that this species overwinters in
                                         natural depressions such as holes or cracks.
   Range map for N. Cricket Frogs



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                            Bullfrog                                                         Frog
                                                                                             Facts
Size: 3 1/2 - 8 inches (9-20.3 cm). This is
the largest North American frog.
Voice: A resonant series of deep bass notes
sounding like rrr-uum or jug-o-rum.
Identification: Green skin coloration with                                                 (BACK)
yellow throat in males and white in                                                       Minnesota
females. No dorsolateral fold is present.                                                   Frogs
                                       Life stages: One female may lay up to
                                       20,000 eggs in a surface film. Tadpoles
                                       require two years for transformation, and
                                       three additional years to reach maturity.
                                       Breeding habitat: Breeding         occurs   in
                                       permanent bodies of water.
                                       Summer habitat: This highly aquatic frog
                                       prefers large bodies of water such as lakes,
                                       ponds, sluggish streams, and backwaters of
                           Touch to    rivers. Although introduced local populations
                           Hear Call   occur in several counties in central and
                                       southern Minnesota, this species is only           Amphibians
                                       native to the southeastern corner of the state.

 Range map for Bullfrogs               Winter habitat: Aquatic.




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                      Green Frog                                                              Frog
                                                                                              Facts
Size: 2 3/8 - 3 1/2 inches (6-9 cm)
Voice: A throaty gunk or boink, like the
pluck of a loose banjo string. Often calls
during day and night. The male has paired
vocal pouches.                                                                              (BACK)
Identification: Coloration is similar to the                                               Minnesota
bullfrog but may be more brown than                                                          Frogs
green. Unlike bullfrogs, the dorsolateral      Life stages: Up to 7,000 eggs are
fold is typically present in green frogs.      released on the water's surface. Most
Usually there is dark mottling under legs      tadpoles overwinter the first year and
and head. Skin is smooth or finely granular.   transform the following summer.
                                               Maturity is reached in two years after
                                               transformation.
                                               Breeding habitat: Breeds in permanent
                                               bodies of water.
                                               Summer habitat: This highly aquatic
                                               species is often associated with streams
                            Touch to           and ditches, although it also inhabits
                            Hear Call          shallow water of lakes and ponds.           Amphibians
                                               Winter habitat: Aquatic, often in
  Range map for Green frogs                    streams and ditches.




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                  Pickerel Frog                                                            Frog
                                                                                           Facts

                                         Size: 1 3/4 - 3 1/4 inches (4.5-8 cm)
                                         Voice: Quiet, long drawn-out snore.
                                         Similar to the northern leopard frog, but
                                         lacking the chuckle at the end.
                                                                                         (BACK)
                                         Identification: Similar to northern leopard    Minnesota
                                         frog but spots located between dorsolateral      Frogs
                                         folds along the back are paired and
                                         rectangular, not rounded. Bright yellow
Life stages: Eggs are laid under water   coloration inside the thighs. Skin gland
attached to vegetation in a globular     secretions make this frog distasteful to
mass. They hatch in about two weeks      most potential predators.
and transform in 60 to 80 days.
Breeding habitat: Backwaters of rivers
and streams.
Summer habitat: Inhabits cool, clear
water of wooded streams with a dense                              Range map for
forest canopy. Feeds in grassy                                    Pickerel frogs
openings adjacent to streams.                                                           Amphibians
Winter habitat: Aquatic, rivers and
streams.




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                        Wood Frog                                                                 Frog
                                                                                                  Facts
Size: 2 - 2 3/4 inches (5.1-7 cm)
Voice: Often the first species
heard calling in the spring. Their
short chuckle is a harsh racket,
racket, racket. Males have paired                                               Touch to
vocal sacs.                                                                     Hear Call       (BACK)
Identification: A dark, masklike                                                               Minnesota
patch extends backwards from the                                                                 Frogs
eyes. Skin coloration is typically
brown, but can range from shades Life stages: Large, dense globs of up to 3,000 eggs
of reddish-brown to almost black. are attached to aquatic vegetation. Egg masses are
Prominent dorsolateral folds.      often laid communally and hatch within three
                                   weeks. Tadpoles transform within six to nine weeks
                                   and reach maturity in two to four years.
                                     Breeding habitat: Bogs, temporary            forested
                                     wetlands, forested lakes, and streams.
                                     Summer habitat: Occupies woodland and forest
                                     habitat, sometimes traveling a considerable
                                     distance from water.
                                     Winter habitat: Terrestrial, tolerating partial           Amphibians
                                     freezing of body fluids. Overwinters in leaf litter of
  Range map for Wood frogs           the forest floor.




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                        Mink Frog                                                           Frog
                                                                                            Facts

                                         Size: 2 -2 3/4 inches (5.1-7 cm)
                                         Voice: A rapid cut, cut, cut resembling a
                                         hammer striking wood. When mink frogs
                                         call in chorus it sounds like horses' hooves
                                         on a cobblestone road. Males have paired         (BACK)
                                         vocal pouches.                                  Minnesota
                                                                                           Frogs
                                         Identification: Similar to the green frog,
                                         although dorsolateral folds may be absent,
Life stages: Up to 4,000 eggs are laid   partial, or prominent. The skin produces a
in loose clusters. Tadpoles transform    musky odor similar to the scent of a mink
in one to two years, reaching            when the frog is handled.
maturity in two to three more years.
Breeding habitat: This highly aquatic
frog breeds in permanent ponds and
lakes of the north woods.
Summer habitat: Inhabits borders of
forested ponds and lakes where water                            Range map for
lilies are plentiful. Individuals                                Mink frogs
frequently move about by hopping                                                         Amphibians
from pad to pad.
Winter habitat: Aquatic.




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  A Toad!

You Found an
 Amphibian!

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               to View the

            Herpetologist’s
                Notes

               About Toads



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                                         Toad
                                         Facts


   Amphibians of Minnesota:

                                      Minnesota
    All About                           Toads



TOADS!
     TOUCH a tab to turn the page!



                                      Amphibians
Herpetologist:    Ruff N. Worty




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      Toads are Amphibians!                 Toad
                                            Facts
*They are Cold-Blooded
  They are the same temperature as
  their surroundings. If it’s cold,
  they’re cold! If it’s hot, they’re hot!
                                             Minnesota
*They Lay Eggs                                 Toads
  Depending on the species, a toad can
  lay hundreds of eggs each year! Their
  eggs are laid in tubes, not masses.
*They Have 2 Lives
  Toads are terrestrial. After they
  transform from a tadpole, they live the
  rest of their life on land.


    Toads eat bugs. Unlike frogs, they
      do not use their tongues, but          Amphibians
    chomp with their mouths, like us!




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                         Toads                                                Toad
         There are only 3 kinds of toads found in                             Facts
         Minnesota. Have you seen any of these?




                                                                      Minnesota
                                                                        Toads

American Toad      Canadian Toad           Great Plains Toad



                         Note: Here are 5 ways toads differ from frogs!
                    1.     The have shorter, thicker back legs
                    2.     They don’t hop very far per jump
                    3.     They eat with their mouth (not tongue)
                    4.     They’re dry & bumpy, not slimy & smooth
                    5.     They live in the woods, not the water!
                                                                           Amphibians


           TOUCH a toad to learn more!




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              American Toad                                                                 Toad
                                                                                            Facts

                                                   Size: 2 - 3 1/2 inches (5.1-9 cm)
                                                   Voice: A long, drawn-out, high-
                                                   pitched, musical trill lasting up
                                                   to 30 seconds. The male's vocal
                                     Touch to      sac is round when inflated.            (BACK)
                                     Hear Call                                           Minnesota
                                                   Identification: Skin coloration is      Toads
Life stages: Females lay up to 20,000 eggs         typically brown or reddish. One
which normally hatch within one week. Large        or two warts are present in each
schools of tiny, black tadpoles feed together      of the large dark blotches on
along the edge of shallow wetlands, emerging       their back. The white chest
as a mass of tiny toads within approximately six   usually has dark speckles. The
weeks. Maturity occurs in two to three years.      parotoid gland is typically
                                                   separated from the cranial ridge.
Breeding habitat: Temporary wetlands, swamps,
shallow bays of lakes, and backwaters of rivers,
streams and ditches.
Summer habitat: While this species is most
often associated with forest and woodland                            Range map for
habitat, it also occupies grasslands, yards, and                     American Toads
gardens.                                                                                 Amphibians

Winter habitat: Subterranean, burrows below
frost line.




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             Canadian Toad                                                                   Toad
                                                                                             Facts
                                                Size: 2 - 3 1/2 inches (5.1-9 cm)
                                                Voice: A clear trill very similar to the
                                                American Toad, but lower in pitch and
                                                shorter, lasting approximately five
                                                seconds. The male's vocal sac is round
                                                when inflated.                             (BACK)
                                                                                          Minnesota
                                                Identification:   Very     similar     in   Toads
Life stages: Females lay up to 20,000 eggs      appearance to the American toad,
which typically hatch within one week. Tiny     although the cranial ridge of adult
toads emerge within approximately six weeks.    Canadian toads fuses to form a large
                                                dome, called a boss, between the eyes.
Breeding habitat: Breeds in shallow wetlands,
streams, and roadside ditches.
                                                                    Range map for
Summer habitat: More aquatic than most                              Canadian Toads
toads, typically found in or near the margins
of prairie wetlands. Capable of tolerating
extreme heat by remaining dormant for
several days.
Winter habitat: Subterranean, burrows below
                                                                           Touch to
frost line. This species often overwinters                                                 Amphibians
                                                                           Hear Call
communally within small earth mounds,
called mima mounds. These mounds may
hold several hundred toads over the winter.




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          Great Plains Toad                                                                   Toad
                                                                                              Facts
Size: 2 - 3 1/2 inches (5.1-9 cm)
Voice: A loud, harsh, pulsating trill with
a metallic quality. Often lasts 20 seconds
or more. Sausage-shaped vocal sac.
Identification: Skin coloration is gray,                                             (BACK)
brown, or greenish. It has large blotches    Life stages: Females may produce up to Minnesota
which have a strongly contrasting white      20,000 eggs which hatch in two days.     Toads
border. The blotches contain several         Tadpoles emerge within six weeks.
small warts. The chest is white with no      Breeding habitat: Breeding activity is
speckles. Cranial ridges form a V,           triggered by warm, heavy rains. Large
spreading apart from the snout. Parotoid     numbers of toads may gather to breed in
glands are smaller than those of the         shallow temporary wetlands, flooded fields,
American and Canadian toads.                 or backwaters of streams and ditches.
                                             Summer habitat: An accomplished burrower,
                                             this species may hide underground during
                    Range map for
                                             the day or for extended periods of extreme
                   Great Plains Toads
                                             heat or drought. Prefers wide open spaces,
                                             occupying grasslands and agricultural fields
                                             of western Minnesota.
                                                                                            Amphibians
                        Touch to             Winter habitat: Subterranean, burrows below
                        Hear Call            frost line.




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                  A Salamander!
                  You Found an
                   Amphibian!

   TOUCH
  to View the
Herpetologist’s
    Notes

    About
 Salamanders


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                         Another
                           Amphibian   Home Page
                                     Salamander
                                         Facts


   Amphibians of Minnesota:

                                      Minnesota
    All About                        Salamanders

Salamanders!


     TOUCH a tab to turn the page!



                                      Amphibians
Herpetologist:    B. Crawling




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 Salamanders are Amphibians!                                    Salamander
                                                                   Facts
*They are Cold-Blooded
                                            Salamanders eat
  They are the same temperature as           anything from
  their surroundings. If it’s cold,            insects, and
  they’re cold! If it’s hot, they’re hot!   worms to dead
                                                                    Minnesota
*They Lay Eggs                               fish and snails!
                                                                   Salamanders
  Salamanders lay their eggs in the
  water, like frogs and toads.
*They Have 2 Lives
  Salamanders are born looking like
  tadpoles and breathing through gills.
  As they grow, they develop lungs and
  live under rocks and logs on land.



                                                                    Amphibians




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                       Salamanders                                          Salamander
Don’t confuse salamanders with lizards! Lizards are reptiles: they lay          Facts
 their eggs on land, have scaly skin, and do not change body forms!




                                                                          Minnesota
                                                                         Salamanders

 Blue-spotted        Eastern Red-backed         Four-toed
 Salamander              Salamander            Salamander




               Spotted            Tiger Salamander
             Salamander                                                      Amphibians


           TOUCH a salamander to learn more!




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           Tiger Salamander                                                                            Salamander
                                                                                                           Facts
The common Tiger salamander is black
with yellow markings that are highly
variable in size and shape. The belly of
the Tiger salamander is greenish-brown.
Adults dwell in burrows underground,
surfacing to feed during the night or to                                                                  (Back)
move to or from breeding sites during                                                                   Minnesota
rainy nights in early spring. Tiger                                                                    Salamanders
salamanders      are   fairly    common
throughout much of Minnesota,
occupying a variety of habitats.

NOTE: Tiger Salamanders resemble Spotted Salamanders, a species recently documented in Minnesota. If
you think you've seen Spotted Salamanders please e-mail Carol Hall (at carol.hall@dnr.state.mn.us)
with information about the date and location of your observation. Please look closely to distinguish
between the two species. When possible, please include a digital image of the salamander with both
dorsal (top) and ventral (bottom) views.




                                                                                                       Amphibians

                                 Ventral (bottom) views of
                    Spotted Salamander (left) and Tiger Salamander (right)




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                  Blue-spotted                                                      Salamander

                  Salamander
                                                                                        Facts




This is the most common salamander found in Minnesota woodlands. It is identified
by bluish spots or flecks on a black to gray-black body. Although common in
forested habitats, these small amphibians often go unnoticed because they spend        (Back)
much of their time under woody debris. As with most salamanders species, Blue-       Minnesota
spotted Salamanders can't tolerate dry habitats. They eat a variety of insects,     Salamanders
earthworms, spiders and snails.




                                                               Blue-spotted         Amphibians
                                                             Salamander Eggs




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      Eastern Red-backed                                                                  Salamander
                                                                                              Facts

         Salamander
The red to red-orange stripe running from the head to the tail of this salamander is
distinctive. Their sides are dark, often with gray-blue spots. These small, thin
salamanders are lung-less and breathe through their skin. Unlike most salamanders            (Back)
that spend at least part of their life in the water, Eastern red-backed salamanders are    Minnesota
completely terrestrial.                                                                   Salamanders




                                                                                          Amphibians




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 Four-toed                                      Salamander

Salamander
                                                    Facts




      Four-toed        salamanders     were
      documented for the first time in
      Minnesota in 1994. It is a secretive,        (Back)
      small salamander up to 10 cm (4            Minnesota
      inches) in length. It has only four       Salamanders
      toes on its front and hind feet.
      Four-toed salamanders are typically
      found in small colonies. Adults
      inhabit mature hardwood forests.
      They find shelter in the forest floor
      under leaf litter, woody debris, rocks,
      and moss. Females lay eggs in
      sphagnum moss hummocks in
      shallow wetlands.




                                                Amphibians




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     Spotted Salamander                                                                     Salamander
                                                                                                Facts




                                                                                               (Back)
                                                                                             Minnesota
                                                                                            Salamanders




   This elusive species was documented in
   Minnesota in 2001 when seven egg masses
   were located in a shallow wetland within the
   Nemadji State Forest.
   Spotted Salamander eggs are large,
   gelatinous, and in masses of 75 to 100 eggs.


Note: If you think you've seen Spotted Salamanders in Minnesota please e-mail Carol
Hall (at carol.hall@dnr.state.mn.us) with information about the date and location of your   Amphibians
observation. Please look closely at the salamander to distinguish it from the Tiger
Salamander. When possible, please include a digital image of the salamander with both
dorsal (top) and ventral




                                                                                                          Home Page
   Are Adapted to              Are Cold-blooded
   Land & Water              They’re blood is not heated like ours.         Frogs
                           Instead they are the same temperature as
                                      their surroundings.

                            Look! We are always the
                            same temperature. Frogs
                            change depending on the
                                    weather!


                                                                            Toads


                Amphibians                            (Hot Warm Cold)




                                                                         Salamanders



Adults              Eggs


         Tadpoles                                                 Amphibians
 Have 3 Life Stages            Lay Eggs in Water



                                                                        Find
                                                                         Another
                                                                           Amphibian   Home Page
          Credits                                                                  Go Back


Program Editors:
Kacie Carlson, Naturalist, Lake Carlos State Park
Judy Thompson, Regional Naturalist, Central Region
Bryce Anderson, Interpretive Operations Coordinator, Minnesota DNR

Equipment Management:
Retta James-Gasser, Regional Naturalist, Northeast Region
Bryce Anderson, Interpretive Operations Coordinator, Minnesota DNR

Photos Provided By:
Cornell University: Calling, Food Chain, & Lifecycle Pictures
A.B. Sheldon: Spring Peeper, Leopard Frog, Pickerel Frog, Northern Cricket Frog,
                  Western Chorus Frog, American Toad, Great Plains Toad
J. Gerholdt.: Cope’s Gray Treefrog
D. Lawson Gerdes: Gray Treefrog
B. Oldfield: Bullfrog, Green Frog, Wood Frog, Mink Frog, Canadian Toad
Carroll Hall: All Salamander Pictures



                Program Last Revised 12-16-2008
              Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
                   Division of Parks and Recreation
                      500 Lafayette Road Box 39
                      St. Paul, Minnesota 55155
                             651-259-5600
                        www.mnstateparks.info
                                                                                      Home Page

								
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