Livelihood Interventions - dswcpunjab by yurtgc548


									Livelihood Interventions & Production System
       through Watershed Development

                   ER. S.S Kahlon
                   Expert Livelihood
 To live, a man selects a path for
   generating Adequate Resource
   to Meet the daily Requirement on
   Sustainable Basis.
• Assets
• Activities
• Capabilities
   Livelihood, a Complex System



  Resource                        Capability

              Production System


Empowerment           Market                   Risk
    Livelihood Enhancement Aims

•   Increase in Income
•   Reduction in Expenditure
•   Increase in Employment
•   Reduction in Risk
Types of Livelihood in watershed

 • Land Based Livelihood
 • Non-Land Based Livelihood
Land Based Livelihood depends upon
Resource Management which leads to
Natural Resource Management (NRM).
Social Resource Management (SRM) is
also essential for Land Based Livelihood.
Current Approach
        NRM          SRM   =    LRM
  To Achieve the LRM

Focus on Natural Resources
Focus on Community
Focus on Institutions
Rights on CPRs
Labour Groups
Creation of Livelihood Funds
Linkage with Finance Institutions
Farming System Approach in Rain fed area:

  Factor contributing low production in rain fed area includes:

  1.   Uneven-erratic distribution of rain fall.
  2.   Low cropping intensity.
  3.   Lack of well defined farming approach.
  4.   Lack of knowledge about rain water and moisture
  5.   Limited availability and choice of cultivars.

• For optimizing production and productivity of rain
  fed area and to meet the additional demand of
  food , fodder, fiber and fuel suitable mix of farming
  system including alternative land use system such
  as Silvi-Pasture , tree farming, alley cropping, lay
  farming, dry land horticulture, agro horticulture
  etc should stressed.
• To reduce the possibility of total crop failure and
  economic loss integrated farming system approach
  including a blending of diversified and mixed
  farming consisting of        crop husbandry, agro
  forestry, dry land horticulture, live stock, Pasture
  and fodder development should be considered
  under farming system approach.
      This system involves growing more than one crop in seasons in a year
contributing higher cropping intensity and productivity in cropping circle .

      Component of multi cropping system are:

1.    Mix Cropping       -         Growing no. of crops in some season
                                   in one field.
2.    Inter Cropping     -         Growing one minor crop generally
                                   leguminous with major crop generally
                                   cereals crop.
3.    Strip Cropping     -         Growing few rows of erosion resistant
                                   crop and erosion permitting crops in
                                   alternative strips on contour or across
                                   the slopes, crop mix usually involve
                                   grasses, legumes, cereals etc.
              (mix of tree, shrub and herbs)

• Alley cropping          -   Tree cum crop farming
• Lay farming             -   Crop rotation includes a period of
                              of pasture development preferably
                              with mix of legume fodder
• Agri Horticulture   -       Mix of crop husbandry and growing
                              horticulture crop.
                               (Fruits, Vegetables, Horticulture)
• SILVI PASTURE       -       Growing of multipurpose forest tree
                              (fast growing) with pasture (grass,
                              legume mix ) to provide fiber, food,
                              fuel fodders timbers.
Medicinal Plants-Aloe Vera
Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)

       Organic Farming
       Activities relating to crops horticulture and live stock and other IGA
       may generate biomass for production of organic manures, organic
       resources are cheap, easily to manageable involve no risk as compared
       to agro chemical
       Organic manures beside providing essential plant nutrients help in
       conserving moisture in rain fed area. Agriculture production in arable
       and non arable area in watershed requires to be stabilized with regular
       supply of required quantity of plant nutrients..
   •   Soils of rain fed area are not only thirsty but hungry too.
   •   Chemical fertilizers are costly.
   •   Risk associated with rain fed area - Failure may lead to loss of capital
       investment on costly input.
   •   Ill effect of agro chemical due to their indiscriminate use .
   •   Organic manures improve physical property of soil which in turn
       increase water holding capacity of soils .
 Biomass generated from crops
 Livestock wastage.

 Poultry wastage

 By product of other house hold production activities .

 Aquatic plant and pond silt.
Organic Farming
It methods namely cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical in a
compatible manner to keep pest and weed below economic injury
level and help to minimize environmental is a broad based ecological
concept of pest and weed control employing pollution due to chemical.
          1.      Growing pest resistant plant.
          2.      Biological control.
          3.      Pheromones attractant and repellents.
                  Traditional formulations like neem oil, emulsion ,
organic decoction of chilies ginger, garlic are tested and promoted.

      Development and Management of common property resource is necessary to lay
       solid foundation of livelihood support system of rural people .
      People have to manage resource not only as CPR but also as common
       responsibility for driving common benefits. The resources are to be generated first
       and then the question of sharing the benefit arise.
      The PIA staff who is approaching the people and motivating should organize them
       in SHG. More and more no of landless labour, SC, ST,who are vitally linked with
       CPR should be organized.
      Those SHG may be motivated to form self help thrift group .
      SHG may be linked with bank after maturity .
      Common land activities like establishment of composite      nurseries. Silvi pasture
       development community fish pond, planting of fruit trees, grasses which would
       help in moisture conservation and meet the local need can be taken up.
      Benefits may be distributed among the members of SHG after retaining some
       amount for watershed development fund.
   Ultra high density plantation (UHDP)

No of plants of mango under traditional method = 40 No/Acre
No of plants of mango under UDHP method            = 674 no./Acre
Drip irrigation and fertilization technique are employed to manage UHD mango:
Yield 3 times
High income
Commercial yield in 3 years
Fruit bearing can be regulated to get produce every year.
Inter cropping is possible in initial years.
Easy to harvest because of low height of plant.
Existing orchard can be converted into UHDP

                                         YIELD OF UHD MANGO & CONVENTIONAL MANGO ORCHARD
            PARTICULAR                             CONVENTIONAL                   UHDP

            Plant spacing                          10 * 10 Mt.                    3*2 Mt.

            No of plant/ hectare                   100                            1666
            Time for commercial level yield        7-9 years                      3-4 years

            Time to reach full yield               12-5 years                     4-5 years
Green Kharif Onion

    Particulars        Activity
    Seed Source        National Seed
    Variety            Nasik-53
    Quantity of Seed   1 Qt.
    Sowing time        Feb
    Quantity of Onion 34 qt. sets
    sets Produced
    Production of      267 qt per Hectare
    Green Onion
    Average Market     15 Rs\- Kg
    Gross Income       4 Lacs
•   Systematic
•   Measurable
•   Achievable
•   Realistic
•   Time Bound
House hold production system can be classified into following

SMALL LIVE STOCK SYSTEM :- This would include poultry, piggery ,
rabbit rearing, goat and sheep rearing etc.

BIOMASS / Agro processing - This include basket making, rope
making various handicrafts ( toy making, wood carving) leaf plates ,
Saucer plates, oil extraction , food processing (pickle , jams , jelly etc.

Service Sector: This would include carpentry , black smithy, tool kits
for castration, plant protection equipments.

OTHER HOUSEHOLD IGA- Mushrooms bee keeping, sericulture , bio
• Formation of SHG-        Keeping in view interest, skill
                           and occupation for 10-12
                           member SHG.
• Training-                Training for each activities
                            should be organized.
• Equipment and Material- Equipment & material have to
                           be provided.
• Implementation of activities- Necessary guidance and
                           help to group to initiate the
                           activities marketing should be
          Household production system should be formed
as interlocked and interrelated to watershed development
with both forwarded and backward linkage.

BACKWARD LINKAGE: Where rope making and leaf
plate making are to be promoted grasses and species like
Dhak Mahwa should be planted and promoted.

FORWARDED LINKAGE: Need based vocational
training as per requirement of the activities should be
Livestock Based Livelihood
•   Health Care
•   Fodder Development
•   Livestock Based Funds
•   Door Step Artificial
          Health Care

   Mega Health Camp
   Vaccination
   Training on Management
   Demonstrations of UTPS and Heymaking
   AI & PD Camps
•   Grasses on Bunds and Wasteland
•   Promotion of Fodder Trees
•   Introduction of Dual Purpose Crops
•   Mineral Mixture Making
• Revolving Fund for Purchase of
  – Cow
  – Buffalo
  – Sheep
  – Goat
  – Backyard Poultry
Crossbreed of Local Cows and
Use of Frozen Semen
Compulsory PD and Calf Birth
Linkage with Cattle Bread
Marketing Linkage
Promotion of Self Employment
• Health Care to All the Livestock in the
• Mitigating Fodder Calamity
• Promotion      of   Livestock    Based
  Livelihood to Land less People
• Linkage with Animal Husbandry
  Department for Research
• Marketing

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