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					H. LIVINGSTON

      1. BRIEF HISTORY

Livingston County is the twenty-sixth county in order of formation. It was formed in 1798,
and named after Robert R. Livingston, who helped draft the Declaration of Independence.
The county is a virtual island, surrounded by the Ohio River to the north and west, and to
the south by the Tennessee River, Kentucky Lake, and Lake Barkley. Its strategic location
made it a supplying point for Union gunboats during the Civil War. In the 1800’s, the area
was a popular destination for many Southerners seeking any escape from the summer heat.
The county seat is Smithland.


      2. GEOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION

          a. County

Livingston County is located in the western-most part of the Pennyroyal region.        Its
boundaries are the Ohio River, and Crittenden, Lyon, Marshall, and McCracken counties.
The Cumberland River cuts through the county’s 312 square miles and also forms part of
its eastern border.

          b. Location of Center(s)
Ledbetter Elementary School – 1250 US 60 West – Ledbetter, Kentucky
North Livingston Elementary School – 1372 US 60 East – Burna, Kentucky




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      3. POPULATION DESCRIPTION & PROJECTED GROWTH

The U.S. Census Bureau reported in the 2000 Census an estimated population in Livingston

County to be 9,804. In 1990 the estimated population was 9,062. The population had a

change increase of 742 from 1990-2000 with a rate change of 7.6%

                                                Population
                                                Forecasts
                                  %                                     #          #       %            %           #        #
  1980       1990      2000     Change         2010       2020       Rural       Urban    Rural       Urban       Farm    Non-
                                                                                                                          Farm

  9,219      9,062     9,804        6.0%       9,560      9,360        9,804       0      100%         0%         713       9,091



Population estimates reported by the U.S. Census taken from July 1, 2000 to July 1, 2003
are listed in the table below.                   Based upon the population change data for the
aforementioned three years, Livingston County is ranked 104th in the state, with a
population growth change of minus 0.8%.


                          Population Estimates                                                    April 1, 2000

  July 1, 2003       July 1, 2002          July 1, 2001           July 1, 2000     Estimates Base             U.S. Census

     9,726              9,827                 9,829                  9,814               9,804                    9,804


The county population is spread out with 22.30% under the age of 18; 7.50% from 18 to
24; 28.20% from 25 to 44; 27.00% from 45 to 64; and 14.90% who are 65 years of age or
older. The median age is 40 years.                     For every 100 females there are 97.80 males. For
every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.70 males.




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     4. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA

          a. Racial Characteristics

The racial makeup of Livingston County is 98.49% White; 0.14% Black or African
American; 0.42% Native American; 0.03% Asian; 0.01% Pacific Islander; 0.28% from
other races; and 0.63% from two or more races. The following chart further details the
racial make up numbers and percentages as listed in the 2000 Census:

                       Black or     American Indian                Native Hawaiian or     Some         2 or More
 Total    White         African     & Alaska Native       Asian      Other Pacific      Other Race       Races
                       American                                         Islander

 9,804    9,656          14                  41            3               1               27             62

The U.S. Census reports another break down of race that shows the statistics for Hispanic
or Latino of any race. The individual racial makeup in this category is 0.4% Mexican;
0.00% Puerto Rican; 0.00% Cuban; 0.3% other Hispanic or Latino; and 99.2% not
Hispanic or Latino. The estimated number in each category is listed in the chart below.

  Total     Mexican        Puerto Rican           Cuban     Other Hispanic or Latino       Not Hispanic or Latino

  9,804           42                     0            0                            32                      9,730



          b. Age Characteristics & Projected Growth

The chart below shows the 0-4 year old age group in Livingston County declining from
1980- 2002. By 2010 and 2020, the 2000 Census has projected an estimated decrease in
this age category. It is similar for the 5-9 year olds. This age group also declined from
1980-1997, with the exception of an increase in 2002. The 2010 and 2020 projection
shows a decrease in the 5-9 year olds age group.
    Age           1980            1990             1997           2000         2002         2010          2020

    0-4           641             513               499           471           452          424          396

    5-9           694             527               493           482           524          430          420




                                                          158
             c. Households and Families

There are 3,996 households in Livingston County, out of which 72.4% are family
households. The average household size is 2.42, and the average family size is 2.86. At
least 29.5% of the total households have children less than 18 years of age.                                       The
percentage of married couple family households is 60.4, with 23.6% having own children
less than 18 years of age. The total female householder with no husband present is 7.9%,
with 4.0% having own children less than 18 years of age.                                 The total single father
householder is 1.9% with own children under 18 years of age. At least 32.5% of the total
households have individuals under the age of 18 years. The following chart further details
the total estimated number of families in the individual categories with children under the
age of 18.
                                 Married Couple Families        Single           Single      Family Households With
    Total             Total      With Own Children Under        Mother           Father      Own Children Under 18
 Households          Families           18 Years               Families         Families             Years

     3,996            2,893               943                      160            75                 1,178

             d. Birth Trends
The chart below shows the estimated birth trend figures in each category for Livingston
County
  Birth      1990       1991    1992    1993     1994      1995          1996    1997       1998    1999     2000    2001
 Trends

 Live         106       118      106     111      97          81          86      105        86      92      110         88
 Births

 Teen
 Birth       32.5%     28.9%    23.7%   22.4%   20.6%      16.9%     14.8%       20.0%      25.8%    -        -          -
 Rate

 Low         6.7%       6.8%    6.9%    6.0%     5.6%      4.6%          4.8%    6.0%       6.5%     -        -          -
 Birth
 Weight

 Unwed       12.4%     13.7%    14.3%   14.5%   15.6%      17.7%     20.2%       22.4%      22.5%    -        -          -
 Mothers

 High
 School      23.4%     23.2%    23.0%   20.7%   19.6%      18.6%     17.4%       17.9%      18.7%    -        -          -
 Dropout
 Mothers




                                                        159
                1. Live Births

As shown in the graph below, live births were up and down from 1990 to 2001. Live births
were the highest in 1991 and the lowest in 1995.

                                          Live Births


          140
          120
          100
           80
           60
           40
           20
            0
                1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

                                               Livingston County



                2. Teen Birth Rate
The teen birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 females in the teenage group. The
teen birth rate in Livingston County decrease from 1992 – 1996. The rate went up in 1997-
1998. Livingston County was ranked 21st statewide for births by 15-17 years olds from
1987-1991. The lower rank indicates better, and the higher rank indicates worse.        During
this time period, this county ranked 6th for repeated births by 15-19 year olds. From 1997-
2001, this county ranked 9th in teen births by 15-17 years olds and repeated births for 15-
19 year olds ranked number one in the state. The graph shows the teen birth rate pattern
from 1990 – 1996.

                                        Teen Birth Rate


          35
          30
          25
          20
          15
          10
           5
           0
                1990   1991      1992   1993      1994    1995     1996   1997   1998

                                           Livingston County




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                3. Low Birth Weight

The low birth weight is infants weighing less than 5.5 pounds (2500 grams) at birth. The
low birth rate in Livingston County was the lowest at 4.6% in 1995. The highest percentage
was 6.9 in 1992.

                                         Low Birth Weight


          8.0   %
          7.0   %
          6.0   %
          5.0   %
          4.0   %
          3.0   %
          2.0   %
          1.0   %
          0.0   %
                    1990   1991   1992    1993    1994      1995   1996   1997   1998

                                              Livingston County




                4. Unwed Mothers

The unwed mothers are mothers who were unmarried at the time of the infant’s birth. The
graph below shows a gradual increase of unwed mothers every year from 1990 to 1998 for
Livingston County. From 1987-1991, Livingston County had 19% of unwed mothers, and
ranked 55th statewide. From 1997-2001, this county was at 31% of unwed mothers and
ranked 90th statewide.

                                         Unwed Mothers


          25.0 %

          20.0 %

          15.0 %

          10.0 %

           5.0 %

           0.0 %
                    1990   1991   1992     1993    1994     1995   1996   1997   1998

                                               Livingston County




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                  5. High School Dropout Mothers
 The graph below shows a decrease of teen mothers dropping out of high school from 1992-
 1996. The lowest rate was in 1996, and the highest rate was in 1990.



                                                   Mother High school dropout


                      25.0 %

                      20.0 %

                      15.0 %

                      10.0 %

                       5.0 %

                       0.0 %
                                    1990   1991    1992    1993        1994    1995     1996    1997        1998

                                                               Livingston County




 The chart below provides estimated birth trend numbers for teen mothers under age 20 in
 Livingston County.

         Births to Mothers Under Age       Total Births to Unmarried          Total Births to Mothers Not
                      20                             Mothers                    High School Graduates

          1987-1991      1997-2001         1987-1991      1997-2001           1987-1991        1997-2001

             85                65             64             111                 128               91


                  6. Prenatal Care

Statistics reported in the 2003 KIDS COUNT Data Book showed Livingston County ranked
46th statewide from 1987-1991 for prenatal care in the 1st trimester, with 77% prenatal visits
made by pregnant women.              The percentage of prenatal visits made from 1997-2001 was
81.0, which ranked this county 91st statewide. An estimated 75% made ten or more prenatal
visits from 1987-1991, putting the county rank at 66. From 1997-2001 this county ranked
87th, with 77% in the ten or more prenatal visits made category.




                                                       162
            e. Safety
The chart below shows the death rate from infant through the teen years. As shown in the
chart, there were more teen violent deaths for the nine year time period than infant and child
deaths. The teen violent deaths are deaths classified by accidents, homicides, and suicides.

                                                       Trend Data
                                    1990     1991     1992      1993     1994     1995        1996     1997   1998

  Infant Deaths      Livingston    7        6        5            3     2        1        1           1        1

                     Kentucky     2,341    2,278    2,185    2,122     2,035    1,973    1,962       1,955    1,938


  Child Deaths       Livingston    3        4        4         4        3        3        2           1        1
  (Ages: 1-14)
                     Kentucky     1,198    1,179    1,139    1,136     1,063    1,047    1,027       1,000    956
  Teen Violent
    Deaths           Livingston    1        3        6         6        10       10       8           5        5
  (Ages: 15-19)      Kentucky     1,041    1,043    1,017    1,019     1,043    1,055    1,019       1,004    979



             f. Children with Disabilities

The 2000 Census reported 155 civilians in Livingston County between the ages of 5-20 with
a disability. This is 7.7% of the total population of 2,013 in this age group. The 2003 KIDS
COUNT Data Book reported 26 public school preschoolers in this county who are disabled.
The Livingston County Public School System provides services to children who are disabled
or developmentally delayed.

         5. ECONOMIC INDICATORS
                  a. Income

The 1990 median income for Livingston County families with children was reported in the
2003 Kentucky KIDS County Data Book as $27,254, which placed this county 42nd in rank
statewide. The median income for families with children increased to $41,275 in 2000. With
this income increase, the county held the rank of 33rd statewide. Married couples with
children earned a median income of $47,478. The single mother median income for was
$13,841. The single father’s median income was $23,750. In 1990, the rate of children with
no parents working was 4% and ranked 3rd in the state. The rate increased to 7% in 2000,
with a rank of 10th statewide.


                                                            163
                  b. Poverty

The 2000 Census and the 2003 Kentucky KIDS Count Data provides information about
people and children who are below poverty. The child poverty rate in Livingston County in
1990 was 17% and ranked 12th in the state. The rate decreased in 2000 to 11%, which
improved the rank to 6th in the state. The following chart shows a breakdown of the number
and percentage or families with related children living below poverty as reported in the 2000
Census data.
                                                                                                 # Below          % Below
                                                                                               Poverty Level      Poverty
                                             SUBJECT
                                                                                                                   Level

 Total Families                                                                                    219              7.6

 Families with related children Under 18 years                                                     119              9.5

 Families with related children under 5                                                             45             10.2

 Total Families with Female Householders, no Husband Present                                        68             22.7

 Families with Female Householders with Related Children Under 18 years, no husband present         50             27.9

 Families with Female Householders with Related Children Under 5 years, no husband present          20             44.4

 Total Individuals                                                                                 994             10.3

 Individuals 18 years and over                                                                     7,347           11.1

 Individuals 65 years and over                                                                     750             10.0

 Related children under 18 years                                                                   229             10.7

 Related children 5 to 17 years                                                                    178             10.9

 Unrelated individuals 15 years and over                                                           366             26.5


                c. Child Economic Support

                     1. Supplemental Security Income
The chart below reports the number of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients in
Livingston County under age 18, with a breakdown of 0-5 year old from 1994 to 2003.
More children received SSI in 2002 than any other year.

                                                  Supplement Security Income Recipients
                                           1994      1995     1996     1997    1998     1999      2000     2001      2002
       Total (Under 18 yrs old)             30        27       34       25      32       37        30       27        38
              0-5 yr olds                    9         8       10        7       9       10         9        8        11




                                                                  164
                  2. Medicaid/KCHIP

Children under age 19 are eligible for enrollment in the Kentucky Child Health Insurance
Program (KCHIP). KCHIP is a federal and state funded program that provides health
insurance to children (ages 0-19) in families that earn too much to be eligible for Medicaid or
do not receive health insurance for dependents through an employer. The under 18 year old
Medicaid recipients are children who are eligible for TANF (Temporary Assistance for
Needy Families). These children may or may not receive the cash benefit through TANF.
When they are only receiving the Medicaid, it is due to parents earning just enough money to
make them ineligible for the cash benefit but eligible for the Medicaid portion. If the total
number of children under 18 years old, who are receiving Medicaid are spread evenly by
each age, Livingston County would have an estimate of 130 children under age six receiving
Medicaid in 1999. The total estimate for children under age six receiving Medicaid in 2003
would be 206.        This assumption could apply also for KCHIP. The under 6 year old age
group receiving KCHIP in 2000 could be estimated at 53 recipients, and in 2003 the
estimated number could be 61. The chart below shows the estimated numbers reported on
the web: www.aecf.org.


                     Type                                    Trend Data
                                             1999    2000       2001      2002    2003
   Kentucky Child Health Insurance Program
   (KCHIP)                                     -      192       231       233     222


   All Medicaid Recipients                   1,015   1,177     1,264      1,302   1,344

   Medicaid recipients under age 18
                                             445      603       652       673     701




                                                     165
                     3. Food Stamps and School Lunch Program

The food stamps data shows the number of children under age 19 who were food stamp
recipients during a specific month of the year. No data was available for 1999. The free and
reduced lunch data represents the number of enrolled public school students in Livingston
County receiving either free or reduced price lunches for each school year. No data was
available      for     1994          and       2003.      The        year      listed       indicates     the       ending           year.

                              1994       1995     1996         1997         1998    1999         2000     2001         2002       2003
Percent of children
receiving free/reduced         -        37.0%     39.6%      41.1%       40.5%     41.9%         42.6%    43.6%       47.4%          -
price lunch
Children receiving
                               -         567       558         626          626     647           641         643      697           -
free/reduced price lunch
Food Stamp Recipients         397        364       416         324          284         -         250         281      343        388



                     4. Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
The chart below shows the estimated figures of children receiving TANF from 1994 to 2003
with the change difference.

                                                                                                                           Children
                    1994              1995          1996               1997              2001             2003            1994-2003
                   Children          Children      Children           Children          Children         Children          Change

                     397               364             416              324                 32                97              -300
 0-4 yr olds          88                80              92               72                  2                20               -68
  5 yr olds           22                20              23               18                  1                 5               -17



                     5. Women, Infants, and Children Program

The latest available information is cited from the 2002 Audubon Area Community Services
Factbook and www.kydap.net/countydatadetail.


      1996 WIC          1996 % of Eligible        1998 WIC            1998 % of Eligible         2000 WIC           2000 % of Eligible
      Recipients           Population             Recipients             Population              Recipients            Population

         299                    11.3%                    328                  12.9%                   271                10.6%
        “Eligible Population” is the total number of children under six years of age plus the total number of women age 15-34”.




                                                                      166
                 d. Unemployment and the Labor Force

The 2000 US Census shows industries supporting the economy with estimated figures and
percentage of workers as shown in the chart below. Education, Health and Social Services
are the largest major industry in Livingston County. Information is the lowest supporting
industry with a percentage of 0.9% employed.

                                              Industry                                          Number      Percentage
                                                                                               Employed     Employed

 Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, and Mining                                          420             9.3

 Construction                                                                                    389             8.7

 Manufacturing                                                                                   502             11.1

 Wholesale Trade                                                                                 167             3.7

 Retail Trade                                                                                    588             13.0

 Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities                                                      470             10.4

 Information                                                                                      74             1.6

 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate, Rental and Leasing                                             150             3.3

 Professional, Scientific, Management, Administrative, and Waste Management Services             212             4.7

 Educational, Health and Social Services                                                         828             18.3

 Arts, Entertainment, Recreation, Accommodation and Food Services                                381             8.4

 Other Services (Except Public Administration)                                                   212             4.7

 Public Administration                                                                           121             2.7


The chart below shows the unemployment rate for Livingston County in comparison with
Kentucky’s unemployment rate.


                                                    1995   1996       1997       1998   1999      2000    2001
                         Livingston County          6.5%   5.9%       6.9%       5.9%   5.3%      6.5%    7.0%
                             Kentucky               5.4%   5.6%       5.4%       4.6%   4.5%      4.1%    5.5%




                                                                167
As shown in the graph below, the unemployment rate was the lowest in 1999. It continued to
climb after 1999.




           e. Education

The total population in Livingston County for 25 years and over is 6,851, in which 696
(1.2%) have less than a 9th grade education.    The 9th - 12th grade education total, with no
diploma is 1,064 or 15.5%. Approximately 40.8% are high school graduates or equivalent.
At least 19.4% of the population has some college, but no degree; 5.8% Associate degree;
5.1% Bachelor’s degree; and 3.1% Graduate or professional degree.




                                               168
                 1. High School Non-Completion Rate
The high school dropout figures for 9th –12th grade for 1993-2002 are shown in the chart
below. The lowest dropout figure was in 1996 and 2001.

                                 Trend Data for High Schools for Grades 9-12
                   1993   1994      1995     1996     1997     1998     1999   2000     2001   2002
      # of
      Dropouts      21     17        37       14       16      17       15      24       14      24
      % of
      Dropouts     4/2%   3.5%      7.7%    3.2%      3.8%    3.9%     3.4%    5.7%     3.5%   5.9%




The graph below shows the dropout rate pattern for Livingston County.


                                    Dropout Rates Grades 9-12


      9.0 %
      8.0 %
      7.0 %
      6.0 %
      5.0 %
      4.0 %
      3.0 %
      2.0 %
      1.0 %
      0.0 %
                 1993 1994       1995 1996         1997 1998        1999 2000        2001 2002

                                                   Livingston County




                                                     169
                2. Reading, Math and Writing Proficiency
The national norm referenced test used in Kentucky, the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills
(CTBS/5), measures the basic skills of students while allowing the school to compare their
performance with national benchmarks established in 1996. The scores are reported in
percentiles. A percentile shows the percentage of students who fell below a particular score
on the test. For example, a percentile of 60 would show that the average student in the
Livingston County Schools scored equal to or better than 60% of all students who took the
test.   The following chart shows the overall percentiles in reading, language arts, and
mathematics for Livingston School System, Kentucky and nationally.


           National Norm Referenced Test (CTBS/5)              District       State           Nation

           End of Primary (EOP) Reading                        64%ile         61%ile          50%ile

           End of Primary Language Arts                        63%ile         59%ile          50%ile

           End of Primary Mathematics                          68%ile          63%ile         50%ile
                            Source: Livingston County District Report Card for 2002-2003



        6. TRANSPORTATION, HOUSING AND UTILITIES

            a. Transportation

The total available vehicles per household in Livingston County increased in 2000. The chart
below shows the comparison from the 1990 and 2000 Census.

                          Year     No Vehicles    1 Vehicles     2 Vehicles    3 + Vehicles

                         1990          254           963           1,571              805

                         2000          216          1,076          1,688          1,016




                                                        170
           b.   Housing

The 2000 Census reports 3,405 or 85.2% owner-occupied housing units in Livingston
County, out of the total occupied housing units of 3,996. The estimated total renter-occupied
housing units reported were 591 or 14.8%.

At least 35.3% of the owner-occupied housing units have an estimated value less than
$50,000. The highest rate of 50.5% is in the value range of $50,000-$99,999. The lowest rate
is 0.1% for homes valued at $500,000 to $999,999. The mortgage payments range from less
than $300 -$2,000 or more. Approximately 0.7% has a mortgage payment less than $300.
At least 16.4% homeowners have a mortgage payment of $300-$499. The highest rate of
23.0% has a mortgage payment from $500 - $699. The next highest rate is 16.4% with
mortgage payments ranging from $300 - $499. The rate of homeowners with $2,000 or more
mortgage payment is 0.4%.

The highest rate of any renter’s category is 36.2%, which is in the payment category of $300-
$499. The next highest rate is 15.7% in the $200 - $299 rent category. Only 3.3% of renters
pay less than $200 in rent. The lowest rate of renters paying $1000 - $1,499 is 0.4%.

           c. Utilities

   Water/Sewer – The U.S. Census 2000 reported approximately 53 or 1.3% households in
   Livingston County are lacking complete plumbing facilities and 73 or 1.8% are lacking
   complete kitchen facilities.

   Electric – The 2000 Census reported 1,427 or 35.7% households use electric for heating

   Gas - The 2000 Census reported an estimated 475 or 11.9% households use utility gas for
   house heating fuel.

   Other House Heating Fuel - At least 47.3% use bottled, tank, or LP gas; 1.8% use fuel oil
   and kerosene; 0.0 use coal or coke; 3.3% use wood.

   Telephone Service – The 2000 Census reported 205 or 5.1% households with no
   telephone service.


                                              171
     7. CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT REPORTS
The following data on child abuse and neglect in Livingston County was reported in the
2003 KIDS COUNT Data Book for 2002. As shown in the chart, the highest percentage
of reports made were girls being victims of child abuse and neglect.


                                        Total       Physical      Sexual       Emotional        Neglect/Dependency

 Number of Reports                       128           42            9              2                     75

 Rate Per 1,000 Under Age 18             59            19            4              1                     34

 Percent Under Age 5                    27%           17%          11%            50%                    35%

 Percent Girls                          55%           67%          100%           100%                   43%

 Percent Substantiated                  28%           12%          13%             0%                    40%




    8. CHILD CARE OPTIONS

The 2003 Kentucky KIDS COUNT Data Book reported the following child care options,
which includes the number of providers, subsidies received, and the median weekly rates
for Livingston County. No median weekly rate was reported for registered providers.

                   Child Care Providers                     Number         # children w/subsidies
                   Licensed Centers/homes                                2                     23
                   Certified Homes                                       1                      0
                   Registered Providers                                  7                      3

                   Ave/Highest Rates Charged Licensed                      Certified homes
                   Infants                   $85.00*                       $80.00*
                   Toddlers                  $85.00*                       $80.00*
                   Preschool                 $75.00*                       $75.00*
                   School Age                $65.00*                       $75.00*
            *The data collected in the chart above reports the regional rates rather than the county rates.




                                                         172

				
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