Fuel cells (Hydrogen) by Alex Morhen
Yr8 Geography week 30
How does it work?
Fuel cell cars look like conventional vehicles from the outside, but inside they
contain technologically advanced components not found on today's vehicles. The
most obvious difference is the fuel cell stack that converts hydrogen gas stored
onboard with oxygen from the air into electricity to drive the electric motor that
propels the vehicle.
The Good points The Bad points
• Less Greenhouse Gas • Onboard Hydrogen Storage.
Emissions. Fuel cell cars Storage systems are still too large,
heavy, and expensive.
powered by pure hydrogen
• Vehicle Cost. Fuel cell cars are
emit no GHGs from their currently too expensive to compete
tailpipe, only heat and water. with hybrids and conventional
• Less Air Pollutants. Fuel gasoline and diesel vehicles.
cell cars powered by pure • Fuel Cell Durability and
hydrogen emit no harmful Reliability. Fuel cell systems are
pollutants. not yet as durable as internal
combustion engines and do not
• Reduced Oil Dependence. perform as well in extreme
hydrogen can be derived from environments, such as in sub-
domestic sources, such as freezing temperatures.
natural gas and coal, as well as • Getting Hydrogen to
renewable resources such as Consumers. New facilities and
water. That would make our systems must be constructed for
producing, transporting, and
economy less dependent on dispensing hydrogen to consumers.
other countries. • Safety. Hydrogen, like any fuel, has
safety risks and must be handled
Is there a future for it?
• These vehicles are in the early stages of
development, and several challenges must be
overcome before these vehicles will be
competitive with conventional vehicles.
• Manufacturers are still improving the efficiency
of gasoline and diesel powered engines, hybrids
are gaining popularity, and advances in battery
technology are making plug-in hybrids and
electric vehicles more attractive. So fuel cell cars
will have to offer consumers a viable alternative,
especially in terms of performance, durability,
and cost, to survive in this ultra-competitive
How does it work?
The most way is through the use of photovoltaic (PV) technology,
which directly transforms sunlight into electricity.
A solar panel is made up of sections of the solar cells. When visible
to photons found in sunlight, some electrons of the solar cells are
knocked loose. These loose electrons create an electrical current
which can be used for electricity.
Another way that solar power works is through the use of solar
thermal collectors, which capture heat from the sun.
Solar thermal collectors are put into three different groups low,
medium , and high-temperature collectors. Low temperature
collectors are flat plates normally used to heat swimming pools.
Medium-temperature collectors are flat plates used to make hot
water for housing and money-making. High temperature
collectors are used mostly for electric power making
Good and bad points about solar power
Good points Bad points
•It’s free energy (when its sunny) •Doesn’t work very well when it’s
•Pollution free. raining.
•The panels last sometimes more •You won’t get as much power
then 30 years. when it’s a really cloudy day.
•You can use there batteries for night •Expensive to put in.
•Takes up a lot of space.
•The panels can be installed
anywhere. •People can be silly with them (use
•You don’t have to harm the land
because the energy comes from the •They can be eye sores.
•Solar cells are not completely
•It doesn’t produce any carbon efficient yet.
Solar power in the future?
Some people think there will be a future for solar power.
When we run out of fossil fuels they think that solar power
will be are main energy source.
But their big worry is the cost of solar power, they fear that
it is just to expensive to install. They also
think that when we are running low on
fossil fuels that there will be a point that
fossil fuel and solar power will be worth
I think there will be a great future for
Wind is simply air in motion. It is caused by the
uneven heating of the Earth's surface by the sun.
Because the Earth's surface is made of very different
types of land and water, it absorbs the sun's heat at
different rates. One example of this uneven heating
can be found in the daily wind cycle.
During the day, the air above the land heats up more
quickly than the air over water. The warm air over the
land expands and rises, and the heavier, cooler air
rushes in to take its place, creating wind. At night, the
winds are reversed because the air cools more rapidly
over land than over water.
• A windmill on a farm can make only a small
amount of electricity - enough to power a few
farm machines. To make enough electricity to
serve lots of people, power companies build
"wind farms" with dozens of huge wind turbines.
• Wind farms are built in flat, open areas where
the wind blows at least 14 miles per hour. Iowa
currently has more than 600 wind turbines,
producing enough electricity to power 140,000
homes. Minnesota and Wisconsin are also home
to wind farms – and the number is growing every
• The oil shortages of the 1970s changed the energy picture for the
Country and the world. It created an interest in alternative energy
sources, paving the way for the re-entry of the windmill to generate
electricity. In the early 1980s, wind energy really took off in California,
partly because of State policies that encouraged renewable energy
• In the 1970s, oil shortages pushed the development of alternative
energy sources. In the 1990s, the push came from a renewed concern
for the environment in response to scientific studies indicating potential
changes to the global climate if the use of fossil fuels continues to
increase. Wind energy is an economical power resource in many areas
of the country
• Growing concern about emissions from fossil fuel generation, increased
government support, and higher costs for fossil fuels (especially natural
gas and coal) have helped wind power capacity in the United States
grow substantially over the past 10 years.
The future’s wind turbines!
• Wind power
By Sim waves! 14
How do they work?
• Waves Transform Energy Over Vast Distances – Were They
• They Impact A Watery Pulse Upon Intertidal Zones And Trim
Back Coastal Sand Dunes As They Creep Towards The Sea.
• Intertidal zones = The Intertidal Zone Is The Area Of The Sea
Floor That Lies Between The High Plus Low Tide Marks It Also
Bridging The Gap Between Land And Sea.
• Coastal Sand Dunes = Coastal Sand Dunes Are Dynamic But
Fragile Buffer Zones Of Sand And Vegetation That Form
Where The Following Three Characteristics Can Be Found!
By Sim 15
The Good Points!
• It Is A Renewable Source Of Power One of the
advantages of wave energy is that it is completely
renewable and sustainable, with no effort made on the
part of humans to make sure this cycle continues.
• No Damage During Tidal And Wave Energy Recovery
Wave energy advantages include the fact that
recovering this power does not cause massive damage
to the earth.
• Better National Security And A Domestic Energy Supply
Wave energy advantages include those to national
security and the energy supply. With power from the
ocean there is no need to rely on foreign supplies of
fossil fuels, or to experience price fluctuations due to
By Sim 16
The bad points
• Waves are a result of the effects of wind on the
oceans and seas. This wind originates from the
major influx of energy to this planet: solar energy
from the sun.
• The energy contained within waves is around the
world is huge; in some places values of
70MW/km of wave front are experienced. In
theory it could then be said that huge generating
stations could be built which would capture all
this energy and supply all or most of our needs.
By Sim 17
Is there a future for waves?
• Yes there is a future for waves as long as we
don’t do too much pollution.
By Sim 18
Information on biomass
Biomass is the oldest of all “renewable” energy. Plants and animal waste,
generally organic materials, contain this precious and important resource.
Biomass is renewable because of the process of which it is formed.
Biomass is made up of solar energy, carbon dioxide and water. Plants
produce biomass through the photosynthesis process they do, the
chlorophyll in the plants absorbs the sun's energy by inhaling carbon
dioxide and changing it into carbohydrates. Plants then take from the air
and water stored in the ground when making the carbohydrates. When
the carbohydrates are burned, they convert back into carbon dioxide and
water, thereby releasing the sun's energy back into the atmosphere.
Some types of biomass are plants, wood, grass, animal waste, landfill
waste, and also sewer waste. The most typical and often used method of
accessing the biomass in these materials is through burning; however,
this creates environmental problems and most of the energy gets lost
when biomass is burned.
How does it work
The most simple way of using biomass to
produce energy is burning. The energy
can be used as light and heat or can be
transformed to produce electricity by
boiling water, which produces steam and
spins a turbine. The more high-tech
methods of extracting energy from
biomass involve transforming the
physical organic matter itself into a more
combustible material. Hydro gasification
adds hydrogen gas to carbon in biomass
to produce highly flammable methane.
Hydrogenation actually converts biomass
into oil by combining it with carbon
monoxide. Other methods convert
biomass into fuels that can be used
everyday in trucks and cars. Another use
of biomass energy is mulching, which
uses the organic content of biomass to
fertilize soil and feed plants. By Luke 20
The advantages and disadvantages
• The biggest advantage of biomass The Disadvantages
energy is that it is renewable. Plants • As compared to fossil fuels,
and trees can be grown for use, and biomass energy is quite
they can be re-grown again and
again on the same piece of land. expensive to use. This is mainly
• Another major advantage of because a lot of research is still
biomass is that it helps reduce needed to be done, methods of
waste. Everyday, million of tonnes extraction have to be refined,
of waste is produced which includes and biological matter for the
biodegradable waste, hazardous
wastes, recyclable waste, biomass has to be consolidated.
construction waste and assorted • Another disadvantage of
waste. Normally, waste is dumped biomass energy is that it causes
in the landfill, which causes
air pollution, just the same
widespread pollution. When the
waste is utilized as biomass, the manner as the fossil fuels.
problem of pollution is solved and
energy is also obtained.
Is there a future for biomass?
I think there could be a future for biomass
because, when all of the fossil fuels are
used up, biomass will be a good way to
produce energy. Though it pollutes the
atmosphere, fossil fuels pollute the
atmosphere just as well. However,
biomass also uses wastes and will help
reduce wastes and pollution from
landfill. So actually, biomass does not
pollute as much as fossil fuels if you
think of it this way. In fact I think that
we could use more of biomass energy
now instead of using non-renewable
energy, as only around 14% of the
world's main energy consumption is By Luke
biomass energy. 22
The principal of how it works in a car is basically the
same as normal diesel, you put it in, it ignites and starts
the car, however is you have a diesel car and you want to
put biodiesel in you need to make certain adjustments.
You can use different types of crops to make biodiesel,
soybean, sunflower, groundnuts and canola.
Less C⁰2 comes out your Cons
car. (There is basically only one
It is not as harsh on your Con)
engine. If you take away the land
It is cheaper than petrol, used to make food and use it
diesel. for biodiesel, then there will
It can be homemade. be less land to grow food
while the demand for food
climbs (this is very much a
one sided story)
Definitely, most of Europe has already started to switch
from petrol/diesel to biodiesel and the demand for it else
where is very high.
BY YULIA ELLIS
HOW IT WORKS
Electric cars are the newest invention. The work like regular
cars except they do not have a combustion engine. So there
is no need for gasoline.
The motor is powered by lots of batteries. The batteries are
powered by being arranged in a row and then their powers
are combined to produce enough current for the car to move.
As the car moves the power is sued up. The batteries can be
recharged after the car has made some miles.
THE GOOD AND BAD
The good points:
• They reduce pollution and reduce global warming.
• They save gasoline for things that gasoline is needed for.
• You save money from not using gasoline.
• They will eventually reduce the price of gasoline.
The bad points:
• It is not extremely reliable because if you run out of battery you are
likely to crash.
• The electricity bill will be high.
• The batteries will get old and stop working which means you have to
pay a lot of money for new batteries.
IS THERE A FUTURE?
There might be a future for electric cars but not right now.
People are debating whether you can rely on them or not
which is slowing down the process.
Car manufacturers such as the ‘Nissan Leaf’ are said to have
a whole stock ready for selling in 2012.
The newspapers say that the electric cars are not reliable and
that they are rubbish, that’s why they haven’t succeeded in
Also, nobody wants to buy a car which is at least £14,000 and
has not been proved to work.
People are doubting that the car is ‘green’ and can help the
Introduction • While water in a wave
appears to move is single
direction, in fact it is only the
wave that propagates in that
fashion. Individual molecules
of water move in an ellipse
and end where they began
before the wave. It is this
elliptical movement of the
• Wave energy refers to any process that water, and anything floating
derives power from the movement of in it, that is harnessed to
waves on the surface of a body of water. produce wave energy.
The energy in waves comes from wind,
which is driven by unequal heating of the
Earth by the sun. Wave energy is a very
clean and renewable source of energy.
It's not the same as tidal power, which
uses the regular ebb and flow of the
ocean to generate power. Instead there
are several different methods of creating
electricity from the movement of waves
Good Points (And Bad Points?) On Wave
• 1.Tidal And Wave Energy Is Predictable One of the biggest
wave energy advantages is that this alternative energy
source is predictable, and that is not true of most
alternative sources. The waves will continue to form and
move, and severe weather in the ocean only increases the
energy potential of the waves.
• 2.It Is A Renewable Source Of Power One of the
advantages of wave energy is that it is completely
renewable and sustainable, with no effort made on the part
of humans to make sure this cycle continues. There is
enough power in the oceans of the world to power the
globe many times over each year.
Good Points And (And Bad Points?) On Wave Energy
• 3.No Damage During Tidal And Wave Energy Recovery
Wave energy advantages include the fact that recovering
this power does not cause massive damage to the earth.
Recovering fossil fuels can be very damaging, and leave
large holes or craters and other damage to the land.
Capturing the movement of the ocean and using it does not
damage the surrounding areas.
• 4.Reduce Pollution And Greenhouse Gas Emissions Less
pollution and Greenhouse Gas Reduction is one of the
most important advantages of wave energy. This power
source does not release any particulates or Greenhouse
gases which contribute to smog and global warming.
• 5.Better National Security And A Domestic Energy Supply
Wave energy advantages include those to national security
and the energy supply. With power from the ocean there is
no need to rely on foreign supplies of fossil fuels, or to
experience price fluctuations due to global concerns. This
source can be utilized domestically instead.
Future For Wave Energy
• Wave Energy has been given financial support to investigate the
possibility for a full-scale implementation of a Wave Energy-structure in
connection with the jetty reconstruction project at the Port of Garibaldi in
Oregon, US. The initial budget for the first stage of the technical
feasibility study is approximately 600 000 NOKs, of which 270 000 will be
covered by Innovation Norway through their ”high Growth”-program. The
study is split into two phases where phase 1 commenced in April, and is
expected to be finalised by the end of July.
• Pending the results of phase 1, the second phase determining
implementation and building methods of the Wave Energy-structure will
start in September 2010 with the 1st of October 2011 targeted for phase
• General Manager of Wave Energy, Monika Bakke, underlines the
project´s importance for promoting strategic alliances and building
stronger partnerships in the US
• – North America is an important market for our technology and an
important part in our long-term business strategy, Ms Bakke said, and
• – We believe the Port of Garibaldi-project will be a reference project
that will open doors in the North American market.
A huge dam (called a How it
"barrage") is built across a
river estuary. When the works
tide goes in and out, the
water flows through
tunnels in the dam.
The ebb and flow of the
tides can be used to turn a
turbine, or it can be used
to push air through a pipe,
which then turns a turbine.
Large lock gates, like the
ones used on canals, allow
ships to pass.
The only operational on in
Europe is on the Rance
Estuary in Northern
Once you've built it,
tidal power is free. A barrage across an estuary
It produces no is very expensive to build,
greenhouse gases or
other waste. and affects a very wide area
It needs no fuel. The environment is changed
It produces electricity for many miles upstream and
Not expensive to downstream, especially the
Tides are totally
predictable. There are few suitable sites
Offshore turbines and for tidal barrages.
are not ruinously Only provides power for
expensive to build and around 10 hours each day,
do not have a large
environmental impact. when the tide is actually
moving in or out. 37
Waves – the future
Lots of universities are trying design systems
that have less impact than barrages, which do
have a heavy environmental impacts
Proposed for A study by Swansea
Strangford Loch Research in Canada
Hydro power from rivers
There are many hydro-electric
power stations, providing around
20% of the world's electricity. A
dam is built to trap water,
usually in a valley where there is
an existing lake.
Water is allowed to flow through
tunnels in the dam, to turn
turbines and thus drive
Notice that the dam is much
thicker at the bottom than at
the top, because the pressure of
the water increases with depth.
Hydro from rivers
Once the dam is built, Very expensive to build.
the energy is virtually – However, many dams are also
free. used for flood control or
irrigation, so building costs can
No waste or pollution be shared.
Building a large dam will
Very reliable flood a very large area
Water can be stored upstream, causing problems
and used when needed for animals that used to live
Hydro-electric power there.
stations can increase to Finding a suitable site can
full power very quickly, be difficult
unlike other power Water quality and quantity
stations. downstream can be
Electricity can be affected, which can have an
generated constantly. impact on plant life
Hydro – the future
Currently, it produces 6% of worldwide energy
supply and 20% of its electricity.
In the developed world many of the best sites
have already been developed.
Most of those which are still possible are in
LEDCs. As they are very expensive, LEDCs are
not building them themselves. But World bank
investments in schemes in the past have led to
environmental and social consequences that
many local people and organisations like WWF
for instance are fighting any new ones.
So while hydro is an important renewable, it is
unlikely to grow much more.
Hot rocks underground heat
water to produce steam.
We drill holes down to the
hot region, steam comes up, is
purified and used to drive
turbines, which drive electric
There may be natural
"groundwater" in the hot
rocks anyway, or we may need
to drill more holes and pump
water down to them.
Geothermal energy The big problem is that there
does not produce are not many places where you
any pollution can build a geothermal power
The power stations station.
do not take up – You need hot rocks of a suitable
much room, so type, at a depth where we can drill
down to them.
there is not much
– The type of rock above is also
impact on the important, it must be of a type that
environment. we can easily drill through.
No fuel is needed. Sometimes a geothermal site
Once you've built a may "run out of steam", perhaps
geothermal power for decades.
station, the energy Hazardous gases and minerals
is almost free may come up from underground,
and can be difficult to safely
dispose of. 43
Using geothermal energy as a means of
heating buildings will become more
common. For this you take heat from
below ground but not that deep down,
and use a heat exchanger to warm air
that can then heat your home, even in
There are also sites in volcanic regions in
the developing world which will be able to
generate electricity for the hot rocks