; Section 3 Preindustrial Societies
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Section 3 Preindustrial Societies


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									            SECTION 3 PREINDUSTRIAL
The way a society provides for basic needs greatly affects its culture and
social structure. Preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial societies meet
basic needs in different ways. Preindustrial societies include hunting and
gathering, horticultural, pastoral, and agricultural societies.

Types of Society

The culture and social structure of a society are greatly affected by the way
the society provides for basic needs.

Society- people living within defined territorial borders and sharing a
common culture

Basic needs= food and shelter
       3 Classifications of Society
 3 classifications of society
    1. Preindustrial
    2. Industrial
    3. Postindustrial

 All societies are comprised of social structures
   Members in each type of society know what is expected of them
    and what they can expect from others.
   Members of a particular type of society engage in the same basic
    social patterns time after time because they share patterned and
    predictable social relationships that are passed from generation to
         Hunting and Gathering
 Hunting and Gathering Society- a society that
  survives by hunting animals and gathering edible
 2 million to 10,000 years ago
 Usually nomadic- move from place to place as the
  food supply and seasons change
 Few material goods because they had to carry all
  their possessions with them
 Usually less than 50 in a group
 Economic relationship based on cooperation
Yanomamo of Brazil
    Hunting and Gathering contd.
 Generosity and hospitality valued.
 Thrift is seen as selfishness
 Little or no concept of private property or
 Division of labor- men and women are assigned
  separate tasks and certain tasks are given to old
    and young
   There is more leisure time in hunting and
    gathering societies than any other
   Khoi-San bushmen of Southern Africa
   Kaska Indians of Canada
   Yanomamo of Brazil
        Horticultural Societies
 12,000-10,000 years ago

 Horticultural Society- a society that survives primarily
  through the growing of plants

 Led to permanent settlements

 Sometimes grew to 1,000- 2,000 members

 Households depend more on themselves and less on
  others outside the family unit for subsistence
               Pastoral Societies
 12,000-10,000 years ago

 Pastoral Society- a society in which food is obtained
  primarily by raising and taking care of animals

 Cattle, camels, goats, and sheep provide milk and meat

 Grains are needed to feed animals so they must either
  farm or trade with people that do

 Long-term villages can be maintained
  Pastoral Societies contd.
 Women stay at home while men take the herds to
  different pastures
 Male dominated, women generally have a low status

 With a surplus of food, some members of the
  community are free to create a more complex
  division of labor

 People can become religious leaders, make pottery,
  spears, or clothing

 Surplus begins to create social inequality as some
  have more wealth than others
           Agricultural Societies

 6,000 years ago

 Agricultural Society- a society that uses plows and
  draft animals in growing food
 Invention of the plow- allows farmer to control weeds
  but also turns the weeds into fertilizer by burying them
  under the soil

 The plow digs deeper and is able to reach nutrient-rich

 Results in greater productivity- and more food per acre
 Agricultural Societies contd.

 More people are freed up to engage in other
  noneconomic activities

 Distinct social classes are formed

 Money begins to be used

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