Factors Affecting the Establishment of Knowledge by maspuryadi


									1) Know / Know

Know interpreted as considering a matter which has been studied is the lowest level of knowledge.

2) Comprehension / Understanding

Understanding is the ability to explain properly about the object to be known and be able to interpret

material correctly.

3) Application / Application

Application is defined as the ability to mneggunakan materials have been studied in a situation or

condition of the real

4) ANALISYS / Analysis

Analysis of a capability in describing the material or object into the components, but still within the

structure of the organization.

5) Synthesis

Synthesis showed the ability to place or connect the parts in a whole new form. In other words the

ability to compile existing formulations.

6) Evaluation

Evaluation related to the ability to conduct an assessment of an object or material.

Or cognitive knowledge is very important dominant in shaping a person's actions (overt behavior). Of

knowledge and research was based on knowledge of behavior will be more lasting than the behavior

that is not based on knowledge (Notoatmodjo, 2003)

  According Notoatmodjo (2003) knowledge can be gained from his own experience and from others'

experiences. One's knowledge is collected and applied in stages, starting from the simplest ketahap the

most complete, stage are:

1) Awareness (awareness) of the person is aware in the sense of knowing in advance of the stimulus.

2) Interest (interest) to particular stimuli or objects subject attitude starts here.

3) Evaluation (weigh) to both the stimulus and whether or not for him, this means that the attitude of
respondents are even better.

4) Trial (try to) where the subject has begun to try to do something with what is desired by the stimulus.

5) Adaption (adoption) where the subject has a new act in conformity with the knowledge, awareness

and attitude toward the stimulus.

If the process of acceptance or adoption of new behaviors through such a process is based on the

knowledge, awareness and positive attitude then the behavior will be durable (long lasting).

Conversely, when the behavior is not based on the knowledge it will not last long (Notoatmodjo, 2003).

c. Factors Affecting the Establishment of Knowledge

According Notoatmodjo (2003) as for the factors that influence the formation of knowledge is as


1) Education

The higher level of education a person gets easier meneriam information so that there are many dimilik


2) Age

Age is calculated from the individual age at birth until her birthday. Getting sufficient age and maturity

level of a person's strength will be more mature in thinking and working.

3) Experience

Experience is the source of knowledge or how to obtain the truth of knowledge, personal experience or

can be used as an effort to obtain knowledge.

4) Source of Information

Information on how to achieve a healthy lifestyle, the way health care, how to avoid disease and so on.

With the knowledge that would cause a person to behave in accordance with its.
5) Income

Low income will affect the ability of families to meet the nutritional needs, education and other needs.

3. Basic Concepts Discipline

a. Disciplinary definitions

1) Discipline is a condition that is created and formed through a process of a series of behaviors that

demonstrate the values of obedience, obedience, loyalty, order, or order that will make him know the

difference between what things should and must be done and who is not duly performed

(Prijodarminto, 2000).

2) Discipline is a rule or order which must be complied with by the person so that all activities run well

(Badudu.Js, 2001). It can be concluded that the discipline is a behavior consciously and iklas to execute

an order and norms regularly and routinely.

4. The basic concept in the basic immunization

a. Understanding

According IDAI (2008) derived from immunization of immune, immune or resistant, so immunization

is an action or a way to boost one's immunity is active against an antigen or a disease primarily of

seven diseases (TB Disease, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Whooping Cough, Poliomyelitis, Measles and

Hepatitis B) so that when later he was exposed to a similar disease, the disease does not occur. While

the basic immunization is a way to increase the active immunity to the infant age 0 to 11 months.

. While resistance is a condition where the body has the ability to prevent diseases caused by certain

germs. There are two kinds of immune, active and passive (IDAI, 2008)

b. This type of immunity

1) Active Immunity

According IDAI (2008) Immune activation is made by the body's immune themselves from exposure to

the antigen as in immunization, or exposure to natural causes. Active immunity lasts longer than the
passive immunity due to immunologic memory.

Active immunity can be divided into two:

a) natural active immunity, which the child's body makes its own immunity after having recovered from

an illness.

b) an artificial active immunity, the immunity which made the body after getting the vaccine.

2) Passive Immunity

Passive immunity is immunity acquired from outside the body, not made by the individuals themselves.

Passive immunity does not last long because it will be metabolized by the body (IDAI, 2008). Passive

immunity can be obtained from the fetus to the mother imonoglobulin injection during pregnancy

(IDAI, 2008)

Passive immunity in two ways:

a) passive immunity passive natural or innate immunity, the immunity acquired at birth the baby from

his mother.

b) the artificial passive immunity where immunity is acquired after an injection of repellent substances

(IDAI, 2008).

c. Benefits of immunization

According IDAI (2008) the benefits of immunization include:

1) To minimize the risk of contracting a disease.

2) mitigate the impact if there is a specific infection in a person and eliminating certain diseases in a

group of people.

3) to prevent a disease does not become more severe

d. Things that need to be considered in using the vaccine

According IDAI (2008) prior to vaccination, it is recommended to follow the procedures as follows:
1) Requirements for vaccine delivery

a) Informing in detail about the risks of immunization and the risk if not vaccinated.

b) Not given to babies who are sick, for example: illness, in the shoots of a disease, immunological


c) The vaccine should be well kept in the refrigerator and the future life of the

d) Provision of immunization with the right technique

e) Determine the immunization schedule

f) examine the types of vaccine will be given if there were signs of change.

2) Contra indication of immunization.

There are several conditions to be considered for not giving out immunizations in children, namely:

a) Fever or high heat to cause serious

b) Changes in the immune system that can not receive live virus vaccines.

c) Is in the administration of drugs that suppress the immune system, such as sitostatika, blood

transfusion, and immunoglobulins.

d) history of previous allergy to the vaccine such as pertussis (MOH, 2008).

e. Type of immunization

This type of immunization includes vaccinations against seven major diseases, namely BCG, DPT,

polio, measles, and hepatitis B should be a concern and duty of parents to give children the opportunity

to complete immunization, so that government targets that every child gets basic imunisai of 7 The

main diseases that are preventable by immunization can be achieved.

1) BCG

a) Vaccination and vaccines

BCG immunization aims to induce active immunity against tuberculosis (TB). This type of vaccine is a

powder and a solvent. This vaccine should not be exposed to sunlight, should be stored at 2-8 ˚ C,

which should not be diluted beku.Vaksin must be used within 8 hours (MOH, 2008)
b) How to Immunization

BCG immunization should be done when the baby is 0-2 months old. BCG immunization is given

enough one time only. In children older than 2 months, it is recommended to perform Mantoux test

before BCG immunization. Useful to know whether he had contracted tuberculosis. If a positive

Mantoux test result, the child should not receive BCG immunization (IDAI, 2008).

Before the injection of BCG vaccine should be dissolved first. Dissolving it by using a sterile syringe

(5ml ADS), 0.05 ml dose administration once. The vaccine is injected in the upper right arm intrakutan

area (MOH, 2008).

c) Immunity

Protective effects occur 8-12 weeks after injection. The protective effect varies between 0-80% related

to several factors: the quality of vaccine used, atypical Myicobacterium environment or host factors

(age, nutritional status, etc.) (IDAI, 2008).

d) Immunization Reactions

Injection of BCG in itradermal will cause local superficial ulcer 3 weeks after penyuntikan.Ulkus

closed crust will recover in 2-3 months, and leave scars with a diameter of 4-8 mm round. If the dose is

too high then the larger ulcers that arise, but if injected too deeply interested in the scarring that occurs

into the (IDAI, 2008).

e) Side Effects

BCG immunization does not cause a reaction of a general nature such as demam.1-2 weeks later there

will be induration and redness of the injection place is transformed into pustules, then broke into

luka.Luka not need treatment, will heal spontaneously leaving marks and scarring. It sometimes

happens enlarged regional glands diketiak or neck, feels solid, not sick and do not cause this

demam.Reaksi normal, do not require treatment and removes itself (MOH, 2008).
f) Contra indications

There are no restrictions except for BCG immunization in children with tuberculosis or diseased

Mantouxs test showed positive, suffering from a widespread skin infection, malnourished, suffering

from high fever and HIV infection (IDAI, 2008).

2) DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus)

a) vaccine and vaccines

The vaccine contains diphtheria and tetanus germs and germs are attenuated Bordetella Pertusi is

turned off. This vaccine can prevent diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. DPT vaccine is done at the age

of 2 months and repeated at the age of 3 months, 4 months. Form of the vaccine is ready for use. Once

injected the baby will be fever, injection site pain and swelling for 1-2 days will (IDAI, 2008).

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