Education and Modern Society

Document Sample
Education and Modern Society Powered By Docstoc
					                     Session 9 - Agenda

Time      Activity
8:40      Jig-Saw on Quote Cards from Oct 2nd.
9:30      Lecture from Oct. 2nd.
         DVD clip – “Holy Grail”

10:00     Break
10:15     Lecture: Ch. 2:
        “Classical Sociological Approaches to Education”
                        (Major Theorists)
                Davies & Guppy - Chapter 2

“Classical Sociological Approaches to Education”
Use of Theories:
• Theories are conceptual tools
• Sociology offers competing perspectives - focusing at different levels of

Types of Theories:
• ‘Macro-level’ theories (grand theories):
    –   most abstract
    –   attempts to explain the qualities of social life in entire societies.
    –   examines broad shifts in economies , cultures, and demographics
    –   may span large periods of time and geographic areas.
       “Classical Sociological Approaches to Education”

Types of Theories:
• ‘Middle-range’ theories:
    – more circumscribed
    – specific to a time and place - a specific nation in a particular time period

• ‘Micro-level’ theories:
    – least abstract
    – face-to-face interactions among people

• Sociologists seek to explain different things - thus require different
  conceptual tools
                        Bullying Example

• Micro-level:
   – social-psychological issues = mental states of the individual bullies
• Middle-range level:
   – An organizational approach - how schools define bullying - how rules &
     programs are designed to deal with the issue
• Macro-level:
   – Cross-national comparisons - long-term historical research - how
     different cultures define bullying
          Birth of Sociology

Sociology was born as the revolutions begun in
the 1700’s and 1800’s were played out:
   1.Industrial Revolution
   2.Two political democratic revolutions in
    America and France
         Education and Modern Society

• Society: a group of people who share a
  culture in a particular territory.

• Societies have evolved with different levels of
            Education and Modern Society

1. Hunting and Gathering – survival, minimal or little

2. Horticultural – domestication of animals, inequalities
   increased e.g. slaves

3. Agrarian – large scale farming, use of plows etc., greater
   social inequality e.g. serfs and lords.
  Societies have evolved with different levels of

4. Industrial societies – factories, people moved from the farms
   to cities, inequality formed between capitalists and labourers.

5. Post-industrial – computers – global society
         Major Social Theorists
• Auguste Comte (1798 -1857)
• Karl Marx (1818 -1883)
• Emile Durkheim (1858 -1917)
• Max Weber (1864 -1920)
• George Herbert Mead (1863- 1931)
           Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

• Positivism – applying the scientific method to the
  social world
• Experience of the French Revolution inspired his
  thinking on “the twin problems of social order and
  social change”
     Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
• “What holds society together?”

• “Why is there social order instead of anarchy or

• “Once society becomes set on a particular course,
  what causes it to change?”
      Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
• Concluded that the answer was in applying the scientific

• This would uncover the laws that underlie society.
• It would not only discover social principles but it would also
  apply them to social reform.
     Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
• He called this new science:
     • The study of society

• Credited with being the “founder of
          Karl Marx (1818-1883)

• Influenced sociology but also left his mark on world

• Ranked by the Wall Street Journal as “one of the three
  greatest modern thinkers: (along with Freud & Einstein)
          Karl Marx (1818-1883)
• Believed people should take active steps to change

• Exiled to England from Germany for proposing

• Believed that the engine of human history is “class
          Karl Marx (1818-1883)
• Said that the “bourgeoisie” are locked in inevitable
  conflict with the “proletariat”.

• Purported that this struggle can only be resolved by
  the members of working class uniting in revolution
  and breaking the chains of bondage from the
  “Capitalist” class.
         Karl Marx and Early Conflict theory

• Everything that happens in society is caused by economic

• Modern industrial society is divided into:
  – Those who own wealth –capitalists or bourgeoisie
  – Those who produce wealth –labourers or proletariat (2
        Karl Marx and Early Conflict theory

• The result of revolution would be a “classless

• Free of exploitation

• Where all individuals, will work according to their
  abilities and receive according to their needs.
        Karl Marx and Early Conflict theory

• Marx did not consider himself a sociologist.

• However, his ideas have profoundly influenced the
  discipline – particularly “conflict theorists”
  Industrial Captialism, Class Inequality, and the
  Spectre of Selection Karl Marx (1818 -1883)

    Marx’ focus of social analysis was on the production and
                distribution of goods and services

Early economies:
• Hunting and gathering - more nomadic life style
• Gradual change with innovations in ploughing & planting -
  allowed people to settle and live off of the land
                       Karl Marx (1818 -1883)

• Agricultural Revolution 12 000 years ago - also the
  domestication of animals

• In these early societies learning was by custom and tradition -
  passed on from generation to generation - organized
  schooling was non-existent

• “Tradition ruled; custom was king”
                            Karl Marx (1818 -1883)

Rise of industry:
• With the increase of crop production society could sustain a non-agricultural
•   This led to the economic revolution of the industrialization era - late 1700’s
•   Mechanization led to increased productivity
•   Manufacturing led to a move from the farm/rural life style to an increased
•   This resulted in a growing division of industrial labour and the beginnings of a
    global economy
•   Formal schooling became critical to the economy both for the individual and
    the nation
                           Karl Marx (1818 -1883)

• Marx keyed in on the social differences produced by industrialization -
  homelessness to extreme wealth - a huge gap

• Making sense of these differences is the central focus of Marxist sociology

• Marx, to this day, has had the largest impact on the topic of inequity

• He remains one of the most read, cited, and criticized social thinkers.
• Class struggle is central to understanding society.
                     Marx on Modern Society:

• Modern society = Capitalist society

• Two main classes:
   – Owners of businesses & industries
   – Workers

• Riches & wealth = Capital

• Capital = ownership

• Ownership = power

• This is the nature of the Capitalist Society
             Marx on Modern Society:

The division between owner and worker is
• More obvious in agricultural societies (peasants, serfs, slaves
  & lords and aristocratic masters) - payment through labour or
  share of harvest

• Not so obvious in the industrialized society - workers paid but
  have no claim on the profits their work generates - “a profit
  created by one class but confiscated by a second”
            Marx on Modern Society:

• Marx sought to understand how capitalist society survived -
  What delayed the socialist revolution?

• Along with Friedrick Engels, Marx argued that social power
  followed from economic exploitation.

• “The creation and diffusion of dominant ideas in any society
  are driven by the ruling class.”
         Marx on Modern Society:

Role of Schooling:
• Schools are about ideas.

• Here, the ideas of the dominant/capitalists
  transferred to next generation
                    Marx on Modern Society:

• Since the ruling class controls society, their children will have access to
  academic success.
• Supports capitalism in two ways:
   1. “Education-workplace fit” - teaching of skills and values essential for
      workplace = “teaching factories” - children transformed into “simple
      articles of commerce and instruments of labour” (Marx & Engels)

    2. “A ruling class ideology in education” - reinforcing an idea system that
       sustains and legitimates the inequities of society. A need to “rescue
       education from the influence of the ruling class”.
                          Marx’s Influence

• Today in Canada, the power of business and unions as class forces is very
  much alive and have their impact on education
• For Marx, in the capitalist society, education stresses the
  fashioning/socialization of a compliant and productive labour force.
• By contrast, in Marx’s socialist society, education would nurture the
  development of the whole person (like John Dewey)
• Canadian educational systems today are pressured to graduate students
  who will ensure our competitiveness in the global economy

• A capitalistic focus?
                        Marx’s Influence
• Durkheim argued for equality of opportunity - everyone should benefit
  from education
• Marx refined this concept - adding the notion of a “level playing field”
• Analogy of foot race - everyone has to have the same starting point
• This “equality of condition” recognized that more affluent families
  provided early advantages for their children
• Thus they are “closer to the finish line before the race starts
    Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

• Contributed many important concepts to sociology

• First to study suicide

• Concluded: “People are likely to commit suicide if
  their ties to others in their communities are weak”.
   Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

• Sought for the recognition of sociology as an
  academic discipline
• Sociology was seen as an offshoot history and
• Durkheim's received the first academic
  appointment in sociology in France in 1887 at the
  University of Bordeaux
   Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

• Studied how individual behaviour is shaped by
  social forces.

• Identified social integration – the degree to which
  people are tied to their social group

• Conclude that people with weaker social ties are
  more likely to commit suicide.
             Early Functionalist theory:
                   Emile Durkheim
Social Fact: something that is external to and
  constraining upon the individual
Mechanical Solidarity: primitive societies get along
 because they are unspecialized and familiar with the
 same tasks. (religious and premodern)
              Early Functionalist theory:
                    Emile Durkheim

Organic Solidarity: division of labour and specialties
  produce different experiences and interests.

Anomie: feeling rootless and normless, lacking a sense
  of belonging- the opposite to what sociologists mean
  by community.

Durkheim felt that modern society tended to produce
  feelings of isolation – resulting from the division of
         Early Functionalist theory:
               Emile Durkheim

• Schools are key institutions in providing moral unity through
  forging a sense of nationhood and a commitment to common
  values and beliefs.
• Creating cohesion or social integration.
• Reducing the sense of anomie
          Durkheim and Moral Education
• Provides us with the DISCIPLINE to restrain our individual passions
  and drives. As we learn right and wrong we normally develop self
• Provides us with a sense of AUTONOMY – the social rules become
  our own rules.

• Aims to develop our sense of appreciation FOR SOCIETY and to its
  common morality.
          Emile Durkheim (1858 -1917)

                  Cultural Shift to Individualism
Traditional Societies :
• Limited choices
• Regularity in social life
• Religion dictated values
• Customs and habits determined other behaviours

Post-Industrial & Political Revolution:
• New social order - broke with tradition
• Rising individualism
               Durkheim’s question:

    “With the transition from traditional to modern
    societies, what provides for the social regularity of
                       modern life?”
• reforms sparked greater individualism
• the dignity and worth of individuals was central
• ideal - people should develop their individual talents and
  capacities to the fullest
              Durkheim’s question:

“As individualism flourished, what was replacing the
       authoritative voice of religion, which had
    traditionally supplied the norms that described
                   social behaviour?”
• He wondered what kept individuals from:
   – acting in their own selfish interest?

   – being unco-operative & self centred?
            Durkheim’s Response:
1. Argued against individual rationality or social
   contract as the basis of society
• In contractual agreements:
   – trust is fundamental

   – it is pre-contractual

   – must trust that you won’t be cheated before entering into a
               Durkheim’s Response:
2. Trust comes from human interaction
• one’s identity, sense of self, come from others (previously dictated by
• you do not define yourself; others do
• our sense of self is assembled from the reaction of others
• we trust reinforcing judgements of significant others in forming our self-
• we contribute to how others see themselves
         Durkheim’s Response:

3. We each speak a language we did not invent.
• we think with words created by others

• common language provides mutual understanding

• language also represents a microcosm of society - an
  external constraint on the individual.
• social norms essential to moral framework - basis of enduring

• a reliance on a community of others is the basis of our moral

• Moral framework has a dual role:
   1. enables us to act by following the guidelines
   2. constrains us by restricting the range of approved actions
        Durkheim’s lectures on Moral Education:

1. Morals had an imperative quality - stipulating how to act
   • (students learning a system of rules which benefit society)

2. Acting morally = acting in the interest of others or the
   “collective interest”
   • (education has a social responsibility - an obligation to the larger
    Durkheim’s lectures on Moral Education:

 3. Acting morally = taking personal responsibility
    • (students should not follow rules blindly - must understand the
      rules and take responsibility for them)

“Socialization is a complex activity involving
    an important reciprocity between the
            individual and society.”
      Durkheim on Curriculum:
• Curriculum needs to include scientific
  reasoning and knowledge:

  – science elaborates the cardinal notions that
    govern our thought - previously determined by
         Durkheim’s enduring issues:

1. recognized the socialization in formal education and its
   multiple objectives
   • emphasized both virtues and values = morality

   • stressed knowledge & competencies (sciences)

2. view of the individual and society
   • education’s role in the communal anchoring of social norms
        Durkheim’s enduring issues:

3. education is more likely to reproduce society than it is to
   change it.
   • education is only the image and reflection of society

   • education plays a fundamental role in promoting social order
     and stability to society

   • social reproduction = socialization and legitimation
            Durkheim’s enduring issues:

4. Education should provide an equal opportunity for
   – education to ‘aristocratic’

   – education should be the route (for all) to improving ‘their material

   – education a vehicle to foster the development of individual
     talents and capacities
     Durkheim’s critics: Two related issues
1. view of society leans too far towards consensus
• one big happy family
• conflict is virtually non-existent
• ignores the fundamental role of power

2. tended to point to the moral order, or society as all-powerful
• society an external constraint
• socialization pours societies moral rules into the child
• in reality, children interpret and make sense of social rules in light of other
  rules - in the context of which they find themselves - and in their
  interactions with others
          Durkheim vs. John Dewey

• the school was first and foremost as a socializing agent
  devoted to instilling in children society’s core values and
Dewey: (Early North American theorist)
• schooling out to be to develop in people the capacity to
  make the most of themselves - emphasis on nurturing
  individuals (learning by doing) than on rote, disciplined
  learning of societal rules.
    Max Weber (1864-1920)

• (pronounced ‘Veber’)

• A contemporary of Durkheim

• Considered, along with Durkheim and Marx, one of
  the most influential sociologists
       Max Weber (1864-1920)

• Studied the rise of “Capitalism”
   – How did it come about?
   – Why did some countries adopt it enthusiastically while
     others lagged behind?

• Suspected that religion might be the key.
      Max Weber (1864-1920)

• The typical approach to life, during this
  time of history, was not to strive “to get
  ahead,” but to work only enough to
  maintain one’s usual way of life.
• Weber – Roman Catholic belief encourage
  this traditional way of life
        Max Weber (1864-1920)

• The Protestant belief system (especially Calvinism)
  encouraged people to embrace change.
• Catholic belief – accumulation of material objects was a
  sign of greed and discontent
• Protestants – denounced greed but encouraged hard work,
  saving money and investing money.
       Max Weber (1864-1920)

• Protestantism over took Catholicism after the
  Reformation of the 1500’s

• Led to the development of Capitalism.

• Ideas and religion have created capitalism
      Max Weber and Interpretive Theory

The underlying foundation of modern society is
  rationalization and has created:
• bureaucracy – large scale enterprises in the political,
  educational and economic realm

• alienation – dehumanizing us from each other.
          Organizing and Legitimizing Knowledge
                       Max Weber (1864 -1920)

• Looked at the transition from the traditional religious societies
  to the advanced industrial societies
• Stressed two coincidental processes:
   1. The demise of religious enchantment providing social cohesion
   2. Highlighted the rise of instrumental reason (rationalization) as a
      principle logic animating modern societies.
           Max Weber (1864 -1920)
• One of Weber’s core concepts, referring to a process in which
  elements of social life are subjected to impersonal and efficiency-
  seeking calculation.

• the acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results as the right
  way to approach human affairs. (Henslin, et al)
• Deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient means to
  accomplish a particular goal. (Macionis, et al)
             Max Weber (1864 -1920)

Rationalization of society:
• A widespread acceptance of rationality and a social
  organization largely built around this idea. (Henslin, et al)

• The historical change from tradition to rationality as the
  dominant mode of human thought. (Macionis, et al)
                 Max Weber (1864 -1920)

• Traditional society: - characterized by a strong influence of religion -
  legitimated and explained one’s place in the social world.
• Religion a powerful social institution - guiding ideals and authoritative
  voices - soaked with religious custom, habit and tradition.
• The Church was supreme authority in most affairs.
• Weber observed the decline in the influence of the church and sought to
  understand how this shift influenced the cognitive frameworks that
  determined people’s thoughts and actions.
           Max Weber (1864 -1920)

Enlightenment Period:

• Church and science competed for hearts and minds of people.
• Science more pervasive as the power of astrology, magic, witchcraft &
  religion waned.
• Science more powerful because of its economic utility.
• Industrial growth dependent on science and engineering
• Scientists invented the steam engine, the spinning jenny and ships of
  iron plate.
                  Dawning of Science

James Watt:
• Typifies the intellectual leaders of the time
• electrical unit “watt” named after him
• University of Glasgow - many inventions

Science brought a new way of thinking.
• Galileo’s astrological understanding
• Newton’s laws of motion
• Seeking the understanding of how the world worked
                    Dawning of Science

Clinical procedures of science:
    – The formulation of hypothesis
    – The analysis of evidence
    – The public scrutiny
    – Critical reception/acceptance of new knowledge
New word view - new way of seeing:
  – Mysteries of the Universe began to be solved
  – Earth not flat!
  – Earth not centre of the universe
                 Science and Education

• This new way of thinking had to be taught.
• Organized schooling a vital part
• The principles of science needed to be transmitted and widely
  understood and applied
Age of Reason:
• 17th &18th centuries - enlightenment thinking replaced religious
  dogma with a reasoned approach to life
• Schools as essential as churches were previously!
                    Age of Reason / Enlightenment

• A more rational understanding of the world would allow us to
  better shape our destinies.
• Nature was to be controlled and used
• The domination of nature and human nature a central objective
• Lead to ethical and moral issues:
   – Extend life (pasteurization, refrigeration, vaccination, transplants)
   – Destroy life (nuclear bombs, chemical warfare, global warming)
   – Cloning , genetically modified food, stem-cell research, etc.
                     Evolution of Science

• Science has evolved to where we now question the concept of
  human exceptionalism.
Exceptionalism: the idea the we can exempt ourselves from the
  nature and rule of the world to suit our own particular needs
  and desires.
• Current Debate: is science useful or perverse
• Schools provide the forum for developing informed citizens -
  development of the skills and abilities to address these moral
  and ethical issues.
                  Back to Weber

• Critical to modern society was the emergence of
  science as a major cultural authority.

• This was fundamental to humans acting rationally in
  the world - to human intervention to change both
  themselves and nature
                             Back to Weber

Past 200 Years: (4 minutes on our clock!)
• Science provided cognitive models used in Western Cultures
• Schools thus less religious and more scientifically rational

• Introduction of science as a curriculum subject and scientific reasoning
• Scientific rationality - the prime rationales to justify the expansion of mass
              Two perspectives: Religion & Science

1848 - Cecil Alexander               1848 - Marx & Engels
• Hymn: “All Things Bright and
  Beautiful”                         • Communist Manifesto
• Premise that God was responsible
  for al good including the social   • Challenged the existing social
  order                                order

“The rich man in his castle;
                                     • Called for revolution!
the poor man at his gate
God made them, high and lowly;
and ordered their estate.”
              Instrumentalism / Rationalism

• Instrumental reason and calculation (rationality)
  dominated the social order

Instrumental Leader: an individual who tries to keep the
   group moving towards its goals, also known as a task-
   oriented leader. (Henslin, et al)

Instrumental Leadership: group leadership that emphasizes
   the completion of tasks (Macionis, et al)
               Instrumentalism / Rationalism

• Weber saw the rise of rationality affecting people’s lives
• People came to understand that modern inventions were
  normal ‘normal human artefacts accessible to rational
  knowledge, creation, and control’.
• People gained confidence that ‘these phenomena function
  rationally’ such that ‘one can reckon with them, calculate their
  effects, and base one’s actions confidently of the expectations’.
• Through human effort our world could be controlled (floods,
  disease reduced, life prolonged)
                    Clock Metaphors

1. Our timeline: each minute = 50 years - demonstrates the
   change in the last few minutes

2. Time (1300’s +) provided by the mechanisms in the clock -
   life more orderly, precise & predictable

3. Mechanical parts of Clock - dependent on each other =
                 Rationality and Modern Life

•    Economics - profit & loss
•    Logistical planning
•    Time management
•    Efficiency experts
•    Complexity of legal codes

    Predictability = control = scientific methods = rationalism
           The “McDonaldization” of modern society
                     (fast, efficient & predictable)
             Weber’s new social authority…

Rational-legal authority: A term from Weber’s typology, in
  which institutions derive their legitimacy from a contractual
  understanding of legal rules, rights and obligations.

Weber: - relative efficiency + iron cage
• Greater efficiency from bureaucracy - meeting the demands
  of the emerging trade patterns of the economy
        Weber’s new social authority…

• Precise specialization and co-ordination were
• Specialists required everywhere
• Bureaucracy is the most efficient method we have of
  co-ordinating specialized organizational and
  administrative structures with large numbers of
            Weber: relative efficiency + iron cage

• Bureaucracies are iron cages
• They are limiting - providing scripted solutions applied to
  diverse cases - each situation dealt with by the same solution -
  which doesn’t always fit the individual situation
• Eg. Associate Teacher Course
• ‘Red Tape’ - the rules and regulations that made bureaucracies
  so efficient in the first place.
• Weber recognized that social change requires new plans and
  new calculations
   Weber: relative efficiency + iron cage

• Bureaucracies = stifling, constraining, and overpowering

• When they work effectively we take them for granted

• When they inhibit creativity or flexibility they frustrate by their
  bounded rules.
   Weber: relative efficiency + iron cage

• Weber:
   – predicted the spread of bureaucracy because of its initial
   – Saw that this rationality undermined core values =
     individual freedom and creativity

• Weber could see the development of distinct
  institutional spheres - each with its own rational logic -
  competing with one another
          Weber: Distinct Institutional Spheres

• Western society - distinct institution spheres of:
    – work & home
    – government and religion
    – school and health
• Weber saw a set of competing values and interests:
    –   Rationality of the market place = profit and loss
    –   Science valued truth and logic
    –   Democracy stressed voting and political parties
    –   Art & design valued creativity
• No single voice of overarching moral legitimacy
• Each institution sought legitimacy
             Weber: Distinct Institutional Spheres

• Weber used these conceptual tools to understand education
• The demands of the new bureaucratic systems required specialists
• This meant qualifying exams and a meritocratic system = hiring the best
• Characteristic of modern bureaucracies is the presence of formal,
  impersonal rules governing staffing and that experts earn positions based
  on merit.
• Weber recognized that in order to prepare for the qualify expert exams,
  one needed a prior education experience - this was most often limited to
  those with wealth, and thus the bureaucratic system facilitated social
                          A case study from India

Box 2.1 - Page 23 of text
•   2.6% admission of applicants based on entrance exam
•   Few women
•   Few rural students
•   Few lower classes students
•   Few lower castes students
•   Although seats are saved for these students they seldom meet the basic
    admission criteria
•   Successful students often have taken a year just to prepare for the exams
•   A classic example of a meritocracy where inequality prevails
  Weber: Educational Qualifications

• Educational certification = “social prestige”

• Use of certification as an exclusionary device

• Restricting the supply through selection by examination for optimum
  numbers and excluding others

• Weber worried that the curriculum was moving towards “ever increasing
  expert and specialized knowledge” and was discouraging
  creative/cultural learning.
                         Lessons from Weber

• Process of rationalization affected schooling in many ways:
    –   Examinations focused on calculating and predicting
    –   School administration was bureaucratic
    –   Curriculum driven by knowledge useful to economy
    –   Schooling maintains legitimacy through rationalization

• Weber called for a pure, abstract model of bureaucracy
    –   An idealized version
    –   Concerned about inequalities
    –   Saw a gap between the idealized bureaucracy and reality
    –   Property (capital) and privilege distorts the meritocracy of bureaucracies
    –   Cynical about certification
         George Herbert Mead (1863- 1931)

• Mead stated that self-development and self-awareness require
  the capability to use language and interact symbolically

• Symbolic interaction: a perspective focusing on how the self
  and social relationships develop through social experience and
               Symbolic Interaction - G.H. Mead

• It involves individuals responding to objects, situations, and
  events according to the meanings that these have for them.
• Argued that to interact with others the individual must take on
  the role of the other - to imagine how this other views him/her
  and to know what this other expects.
• Individuals act and react to one another according to these
  mental interpretations
         Symbolic Interaction - G.H. Mead

• The concept of self includes the me
   – Self: An individual’s notion of who he or she is.
   – Me: The part of the self which represents inte4rnalized
     social attitudes and expectations.

• The self also includes the I.
   – I: The individual’s reaction to situations from his/ her
     standpoint - produces spontaneity & individuality.
        Symbolic Interaction - G.H. Mead

• Mead suggested that these societal and
  individual aspects of the self collaborate to
  form an interactive quality he called
Symbolic Interactionist & Interpretive Theories
               (Mead & Cooley)

Symbolic-Interactionist Model:
  – Introduced by the Chicago School of Sociology
  – Links social structural realities such as wealth,
    power, and status position with patterns of
  – education is related to social inequality.
            Symbolic Interactionist and
              Interpretive Theories

• Attempt to understand how structural variables become
  incorporated into the individual’s perceptions and
  interpretations and how the individual acts on the basis of
  these interpretations

• Interpretive procedures: Basic rules and procedures drawn
  upon by teachers when interacting with students and with each
  other in an educational setting.

• Results in social differentiation in educational settings through
  teacher’s categorizing and classifying various student
              Symbolic Interactionist and
                Interpretive Theories

• Structures of dominance: - the institutions and
  ideologies used by the dominant class to perpetuate
  and increase their advantaged position
• The schooling process - achievement testing, ability
  grouping, and tracking - reflects the structural needs
  of society.
     Symbolic Interactionist Theory:
       - George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley

Generalized other – over time the
 combination of many significant others
 grows into a concept of the ‘generalized
 other’ so children can imagine what other
 people or society expects of them.
     Symbolic Interactionist Theory:
       - George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley

Looking-Glass Self:
  – A child’s self image or identity develops out of
    the interactions with parents, peers and
  – Eventually they come to see themselves as
    others see them.

Shared By: