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									United Nations
Economic Commission for Africa

       The African Gender and
      Development Index (AGDI)
    A framework to measure gender
           equality in Africa
                  Gender and Trade Workshop
           UNCC, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 18-19 June 2009

     Presented by: Souleymane ABDALLAH
          Economic Affairs Officer, ACGS
  Presentation’s Outline
Background
What is the AGDI?
The Gender Status Index
The African Women Progress
 Scoreboard
Cross-analysis


                              2
                Background
 ECA’s mandate coordinate, support, monitor,
  evaluate and report on the implementation of
  international agreements on gender issues;
 Lack of common set of gender responsive
  indicators to measure progress made in the
  advancement of women

ECA’s response: AN AFRICAN SPECIFIC
GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT INDEX
 (AGDI)


                                                 3
         What is the AGDI?

  The AGDI is a comprehensive composite
index made up of two complementary
components:

    (1) The Gender Status Index (GSI);
    (2) The African Women’s Progress
     Scoreboard (AWPS)

                                          4
           Objectives of AGDI
 Three main objectives underscore the
development of the AGDI:
   To provide African Governments with data and
    information on the status of gender equality and the
    effects of their gender policies in tackling women’s
    marginalisation;
   To provide African Governments with an African
    Specific tools to monitoring the progress made in
    implementing regional and international resolutions
    and conventions on promotion of gender equality and
    the advancement of women in Africa;
   To provide African Governments with not only
    quantitative statistics but also qualitative ones so as
    to measure both quantitative and qualitative progress.
                                                              5
         What Is the GSI?
The Gender Status Index is the quantitative
 part of the African Gender and Development
 Index;
GSI covers aspects of gender relations that can
 be measured and provides a quantitative
 assessment of gender equality;
The GSI is based on three blocks: social power
 ‘capabilities’, economic power ‘opportunities’
 and political power ‘agency’.

                                                   6
          GSI Architecture
     Blocks         om on ts
                   C p en           u -C p en     d
                                   S b om on ts In icators
        (3)           (7)                (12)              (42)


                                       Enrolment
                                                    Primary
                                                    Dropout
                      Education         rop
                                       D out

     S       ow
      ocial P er                                    Secondary
                      Health           Literacy     Dropout
     Block

                      Income               …             …
                                           .             .
                                                      w
                                                    O nership
                                           .             .
                                                    of plots or
 S
GI   Economic          im se
                      T e-U or                      land
                                       M eans of
     P er B
      ow lock          m    m
                      E ploy ent       production
                                                    A ccess to
                      A ccess to                    credit
                      resources
                                       Management
                                                    F reedomto
      Political       Public                        dispose own
      P er B
       ow lock        sector               …        incom e
                                           .
                                           .             …
                      Civil
                      Society                            .
                                                         .


                                                                  7
             Social Block
                           n lmn
                          E ro e t


                           ro o t
                          D pu
                d c tio
               Eua n

                           ite c
                          L ra y



S c l P wr
 o ia o e                     h    e lth
                             C ildH a
    lo k
   Bc
                             ife x e ta c
                            L e pc ny


                 e lth
                Ha
                           e IV fe tio s
                          N wH in c n



                            im p n u f
                           T es e t o t o
                                o
                               w rk



                                            8
       Social Block (Cont’d)
                      rimry n lm t te
                     P a E ro en ra


           E ro en
            n lm t    e o d ry n lm n te
                     S c n a E ro e t ra


                      e ry n lm t te
                     T rtia E ro en ra



                       rimry ro o t tio
                      P a D p u ra

Eua n
 d c tio    ro o t
           D pu

                      e o d ry ro o t tio
                     S c n a D p u ra



                      b         a n rite
                     A ilitytore da dw
            ite cy
           L ra

                      rimry h o o p te
                     P a sc o l c m le d

                                            9
         Social Block (Cont’d)
                                  tu tin n e
                                 S n gu d r 3


                 h
                C ildHa
                      e lth      ne e h ne
                                U d rwig t u d r 3


                                  o lity n e
                                 Mrta u d r 5



               L e pc ny
                ife x e ta c    ife x e ta c t irth
                               L e p c n ya b

 e lth
Ha

              NwH in c n
               e IV fe tio s     e IV fe tio s
                                NwH in c n




              T es e t o t o
               im p n u f       im p n u f o
                               T es e t o t o w rk
                   o
                  w rk

                                                      10
            Economic Block
                                 ae
                                Wg s

                  cm
                In o e
                                  cm
                                In o e




                                im se
                               T e-U
 E o o ic
  cnm            im -U r
                T e seo
P wrB c
 o e lo k        m lo m n
                E p y et
                               m lo m n
                              E p y et




                             e n f ro u tio
                            Ma s o p d c n
                  ce
                A c ss to
                  so rc s
                re u e
                               a a em t
                              Mn g en

                                              11
  Economic Block (Cont’d)
                       ag      g ltu
                      W es in A ricu re


                       ag       il
                      W es inciv service
           ag
          W es
                      ag       rm
                     W es in fo al sector


                     ag      fo al
                    W es inin rm sector

  co e
In m
                        com       fo al
                      In e fromin rm
                             terp
                           en rise


                         com
                      In e fromsm   all
            com
          In e         ricu ral o seh ld
                     ag ltu h u o
                             terp
                           en rise


                       com        ittan
                     In e fromrem ces
                     d ter-h seh ld tran
                   an in    ou o        sfers

                                                12
   Economic Block (Cont’d)

                          im e t       a et
                         T e sp n inm rk
                           c n m c ities
                         e o o ic a tiv


                         im e t       o -m rk t
                        T e sp n inn n a e
                           c ities o a u p id
                          a tiv     r s na
              im se
             T e-U           ily o e     a e
                        fam w rk r inm rk t
                                 c ities
                                a tiv

                         im e t       o estic
                        T e sp n ind m ,
                           a n o n e
                          c re a dv lu te r
 im -U r
T e seo                         c ities
                              a tiv
 m lo m n
E p y et


                         h re f a    p y es,
                        S a o p idem lo e
                         w -a c u t o e n
                        o n c o n w rk rs a d
             m lo m n
            E p y et         p y rs    ta
                           em lo e into l
                                p y et
                             em lo m n


                                                  13
     Economic Block (Cont’d)
                                  Ownership of rural/urban
                                       plots or land



            Means of production       Access to credit



                                  Freedom to dispose own
                                         income

Access to
resources
                                         Employers


                                     High civil servants
                                         (Class A)
               Management
                                  Members of professional
                                       syndicates


                                  Administrative, scientific
                                    and technical staff


                                                               14
          Political Block

                  u lc et r
                 Pbi s co




  oii a
 Pltcl
 oe l k
   r o
Pw B c



                  i l oi t
                   v
                 C i Scey




                              15
        Political Block (Cont’d)

              e es f ala e
             M br o Pri m t
               m          n            m
                                      e es f ala en
                                     M br o Pri m t



                a i e i ses
               CbntMi t r
                       n                       n
                                        a i e i ses
                                       CbntMi t r



Pbi
 u lc         H hrc ut j de
               i e ors ugs
                g                       g
                                       i e ors ugs
                                      H hrc ut j de
 et r
s co

             e es f oa onis
            M br o l clc ucl
              m                       m
                                     e es f oa onis
                                    M br o l clc ucl



            i e oii n n i i evc
           H hrpstosi cvls r i e
             g                       g
                                    i e oii n n i i evc
                                   H hrpstosi cvls r i e



                                                           16
        Political Block (Cont’d)
              S. p sto sp ltc lpri s
               r oii n oii a ate          r oii n oii a ate
                                         S. p sto sp ltc lpri s



            S. p sto sTa eu i n
             r oii n r d no s           r oii n r d no s
                                       S. p sto sTa eu i n



               S. p sto sE po e’
                r oii n ml yr s            r oii n ml yr s
                                          S. p sto sE po e’
                    as cai n
                     s oi t o s                 s oi t o s
                                               as cai n
Ci v
  i l
 oi t
Scey
               S. p sto sPoeso a
                r oii n r f si nl          r oii n r f si nl
                                          S. p sto sPoeso a
                     s n i ae
                      y dc t s                   y dc t s
                                                s n i ae


               e d r a gr f G s
              Ha so m a eso N O
                      n                          n
                                          e d r a gr f G s
                                         Ha so m a eso N O


              Ha so c m u i ybs d
               e d f o mnt - ae           e d f o mnt - ae
                                         Ha so c m u i ybs d
               as cai n o u i n
                soi to s r no s            soi to s r no s
                                          as cai n o u i n



                                                                  17
      Computation of the GSI
Guiding principles:
Each basic indicator has the same weight
 in each sub-component;
Each sub-component has the same weight
 in each component;
Each component of the GSI has the same
 weight in each block;
Finally, each block has the same weight in
 the GSI.

                                              18
 Computation of the GSI (Cont’d)
  For each variable, the indicator of gender
equality is calculated the same way:
Comparison (ratio) of female achievement to
male achievement. The closer the indicator is
to 1, the better the performance on gender
equality is in the country:
Example: Primary enrolment rate for girls:
65%
Primary enrolment rate for boys: 80%
Enrolment rate indicator: 65/80 = 0.8125
                                                19
 Computation of the GSI (Cont’d)
The value for each sub-component,
 component and block is calculated as the
 simple arithmetic mean of respectively the
 indicators, sub-components and
 components.
The GSI is then compiled as the mean of the
 three blocks to give the overall gender profile
 of the country.


                                                   20
 Computation of the GSI (Cont’d)
Exceptions (Deprivation indicators):
 5 indicators do not follow the rule: These are
  related to education (dropout), health (stunting,
  underweight, mortality) and time-use (domestic,
  care and volunteer activities): Here we compute
  male result versus female result.
 If an indicator is missing, the other indicators of
  the sub-component are re-weighted, to take
  account of the actual number of available
  indicators.


                                                        21
   The African Women Progress
       Scoreboard (AWPS)
The (AWPS) is a matrix that captures
 qualitative issues in relation to the
 performance of gender policies of African
 governments.
It provides an assessment of the gap
 between political commitment and the
 implementation of gender policies.


                                             22
                 AWPS Focus
 Women’s rights : CEDAW and its optional
  protocol, the Protocol to the African Charter of
  Human and People’s Rights on Women’s Rights.
 Social Power: BPfA, Violence against women
  (domestic, sexual, rape, traffic),African Charter on
  the rights of child, ICPD PoA+5 (STIs,
  HIV/AIDS, maternal mortality, contraception),
  2001 Abuja declaration on HIV/AIDS, education
  (girls drop out, education on women’s rights).



                                                         23
         AWPS Focus (Cont’d)
 Economic Power: ILO Convention (100, 111, 183,
  policy on HIV/AIDS), Engendering NPRS,
  Access to agricultural extension services, access
  to technology, equal access to land.
 Political Power: UN security council resolution
  1325, Beijing PFA effective and accessible
  national machinery, Policy for women’s quota
  and affirmative action, Policy to support
  women’s in decision making positions within
  parliament/ministries, Gender mainstreaming in
  all departments

                                                      24
        Vertical Axis
1. Ratification
2. Reporting
3. Law
4. Policy Commitment
5. Development of a Plan
6. Targets
7. Institutional Mechanism
8. Budget
9. Human resources (Training)
10. Research
11. Involvement of civil society
12. Monitoring and evaluation
13. Information and dissemination

                                    25
                 AWPS FORMAT

Block       Ratification   Reporting   Law   …


Women’s
Rights

Social                     Score

Economic

Political


                                                 26
             Scoring AWPS
Simple scoring system that is sensitive to
 progress made;
The scoring is done on a three-point scale;
For all cells where it is possible, a three
 point score (0 – 1 – 2,) is used:
  
  
  


                                               27
                  Cross-analysis

Block       Gender Status Index               African Women Progress Scoreboard




Social      Secondary dropout ratio = 0.507   Girls drop out Law=0, Policy=0, Plan=0




Economic    Ownership of plot/land = 0.843    Equal access to land law=2, Policy=2




            Members of local councils =       Support women in decision making
Political
            0.328                             Law=2, Policy=1, Plan=0




                                                                                       28
THANK YOU FOR YOUR
    ATTENTION!
Please visit www.uneca.org/acgd to download the AGDI booklet



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