The Age of Exploration and Isolation, 1400-1800 by C92iV8

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									  Seeking spices and converts, European
      nations lead successful voyages of
exploration to the East. China and Japan
  both limit foreign contact after a brief
                    period of acceptance
 Upon    completion, students should be able to:
1.   Explain the reasons why the Europeans
     began to explore the east.
2.   Describe the advantages that Portugal had
     in sea exploration.
3.   Summarize the growth of European
     exploration in the 16-1700’s.
The desire for profit and the hope of spreading
 Christianity motivate European exploration,
 and new technology makes it possible. The
 Portuguese dominate exploration until other
 Europeans, especially the Dutch, establish
 their own trading empires.
         controlled the trade and charged
 Italians
  them high prices for the trade goods.
 “God, glory, and gold”
     the hope to convert Muslims
     to bring fame and prestige to themselves and
      their countries
     enrich themselves
 Prince     Henry the Navigator
    founds a navigation school on the southwestern
     corner of Portugal
        mapmakers
        instrument makers
        shipbuilders
        scientists
        sea captains
   Africa to Asia
   Hormuz – connects the Persian
    Gulf and the Arabian Sea
       stops Muslim traders from
        reaching India
   Goa – on the west coast of
    India
       becomes the capital of their
        trading empire
   Malacca on the west coast of
    the Malay peninsula is
    captured which allows for the
    control of the Moluccas (Spice
    Islands)
   Brings down prices so
    Europeans can afford Asian
    goods
 1492 – Columbus reaches the Caribbean
 Tension grows between Portugal and Spain
 1493 – Pope Alexander VI steps in and sets
  the Papal Line of Demarcation
 1494 – Portugal and Spain negotiate and sign
  the Treaty of Tordesillas
 1600  – Dutch own 20,000 ships
 1619 – Dutch seize the port of Malacca and
  the Spice Islands
 Amsterdam becomes a leading commercial
  and financial center
 Influence of Europeans in Asia doesn’t extend
  outside of the port cities
 Upon   completion, students should be able to:
1.   Summarize the rise of the Ming Dynasty.
2.   Explain the outcome of the early Chinese
     sea voyages.
3.   Describe living conditions under the Ming
     and Qing Dynasties.
   Advances under the Ming and Qing dynasties left China
    self-contained and uninterested in European contact

   The first Ming emperor, Hongwu encouraged a return to
    Confucian moral standards

   Ming rulers would not allow outsiders to threaten the
    peace and prosperity they had brought to China following
    the end of Mongol rule
 The   Voyages of Zheng He
  1405 - Sponsored by Hongwu’s son Yonglo
  Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, and eastern Africa
  to impress the world with the power and splendor of
   Ming China and to expand China’s tribute system
  ships up to 440 ft. long with fleet’s crews numbering
   over 27,000
  Chinese scholars-officials see the voyages as wasteful
  Seventh and last voyage ended in 1433
 China   Isolates Itself
    Only the government to conduct trade
    Chinese merchants smuggled cargoes of silk,
     pottery, and other valuable goods
    Confucian beliefs and agriculturally favorable
     taxes keep China from becoming highly
     industrialized.
 after 200 years of rule ineffective rulers, corrupt
  officials, bad harvests, economic issues, and
  rebellion cause the fall of the Ming Dynasty
 the Manchu people from the northeast end of
  the Great Wall invaded
 they took the name Qing for their dynasty that
  lasted for more than 260 years
 bring Taiwan, Chinese Central Asia, Mongolia,
  and Tibet into China
 forced Chinese men to wear their hair in a
  pigtail as a sign of submission to their rule
 uphold Confucian beliefs and social
  structures
 made the frontiers safe and restored China’s
  prosperity
 Kanxi,   1661-1721
    reduced government expenses
    offers intellectuals government positions
    keeps a relationship with Jesuits who keep him up to
     date with developments in Europe
    Kanxi’s grandson Qian-long rules China to its greatest
     size and prosperity
    continue policy of isolation and “Chinese rules“ for trade
 King George III asks for a better trade
  arrangement
 representative Lord George McCartney
  refuses to kowtow the emperor
 Qian-long denies Britain’s request
 Why was the kowtow ritual important to the
  Chinese emperor?
 Korea
    follows Chinas lead: paying tribute, adopting a
     Confucian government, and staying isolated
    China’s “little brother”
    Manchu invasion and 1590 Japanese invasion
     evoke feelings of nationalism
    Korean themes evident in art
 Daily     Life
     farmers
     favor sons over daughters
     women
         educated children and handled family finances
         1/2 to 2/3 suffered through foot-binding
         drama is popular as literacy rates are low
 Upon  completion, students should be able to:
1. Trace the events that allowed Japan to
  become united under Tokugawa Ieyasu.
2. Describe feudal life in Japan.
3. Summarize the early contacts between
  Japan and the Europeans.
4. Discuss the reasons why Japan became an
  isolated country in the 17th century.
 Aftera period of severe disorder, the
 Tokugawa Shogunate unifies Japan. In the
 two centuries of peace and prosperity that
 follow, the Japanese close their country to
 foreign ideas by banning Christianity and
 severely restricting foreign trade
 Tokugawa    Ieyasu
    unites Japan, 1600
    moves capital to Edo, modern-day Tokyo
    daimyo govern at the local level
    “rule of law” overcomes “rule of the sword”
    increased food productions
    increased population
    merchant class and rich prosper
    poor still struggle
    women work in traditional roles
    towns people read urban fiction and haiku
    Tokugawa Shogunate rules until 1867
 Portuguese   come to trade
 daimyo are welcoming
 intrigued by trade goods, especially firearms
  and cannons
 new fortified castles turn into towns and
  cities with the attraction of artisans and
  merchants
 Christianity   in Japan
    Jesuits, Franciscans, and Dominicans convert
     Japanese
    300,000 converts by 1600
    Ieyasu finds Christianity troubling so he bans it in
     1612
    Persecution of Christians continues
    All Japanese are forced to demonstrate a
     faithfulness to some branch of Buddhism
    1639 – Tokugawa Shogunate institute a “closed
     country policy” that lasts for more than 200 years


 START OF JAPANESE ISOLATIONISM

								
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