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Chapter 9 The Road to Revolution

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					The Road to Revolution
       Chapter 9
            Differences Arise

• Some settlers established their own :
  – Newspapers
  – schools
• Some settlers:
  – Kept their own customs
  – Did not become Catholic
                 States Rights
• Mexico’s Constitution of 1824
  – Established states rights
  – Placed the province of Texas in the Mexican
    state of Coahuila y Tejas
• Nationalist concerns increased hostilities
             Edwards Brothers

• In 1825 Haden Edwards received a very large land
  grant in eastern Texas-near Nacogodoches.
• Required to honor previous land grants-but many did
  not have proof.
• After a bogus election the Governor reversed the
  election decision and took away the land grant.
• Edwards negotiated a treaty with the Cherokees.
         Fredonian Rebellion

• Occured near Nacogdoches in 1826.
• Edwards and followers formed the Fredonian
  Republic.
• Stephen Austin’s milita joined the Mexican
  government’s troops to defeat the
  Fredonians.
   An Attempt to Purchase Texas
• Mexican officials feared that the settlers had
  secret ties with the U.S.
• In 1826 U.S. president John Quincy Adams
  sent Joel Poinsett to Mexico with an offer buy
  all or part of Texas.
       The Mier y Teran Report
• An increasing number of settlers from the U.S.
  the Fredonian Rebellion, and the offer to buy
  Texas fueled concerns of the Mexican
  nationalists.
• Mexico sent Manuel Meir y Teran, a
  commander in the Mexican army, to
  investigate the conditions in Texas.
          Mier y Teran Report
• Teran reported that the Anglo settlers
  outnumbered the Mexican settlers 10 to 1.
• Noted that the United States influence was
  growing in Texas.
• Mexican President Vicente Guerrero
  responded by attempting to make Texas less
  attractive for future colonists.
         The Law of April 6, 1830
• Purpose was to control Texas colonists.
• Outlawed immigration from the U.S. to Texas and
  canceled all empresarial grants that had not been
  fulfilled.
• The United State could no longer colonize any
  Mexican border state
• This law also included other provisions designed to
  slow Anglo American immigration:
   – Slaves could no longer be brought in work the fields
   – New forts and presidios were built to stop illegal
     immigration
   – A customs duty was placed on all goods entering Texas
     from the U.S.
       The Law of April 6, 1830
• The government encouraged Mexican and
  European settlers to relocate to Texas-the law
  of April 6, 1830 even provided land and
  money for these settlers.
• This law upset and alarmed Anglo Texans.
• The law also raised questions within the
  Mexican government.
• Increased the tensions between Texas and the
  Mexican government.
               Bitter Division
• The Law of April 6, 1830 marked a turning
  point in the relationship between the Texas
  colonists and the Mexican Government.
• Mexican troops were sent to Texas to collect
  customs duties.
  – Texans were upset at the presence of military
    force and the new taxes!
                     Santa Anna
• President Bustamante was ignoring the Constitution
  of 1824.
   – This upset many Anglo-Americans and Mexicans living in
     Texas.
• Santa Anna claimed he was not a centralist.
• He staged a revolution to oust President Bustamante.
• Stephen F. Austin helped to convince the Mexican
  government that the Texans were in favor of Santa
  Anna.
• Santa Anna lied and was actually a centralist.
   – He wanted all power centralized in himself, not in states’
     rights.
       Turtle Bayou Resolutions
• Settlers sent John Austin to Brazoria to bring
  back a cannon.
• Turtle Bayou Resolutions
  – Colonists pledged their loyalty to Mexico and
    Santa Anna.
  – Remember: Santa Anna was a centralist posing as
    a nationalist!
             Battle of Velasco
• John Austin has the cannon and he’s on his
  way back to Brazoria.
  – He and his men sail down the Brazos River toward
    the Gulf of Mexico.
• They arrive in Velasco.
  – Colonel Urgartechea refuses to let the men pass
    through Velasco with the cannon.
  – Fighting breaks out!
  – First time Mexican and Texan troops fire at one
    another.
             Convention of 1832
• Texans met in San Felipe de Austin and drafted a set
  of resolutions.
• Texans pledge their support for the Constitution of
  1824.
• Called for a repeal of the Law of April 6, 1830 and
  the customs duty.
   – Repeal: to take away
• Wanted to allow U.S. immigration to Texas.
• Wanted the Mexican government to divide the state
  of Coahuila y Tejas and grant Texas statehood.
• Established a plan to create a militia.
• Donate government lands for public schools.
           Convention of 1833
• Same proposals at the Convention of 1832
  EXCEPT they drafted a new Constitution.
  – Mexican state of Texas!
• To the Mexican government, this looked like
  an act of defiance!
                SFA is in Mexico
• SFA leaves for Mexico to take the new resolutions to
  the Mexican government.
• 1833 – impatient SFA wrote a letter to his fellow
  Texans.
   – The letter suggested the Texans establish a new state
     government.
   – New state government would make Texas separate from
     Coahuila but still a part of Mexico.
• SFA meets with Santa Anna
   – Santa Anna repealed the immigration law prohibiting
     immigrants from the U.S.
   – Promised fair taxes on goods imported from the U.S.
   – Rejected separate statehood for Texas.
               SFA Arrested!
• Austin’s letter to the Texans was intercepted.
• He was accused of treason.
• He was imprisoned in Mexico City for a year
  and never received a trial.
            Conflict Escalates
• Texans soon found out that Santa Anna was a
  centralist and not a nationalist.
• He had a new constitution written that placed
  all the power in his hands!
• To squash any rebellion that might take place
  in Texas, Santa Anna sent General Cos to
  watch over Texas.
   Battle of Gonzales
• General Urgartechea hears there is a 6 pound
  cannon in the town of Gonzales.
• Texans refused to return the cannon.
• When the Mexican army arrived, the Texans
  fired on the Mexicans forcing them to retreat
  to San Antonio.
• This battle showed that the Texans were
  willing to use military force if necessary.
• The Battle of Gonzales is the battle that began
  the revolution!
    Siege of Bexar (San Antonio)
• Texans capture the city of San Antonio from
  General Cos.
• Texans believed the crisis was over.
• Santa Anna had other ideas!

				
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