HW1_120070461_.doc - UPINAR by jianglifang


									                                                      160070021 ‫عبدا هلل احمد زعرب‬
       1- What is acomputer?

it is a set of components (hardware and software), which are related to each other,
hardware: is the physical component, and software is the programs
hardware and software works depending on each other, controlled by the user

   2- How are computer technologies used by the military?

   In today’s busy world of technology, where it seems like we can hardly keep
   up with the daily advances being made, the United States Military is posed on
   the cutting edge. The military spends billions of dollars each year on
   electronic technology research with private firms such as International
   Telegraph and Telephone Aerospace/Communications Division (ITT A/CD).
   There is a wide range of uses for computers on today’s battlefield. Two of the
   major areas include communications, and battlefield management systems.
   All of these systems are just parts of the military’s tactical internet.

   3-What are the categories of computer hardware?

       Motherboard - A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making
        up a computer system or other complex electronic system
       Storage - The terms storage or memory refer to those parts of a computer that
        retain data for some period of time, possibly even after the computer is turned
       Input/output devices - or I/O, refers to the interfaces that different functional
        units of a system use to communicate among each other, or to the signals sent
        through those interfaces

    4- What are the difference between data, information and

Data is the information that a program will act upon. For example, your data
might be all of your financial records for the past year, and the program would
be some piece of tax software. The program will act upon your data so that the
appropriate numbers are placed in the appropriate fields on your tax return.

   5-What happens when you press a key, which on the computer's

The Key factor on the battlefield is communications. Excellent communication is
necessary to keep all units working in unison, both on the front lines and in
tactical command and control centers in the rear element. The United States
Military and ITT A/CD developed the Single Channel Ground and Airborne
Radio System (SINCGARS) family. In 1988 the first SINCGAR was released for
testing. At this point the SINCGAR was a basic voice only communicati
   6-Explain how a bar code reader reads a bar code and what it does
   with the information from a bar code.

 Computers can not read bar codes. For a computer to make use of the
 information contained in the bar code, the bar code data must be captured and
 decoded into a data format that the computer can process. The device that
 reads or captures the bar code information and sends it to the decoder is
 known as the bar code reader, generally called bar code scanner. A typical
 Bar Code Reader kit consists of Scanner, Decoder, and Cable that interfaces
 the Decoder to the computer. The Scanner scans the Bar Code symbol and
 captures the bars and spaces of the bar code and sends it to the decoder. The
 decoder translates the bars and spaces into corresponding electrical output and
 transmits that data to the computer in a traditional data format. A bar code
 scanner can either have the Decoder built into it, or be "undecoded".
 Undecoded bar code scanner requires a separate box called an interface or
 keyboard wedge.

   7- What does an image scanner do?

A scanner pretty much works like a copy machine, the main difference being, a
scanner will convert the image into a digital format for electronic use.

How do you acquire an image? Two options 1> Use the software provided with
the scanner 2> Using MS Office, you can insert image-get from scanner- this will
initiate the scanner and convert the image to digital formate (JPEG) and insert
in your document

   8- List and explain the Functions of Operating Systems?
   Functions Of Operating System Today most operating systems perform the
   following important functions:
   1. Processor management, that is, assignment of processor to different tasks
   being performed by the computer system.
   2. Memory management, that is, allocation of main memory and other
   storage areas to the system programes as well as user programes and data.
   3. Input/output management, that is, co-ordination and assignment of the
   different output and input device while one or more programmes are being
   4. File management, that is, the storage of file of various storage devices to
   another. It also allows all files to be easily changed and modified through the
   use of text editors or some other files manipulation routines.

   5. Establishment and enforcement of a priority system. That is, it determines
   and maintains the order in which jobs are to be executed in the computer
   6. Automatic transition from job to job as directed by special control
   7. Interpretation of commands and instructions.
   8. Coordination and assignment of compilers, assemblers, utility programs,
   and other software to the various user of the computer system.
   9. Facilities easy communication between the computer system and the
   computer operator (human). It also establishes data security and integrity.

   9- List and explain the Types of Operating Systems?

There are many different types, but three typically hover at the top of the list:
Windows, Mac OS and Linux.

Both Windows and Mac OS are commercial OSes, while Linux is Free and Open
Source (FOSS), meaning that it's completely free to use ($0!) and also free to modify
(change the sourcecode).

While Linux is the most open OS of the three, it is the most technical of the bunch,
and its desktop usage is somewhat wavery considering the huge number of toolkit
(control interface) choices available to developers wishing to write applications for
the system. This choice is there because it is a free OS and developers are free to
make the choices they want regarding the toolkit, programming language they want to
use and so on, but for some it is too off-putting to make the field a viable venture.

Therefore, there aren't many desktop-oriented solution offerings for the platform yet,
and as Linux is in and of itself just a kernel, the process behind getting a working
system is rather involved and therefore the learning curve is a little steep, although
distributions such as Ubuntu try to make the experience easer for less technically
initiated users. However, because of Linux' ubiquity, it has been ported to many
different platforms over the years and is therefore available for a wide range of
devices, such as those used in embedded situations like set top boxes and industrial
equipment. For example, if you own a TiVo, you are using an embedded Linux

At a lesser level, there are many other OSes out there, although they're not very
widely known. These projects are typically written using a specific coding style or for
a specific goal, and there are many different systems to choose from.

One example is ReactOS, an open source effort that takes the Wine project and
combines it with an NT-compatible kernel to provide compatibility with Windows
applications (ReactOS can run a large number of Windows apps). Therefore,
ReactOS' aim is to provide Windows 2000 compatibility in an entirely free codebase.

Another example is Syllable, which has a moderately small user base but is quite a
success. Syllable is a fork of a project called AtheOS, which, quite impressively, was
written entirely by a single person (consdering the comprehensiveness of the GUI and
kernel API), but sadly died out some time ago, due to the original author losing
interest in the project. Syllable come a long way since AtheOS but it is still a beta OS
and can suffer issues from different applications or windows randomly crashing to the
entire display subsystem becoming unstable.
Another offering is MenuetOS, an OS written entirely in assembly language of which
both 32-bit and 64-bit versions exist. The 32-bit version is open source, and the 64-bit
version is closed source but freeware. Because assembly language does not produce
additional overhead, the resulting binary code is the smallest produced by any
language, so MenuetOS will boot a full graphical environment from a floppy disk, and
even leaves space on the floppy for some programs. However, a CD and hard disk
install options are available.

Even another example is plan9, which this author of this answer does not know much
about, so will not elaborate on here.

Overall, there are many different types of operating system, to those which boot off a
floppy disk and print a message to those which are portable to next to anything to
those which contain millions of lines of code and have consumed the consumer


Within the broad family of operating systems, there are generally four types,
categorised based on the types of computers they control and the sort of applications
they support. The broad categories are:

Real-time operating systems:
They are used to control machinery, scientific instruments and industrial systems. An
RTOS typically has very little user-interface capability, and no end-user utilities, since
the system will be a sealed box when delivered for use. A very important part of an
RTOS is managing the resources of the computer so that a particular operation
executes in precisely the same amount of time every time it occurs. In a complex
machine, having a part move more quickly just because system resources are available
may be just as catastrophic as having it not move at all because the system is busy.

Single-user, single-tasking operating system:
As the name implies, this operating system is designed to manage the computer so
that one user can effectively do one thing at a time. The Palm O.S. for Palm handheld
computers is a good example of a modern single-user, single-task operating system.

Single-user, multi-tasking operating system:
This is the type of operating system most people use on there desktop and laptop
computers today. Windows 98 and the Mac O.S. are both examples of an operating
system that will let a single user has several programs in operation at the same time.
For example, it's entirely possible for a Windows user to be writing a note in a word
processor while downloading a file from the Internet while printing the text of an e-
mail message.

Multi-user operating systems:
A multi-user operating system allows many different users to take advantage of the
computer's resources simultaneously. The operating system must make sure that the
requirements of the various users are balanced, and that each of the programs they are
using has sufficient and separate resources so that a problem with one user doesn't
affect the entire community of users. Unix, VMS, and mainframe operating systems,
such as MVS, are examples of multi-user operating systems. It's important to
differentiate here between multi-user operating systems and single-user operating
systems that support networking. Windows 2000 and Novell Netware can each
support hundreds or thousands of networked users, but the operating systems
themselves aren't true multi-user operating systems. The system administrator is the
only user for Windows 2000 or Netware. The network support and the entire remote
user logins the network enables are, in the overall plan of the operating system, a
program being run by the administrative user.

Types of OS
Multiprocessing - multiple CPUs
Multiprogramming - Time sharing, interactive
Real-time : deadlines, time constraints, predictability
Distributed systems : Sharing and fault tolerance, reliability, dependability.
Network OS

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