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					    HazMat Will
Hurt you if you Let it
   Do the Scout Motto
  Be Prepared-Train Up!



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                     Hazmat
Hazardous Materials
• Capable of posing unreasonable risk when
  transported in commerce
• •Health
• •Safety
• •Property



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       HAZARDOUS MATERIALS


Definitions

US DOT - “a hazardous substance or material which has been
determined to be capable of posing an unreasonable risk to
health, safety, and property when transported...”

US EPA and OSHA - “any substance that can produce an
adverse effect on the health or safety of the persons
exposed...”.

A simple definition - “any substance or material that may hurt or
harm the things it contacts if released from its container.”




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                         OSHA or DOT Jurisdiction
•   OSH Act
     – Section 4(b)(1) of the OSH Act states that OSHA does not have jurisdiction over health and safety if
        another Federal agency exercises its statutory authority in this area.

•   U.S. courts interpret the OSH Act using the “gap theory” or “hazard-by-hazard” approach:
     – If DOT has a regulation that would reduce or eliminate the workplace hazard, DOT regulations
         apply.
     – If DOT does not have a regulation to address the hazard, OSHA regulations apply.




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               To Avoid Duplication of Training...

•   DOT
     – Training conducted to comply with either OSHA’s HAZWOPER standard or EPA’s HAZWOPER
        standard may be used to fulfill the DOT hazardous materials training requirements as long as the
        training addresses the DOT training requirements of 49 CFR 172.704(a).

•   OSHA
     – Training provided under DOT’s Hazardous Materials Regulations may also be used to satisfy the
       OSHA HAZWOPER training requirements, to the extent that the training meets the HAZWOPER
       requirements.




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HAZMAT REFERENCES

           • 29 CFR 1910.1200

           • LOCAL DIRECTIVE
    Materials Handling Requirements

•   DOT requires that the equipment used for handling hazardous materials
    must be of a type that does not create a hazard to the material while
    loading and unloading transportation vehicles and rail cars.

•   OSHA has jurisdiction over employee protection issues during the use of
    material handling equipment, such as powered industrial trucks,
    overhead and gantry cranes, slings, etc.




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 HAZMAT IDENTIFICATION
• Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

• Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)

• NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards




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 Employee Rights

• You have the right to:
  – information on your exposures
  – receive training on chemical hazards
  – access to MSDSs
  – receive protective equipment (free of charge)
  – file complaints, assist inspectors, or testify
    against your employer



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         HAZMAT INVENTORY

• Provide employees
  with an inventory of
  chemicals known to
  be present in the
  workplace, using an
  identity that is
  referenced on the
  appropriate MSDS
       HazMat is needed when
Load, unload, or handle hazmat
• – Prepare hazmat for transport
• – Responsible for the safe transport of hazmat
• – Operate a vehicle used to transport hazmat
• – Supervise hazmat employees
Required Training:
• n General Awareness
• n Function-specific

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              THREATS
• Are every where and in every industry




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THE THREAT


         • April 2005, Graniteville, SC - train
           derailment
         • Released Chlorine into the
           atmosphere
         • Killed 11 people
         • More than 240 people treated for
           respiratory problems.
         • Over 2,000 people were evacuated
           from their home.

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Personal Protective Equipment Requirements
•   DOT
     – DOT contains regulations for carrier loading and unloading, cargo transfer hose connection
        and disconnection, and coupling and uncoupling rail cars.
     – However, the DOT regulations do not address employee exposure to hazards such as
        inhalation, absorption, ingestion, chemical splash, flying particles, and falling objects.

•   OSHA
     – PPE for eyes, face, head, extremities, protective clothing, respiratory devices, and
       protective shields and barriers must be provided and used wherever it is necessary due to
       hazards of processes or environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, or
       mechanical irritants encountered that could cause injury or impairment.




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MECHANISM OF HARM TO THE
         BODY

•   Thermal
•   Etiological
•   Asphyxiant
•   Mechanical
•   Chemical
•   Psychological
•   Radiological
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LEVELS OF CONTAMINATION


• Primary Contamination
• Exposed
• Secondary Contamination




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       It Covers but not limited to
•   Security Awareness
•   Identification/Classification
•   The Hazardous Materials Table
•   Shipping Papers
•   Packaging
•   Labeling/Marking
•   Placarding
•   Emergency Response

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                Classify the Hazards
•   9 Hazard Classes
•   – Based on type of hazard
•   Division
•   – Subset of a hazard class (e.g. flammable, nonflammable, & toxic
•   compressed gases).
•   Packing Groups
•   – Based on degree of danger
•   – PG I, II, III with PG I being the worst
•   – Most Classes have PGs, but this training will focus on toxic
•   PGs.
•   Zones
•   – For Inhalation hazards
•   – A through D, with A most toxic

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   All HazMat Loads that go out must
                 have
Must include:
– Proper shipping name
– Hazard class
– UN Identification Number
– Packing group
– Quantity and units of HM
– Additional info if needed
– Emergency Response Information (ERG)
– Emergency phone number
– Shipper’s Certification (Signature)

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                           Myth
Must reject a shipment missing a shipping
paper.
– No need to reject.
– Only need hazardous materials shipping paper if
YOU plan to ship the package to the next
destination,
– Or if you can’t identify the contents from the
packing slip or item label(s).
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Does your packaging meet code




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Label it right the first time




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Labeling

• Mandated
  – Chemical name
  – Brief description of hazards
  – Manufacturer name and address

• When transferring chemical, label new
  bottle


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Material Safety Data Sheets




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Chemical Segregation
• Store chemicals according to category, not in alphabetical
  order
• Alphabetize within categories
• Store acids, bases, flammables, oxidizers, etc. in separate
  locations
• Flammables should be stored in flammable cabinets &/or
  explosion-proof refrigerators - not in regular refrigerators!
• Label all chemicals




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   Proper Use of Fire Extinguishers




REPORT THE FIRE TO UTPD AT 500-HELP OR 911 (FROM A SAFE LOCATION)

ACTIVATE FIRE ALARM

CONFINE THE FIRE TO SMALL AREA BY CLOSING THE DOOR

EVACUATE THE AREA


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           Brace these items
These MUST BE BRACED!
Gases (Hazard Class 2)
Flammable Liquids (Hazard Class 3)
Flammable Solids (Hazard Class 4)
Oxidizers (Hazard Class 5)
Toxics (Division 6.1)
Radioactive (Hazard Class 7)
Corrosives (Hazard Class 8)

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       Waste vs. Hazardous Waste
•   These rules apply to everyone!
•   Hazardous Waste determination
•   EPA ID Numbers
•   Labeling
•   Chemical Incompatibility Issues
•   Facility Design Specifications
•   Management: manifests, receipts, training
•   Risk Communication: alarms, spill kit

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                        Awareness Level Goals




First responders at the Awareness Level have four Goals or
responsibilities:


 Recognition/     Recognize if an incident involves haz-mats and identify materials involved
 Identification   - if this can be done with no risk to the responder.



 Isolation        Isolate and deny access to the area. Remove uninjured and non-
                  contaminated persons from the area - if it can be done without risk to the
                  responder.
 Protection       Protect yourself and others. If properly trained and equipped, this may
                  include use of PPE and evacuation of nearby structures.



 Notification     Notify the next level of response.
                         P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
 Upper left shows proper label of back flush and boiler blow down drum. Remaining
photos show inadequate labeling of heat transfer oil tank, wastewater tank (WW1) and
                            alkyd/resin product drums.




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        Important Acronyms
AHJ      Authority Having Jurisdiction
ALS      Advanced Life Support
BLS      Basic Life Support
CBRNE    Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-Energetic
CFR      Code of Federal Regulations
DOT      Department of Transportation
EAP      Emergency Action Plan
EHS      Extremely Hazardous Substance
EMS      Emergency Medical Service
EOC      Emergency Operations Center
EOP      Emergency Operations Plan
EPA      Environmental Protection Agency
EPCRA    Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act
ERG      Emergency Response Guide
ERP      Emergency Response Plan
FDCA     Florida Department of Community Affairs
FDEM     Florida Division of Emergency Management
FDEP     Florida Department of Environmental Protection
FDLE     Florida Department of Law Enforcement
FDOH     Florida Department of Health
FDOT     Florida Department of Transportation
FOG      Field Operations Guide


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Important Acronyms
IAP      Incident Action Plan
IC       Incident Commander
ICP      Incident Command Post
ICS      Incident Command System
HAZ-MAT  Hazardous Materials
HAZWOPER Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response
NAERG    North American Emergency Response Guidebook
LEPC     Local Emergency Planning Committee
MSDS     Materials Safety Data Sheet
NFPA     National Fire Protection Association
NGO      Non-Governmental Organization
NIMS     National Incident Management System
NOS      Not Otherwise Specified
NRP      National Response Plan
ORM      Other Regulated Material
OSHA     Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PPE      Personal Protective Equipment
PIO      Public Information Officer
RDSTF    Regional Domestic Security Task Force
RPC      Regional Planning Council
SARA     Superfund Amendment an Reauthorization Act
SERC     State Emergency Response Commission
SOG      Standard Operating Guidelines
SOP      Standard Operating Procedures
SWP      State Warning Point
WMD      Weapons of Mass Destruction
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            EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
Some Extremely Hazardous Substances include:

                                           Chemical
 Chlorine

 Ammonia (anhydrous)

 Ammonia (aqueous 20% or greater)

 Sulfur Dioxide (anhydrous)

 Hydrogen Chloride (anhydrous)

 Hydrochloric Acid (aqueous 37% or greater)

 Hydrogen Fluoride (anhydrous)

 Hydrofluoric Acid (aqueous 50% or greater)

 Nitric Acid 80% or greater)




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              Hazardous Materials Incident
Any unplanned or unexpected release/potential release of a
hazardous material. Some unique characteristics of these incidents:

   Required PPE might not be provided.

   Responders may not be trained in the use of required PPE.

   May require operational approaches that differ from normal or routine
   duties.

   Non-routine skills and attitudes may be required.

   Can pose a significant risk to the responder.

   Always expect the unexpected when responding!!!!



When responding to any motor vehicle accident, the responder should
park his/her vehicle at least 50 feet upwind (100 feet if any hazardous
materials are involved in the accident).
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               Mechanisms of Harm

T   Thermal         Temperature extremes.
                    Heat from fire or heat releasing chemical reactions.
                    Extremes in cold, e.g. liquefied gas and cryogenic liquids.


E   Etiological     Injury of harm caused by human disease causing agents.
                    Bacteria and viruses.


A   Asphyxiation    Simple – caused by an oxygen deficient atmosphere.
                    Chemical – can cause changes in the body preventing the proper use of
                    oxygen, e.g. carbon monoxide.


M   Mechanical      Physical hazardous such as flying debris, uneven ground and/or excessive
                    noise conditions with potential for hearing damage.


C   Chemical        Toxic or injurious effects caused by exposure to chemicals, e.g. pesticide
                    poisoning, respiratory injury (e.g. chlorine) and corrosive damage to eyes and
                    skin (e.g. acids and alkalines).


P   Psychological   Mental stress from fear of the unknown or from witnessing a violent death.



R   Radiological    Exposure to materials that spontaneously emit radiation.


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     Recognizing Hazardous Materials

                Six Important Clues

Clue # 1 - Occupancy and Location

Clue # 2 - Container Shape and Size

Clue # 3 - Placards and labels

Clue # 4 - Shipping Papers and Facility Documents

Clue # 5 - Markings and Colors

Clue # 6 - The Human Senses



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        CLASS 1 - EXPLOSIVES


Division 1.1 - Mass                                  Division 1.2 - Projectile hazard
Explosion Hazard
                                                     Explosive with a projectile hazard
Virtually the entire load                            but not a mass explosion hazard.
could detonate
instantaneously given                                Examples:    Aerial   flares,   detonating
the proper initiating                                cord.
source.

Examples: Dynamite,
Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and
black powder.

                                                     Division 1.4 - Minor explosion hazard
Division 1.3 - Fire hazard,
minor blast and/or minor                             Contains very small amounts of
projection hazard                                    explosive materials with no
                                                     projection hazard.
Examples:      Propellant
explosives.                                          Examples: Practice ammunition signal
                                                     cartridges.


Division 1.5 - Very insensitive explosives

Has a mass explosion hazard, but requires such a high-powered initiating source.
Unlikely to self- initiate even if burning. Formerly called “Blasting Agents”.

Examples: Ammonium Nitrate/Fuel Oil Mixtures (ANFO)
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                       CLASS 2 – GASES
Division 2.1: Flammable Gases
A flammable gas has a vapor pressure of 14.7 psi
or greater at 68 degrees F and is usually present
in the form of a gas. Some flammable gases are
liquefied, e.g. propane and butane. The pressure
keeps the gas in a liquid form. If released, the
liquid will convert to a gas and expand rapidly.
Other gases are stored as compressed gases. The         Division 2.2: Non-Flammable, Non-
container pressures for these gases are generally       Toxic Gases2.2 “Non-Flammable, Non-Po
higher and the expansion ratio is not as great.
                                                        Non-flammable gases can be compressed, liquefied
Examples: Acetylene, Hydrogen                           compressed or cryogenic. Cryogenic liquids have
                                                        three hazards:
                                                        • Extremely cold temperatures (< -150 degrees F).
                                                        • The hazards of the gas itself (inert, displaces
                                                        oxygen).
    Division 2.3: Toxic Gases2                          • Very high expansion ratio - 800 - 1000 to 1.

    A gas stored in a compressed or                     Materials in this class do not meet the strict criteria
                                                        for being either flammable or poisonous. However,
    compressed liquefied state. These
                                                        they may be toxic to humans and sometimes
    gases have the potential to travel                  flammable.
    longer distances. If liquefied, it will
    have higher expansion ratio and will                Examples: anhydrous ammonia, cryogenic
    create a large vapor cloud.                         argon, liquid or compressed nitrogen, carbon
                                                        dioxide.
    Examples: chlorine, methyl bromide,
    hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide.

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CLASS 3 – FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS


        Flammable liquids release enough vapors at room
        temperature to support combustion if an ignition
        source is present. Combustible liquids generally need
        warming to produce sufficient vapors to support
        combustion. Many of these materials contain
        toxicological hazards as well, such as the benzene
        found in gasoline.



                 Flammable liquids must be grounded
                  and bonded to prevent fires and/or
                             explosions




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    CLASS 4 – FLAMMABLE SOLIDS


Division 4.1 – Flammable Solids
materials
 Wetted explosives – Have enough water,
alcohol or plasticizer content to suppress
explosive properties.
                                                             Division 4.2 - Spontaneously
Self reactive materials – Can react with                     Combustible materials
the release of heat if exposed to high
temperatures during transport, friction or if                Pyrophoric - Will ignite in less than 5
contaminated.                                                minutes upon contact with air.

Readily combustible – can ignite with                        Self Heating - Can slowly self heat
friction                                                     upon contact with air.
Examples: Sulfur, magnesium,
nitrocellulose                                               Examples: phosphorus, charcoal
                                                             briquettes



                                   Division 4.3 – Dangerous When Wet /
                                   Water Reactive Substances materials

                                   Examples: Lithium, sodium


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                            CLASS 5
OXIDIZERS AND ORGANIC PEROXIDES
  Division 5.1 - Oxidizers

  Those materials that may cause or enhance the combustion of other
  materials by releasing oxygen.

  Examples: ammonium nitrate, pool chemicals like calcium hypochlorite.




  Division 5.2 – Organic Peroxides

  Organic peroxides have a bivalent -O-O- structure in the compound. This
  means there is a lot of oxygen in the molecule. Attached to each end of the
  molecule is an organic compound that may have varying combustible
  characteristics. Therefore, a fuel is present with plenty of available oxygen.
  Organic peroxides can be VERY unstable and can detonate depending on
  their type.

  Examples: benzoyl peroxide, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, peroxyacetic
  acid.


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              CLASS 6
POISONOUS AND INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

     Division 6.1 - Poisonous Materials
     Materials other than gases that are poisonous/presumed poisonous to
     humans. Includes severely irritating materials.


     Examples: “tear gas”, hydrocyanic acid, carbon tetrachloride



     Division 6.2 - Infectious Substances
     AKA Etiological.
     Viable microorganism or its toxin, which can cause disease in humans or
     animals.
          •Includes bacteria, viruses and their toxins.


     Human blood and many body fluids must be considered to be infectious.
     Emergency responders must be trained in universal precautions and infection
     control.
     Examples: anthrax, botulism, tetanus.

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             CLASS 7
      RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

Radioactive materials are materials that emit ionizing radiation with an
activity of greater than 0.002 micro curies per gram. If contamination is
avoided, exposure stops when you get away from the material.


Time: Dose is directly proportional to duration of exposure.
Distance: Dose is indirectly proportional to the square of the distance from
the source.
Shielding: Ionizing radiation is absorbed in varying amounts by materials.
The greater mass placed between the source and the responder, the less
the exposure.


Further classified as Radioactive I, II and III with III having the highest
specific activity. Packaged in either type B or A containers. Both types of
containers are designed to withstand impacts and damages of varying
magnitudes. Type A packaging is the strongest.




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              CLASS 8
         CORROSIVE MATERIALS
These materials can cause irreversible damage to human tissue. Their fumes or
vapors are also very hazardous.


Examples: nitric acid, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda or lye), hydrochloric acid.


  Corrosive materials are measured on the pH Scale:




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             CLASS 9
MISCELLANEOUS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS



Miscellaneous hazardous materials which:

     • Can cause extreme annoyance or discomfort to flight crew members
       during air transport, or

     • Are not classified into one of the other eight categories but are subject
       to DOT transportation regulations.
Examples: molten sulfur, PCBs (poly chlorinated biphenols), hazardous wastes.




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       THE 1000 POUND RULE


A placard is not required when less than 1000 pounds
of a particular hazard class is loaded at one location.
Exceptions to this rule include some explosives, high-
level radioactive materials, poisonous gases, and
flammable solids which are dangerous when wet.




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                        Markings and Colors
1. Container colors:
 •      Many organizations have established standardized color coding for
        containers such as the Compressed Gas Association.
 •      Compliance is not mandatory
 •      Colors may vary depending on the supplier
 •      Colors are not uniform statewide



2. UN/NA Identification Number - 4 digit number established by DOT.
   Found in three locations during transport:

 •      Shipping papers
 •      On the vehicle placard
 •      Sometimes on the MSDS

     UN/NA number can be cross-referenced in the yellow - bordered pages
of
  the NAERG.



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             Markings and Colors
                                 NFPA 704 Diamond
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed a standardized facility
marking system commonly called the “704” system.




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                               BLEVE




BLEVE warning signs:
• Pinging sound from the metal shell
• Discoloration of the container (normally cherry red)
• Flaking of small metal pieces
• Bubble or bulge on the container
• Steam from the tank surface
• Shrill sound from the pressure relief valve
    • Especially if increasing with passage of time
• Tear in container surface




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                                BLEVE
    “Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion”
    An explosive release of expanding vapor and boiling liquid
 following the catastrophic failure of a pressure vessel holding a
   liquefied gas such as propane or LPG. A BLEVE is the worst
possible outcome when a propane or LPG tank is exposed to fire.
 BLEVE hazards include fireballs, blast, projectiles and possible
              toxic clouds or vapor cloud explosions.




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                             Methods of Identification
   CAS          The Chemical Abstract Service registers and assigns known chemical compounds a CAS
  Number        number. This number is usually found on the MSDS for the product and is of little value to
                the Awareness Level Responder.


 Shipping       Shipping papers list the common name of the hazardous material and the UN/NA ID
  Papers        number. This name or number can be used to find the proper guide page in the DOT ERG.
                Awareness Level Responders should never place themselves at risk to obtain shipping
                papers.

   MSDS         The product name is listed in the first section. Hazardous ingredients may be listed by
                common name in the “Hazardous Ingredients Section.” There may be multiple hazardous
                ingredients.

Facility Pre-   If required, the Employer Emergency Response Plan or LEPC Plan identifies materials
   Plans        present at fixed facilities.


Employees/      Employees, vehicle drivers and bystanders may be able to identify the product involved.
Bystanders


Operational     Awareness level responders can make safety decisions without knowing the specific name
 Decisions      of a material. Awareness level responders should never allow the lack of the material name
                to slow their decision making process. The product’s hazard class enables you to make the
                right decision.     P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
IGNORANCE OF SAFETY IN THIS CASE MAY KILL YOU OR HARM OTHERS

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