Best Practices for Managing Behaviors in the Classroom

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					 Getting to Best Behavior-
    Using Response to
Intervention for Behavioral
           Presented by:
Betty White, Former President, TSCA
        What is RtI?
• RtI, or response to intervention, is a
  system of providing just as much
  research based academic or
  behavioral support as is needed to
  help a student be successful
  academically and behaviorally-it
  originally began in the behavioral
  arena and has been carried over into
  Positive Behavioral Support
• PBS is the underlying premise behind
  behavioral RtI-based on the fact
    • Behavior is learned and purposeful
    • Behavior can be changed
    • Positive approaches work better than
      punitive approaches
    • All people deserve respect and dignity
    • Meeting the need fulfilled by the behavior
      in a positive way will help to change that
Positive Behavioral Support
PBS integrates 4 elements:
• Operationally defined outcomes
• Behavioral science
• Research validated practices
• Systems change to both reduce
  problem behaviors and enhance
             PBS is:
• Research based
• Mandated in some cases
• A way to teach expected behaviors
• A way to recognize students who make
  good choices
• A district wide system to increase
  academic success
• A positive way to enjoy teaching and
  students again
          PBS is not:
• A passing fad
• Giving free rein to behaviors
• An overnight success
• Effective if only a few utilize it
• Possible without supporting each
• Without consequences for
  inappropriate behaviors
 Critical Attributes of PBS
• Focuses on all systems within school
• A tiered model (usually three tiers)
• Commitment to improving school climate and
  student performance
• Intervention strategies to meet campus needs
• Team based
• Emphasizes an instructional approach to behavior
• Data-based
• Long term commitment to systems change
• Continual evaluation and adjustment of
   Focus on All Systems
within School Wide System
                    Setting Systems

    Non-Classroom                     Individual
       Setting                         Student
      Systems                          Systems
         Three Tiers
• Tier 1- Primary Prevention -
  School/Classroom systems for all
  students, staff, and settings-80%
• Tier 2- Secondary Prevention -
Specialized Group Systems for
  students with At-Risk Behaviors-15%
• Tier 3- Tertiary Prevention -
Specialized Individualized Systems for
  students with At-Risk Behaviors-5%
    Three-Tiered Model
5% of students-Specialized Individual
   Plans for Students with High Risk
                Tier 3
 15% of students-Specialized Group
  Systems for Students with At-Risk
                Tier 2
80% of students-Primary Prevention-
   School/Classroom Systems for all
      students, staff, and settings
                 Tier 1
   Commitment to Improving
  School Climate and Student
• 80% of faculty agree that discipline
  is a priority
• Long term outlook
• Commitment of necessary resources
• District Level commitment (best) at
  LEAST Campus Level
   Team Based Planning
• 4-8 team members
    • Administrative Representation
    • Grade Level Representation
    • Staff Representation
    • Parent? Student? Para?
    Team Meets Regularly-Based on Needs-
      Usually Starts Weekly and moves to Bi-
      weekly and Monthly
    Data is used to guide decision making
    Team shares plan and gets input from
      faculty and staff
  Intervention Strategies
Designed for Unique Needs of
        Each Campus
• Assess attitudes and needs of faculty and staff
  about student behavior and school climate
• Gather objective data about areas of need
• Appoint team to receive intensive training and
  lead efforts
• Team trains staff
• Team develops plans, present to faculty and staff
  for approval and input
• Team meets regularly to review data, assess
  needs, modify plans, develop new interventions
• End-of-Year evaluation and revision
      Instructional Approach
• Students are actively taught the
  expectations for all areas of the school
• Expectations are re-taught as needed
• Consequences for disciplinary infractions
  are tied to school expectations
(Assumption: Students misbehave in large
  part because they do not know/remember
  the rules or the expectations or they
  cannot perform the expected action-20+
  repetitions needed for mastery.)
  Data-Driven Decisions
• All decisions are driven by data
• Common data used:
    • Surveys
    • Office discipline referrals
    • Attendance
    • Test Scores
    • Parent/Student/Teacher satisfaction
    • Classroom discipline data
    • Suspensions/Expulsions/Detention/ISS
    Continuous Evaluation
• Needs Change
• Demographics Change
• Students Master Skills
• Expectations Become a Part of
  School Culture
• Data Suggests New Target Areas
              TIER 1
• Tier 1 is the classroom and school-wide
  rules and expectations
• Tier 1 interventions should meet the needs
  of 80% of students with no further
• Tier 1 effectiveness is based on pre-
  planning and anticipation of problems, as
  well as repetitive, direct teaching of
     TIER 1, continued
• Classroom procedures/consequences
  should be spelled out in advance (see
  form 1 & 2)
• Classroom procedures should be
  similar between classes at a given
  grade level
• Expectations and procedures in
  common areas should be delineated
  and constant throughout the school
    Common Procedures
• Expectations, procedures, and
   consequences should be spelled out for:
   entering the school, waiting for class to
   start, transitioning in the hall, restroom
   behavior, lunchroom behavior, playground
   behavior, exiting behavior, and bus
   behavior, to name a few-team meetings are
   used to determine these guidelines
 (Form 3) . The 80% staff rule applies here.
• Identify 3 strategies your school uses to
  recognize rule-following behavior
• List one procedure for each area of your
     •   Halls
     •   Restroom
     •   Playground
     •   Lunchroom
     •   PE
     •   Music
     •   Bus Line
• Do 80-90% of your students follow
  these rules and procedures?
• Are rules consistently enforced by all
• Would a visitor to your school be able
  to detect the rules and procedures?
• Would 5 randomly selected students
  be able to describe the rules and
  Classroom Procedures
• Explicitly teach expectations before
  an activity begins (looks like-sounds
• Monitor students during the activity
• Provide feedback both during and
  after the activity
• Make changes as necessary
    Classroom Procedures
•  Monitoring of student misbehavior(s) on a simple
  grid (by hour) with a code for various behaviors
  (Form 4)
• At 85% level or higher-keep procedures the
  same-make individual or small group plans for the
  few who are misbehaving
• At 60-84% level-review structure and consider
  structural changes or motivational changes
• Below 60% level-Review classroom structure
  implement changes
   Hierarchy of Consequences
• Timeout from a favored object (bumpy bunny from Tough
  Kid), from a small group, from a favored activity
• Timeout at desk, in isolation in class, in another
  classroom, at another lunch table
• Logical consequences-you made a mess, you clean it up
  (increase amount for repeat offenses)
• Positive practice (go back and walk)
• Point system with fines
• Response cost (lose tickets)
• Detention
• Demerits (allows time to change)
• Office referral
      Planned Responses
• Brainstorm with others at your grade level an
  EXHAUSTIVE list of probable misbehaviors and,
  either as a team or on your own, decide if a
  behavior will be ignored, corrected or
• If there is to be a consequence, decide upon
  whether is will be an in class or an out of class
  consequence-make a list and stick to it!
• Once you have your list, review your day and look
  at when these behaviors are occurring. Make any
  structural or procedural changes needed
        Secondary Level

• Must have a systemic procedure for
  deciding which students need these
  – A certain number of referrals within a certain
    time period
  – Nature of referrals
  – Academic failure
  – Teacher recommendation
When to Move to Level 2

• Student has many referrals
• A few students display patterns of
  inappropriate behaviors
• Certain situations seem difficult for
  certain students
• Certain students seem to lack
  behavioral/social/emotional skills
Secondary Interventions
•   Small group instruction for skills
•   Check in-check out
•   Mentors
•   One-on-one time
•   Behavioral Contracting
Secondary Interventions
•   Interview and intervention
•   Academic Assistance
•   Targeting Behaviors
•   Data Collection/Review
•   Accentuating the Positive
  Small Group Instruction for
• Typically, small groups will be led by
• May deal with a variety of topics:
  Communication Skills, Self-Esteem,
  Goal Setting, Anger Management,
  Impulse Control, Study Skills
• Help students gain needed skills to
  be successful in classroom
• Best for behaviors motivated by attention
• Daily check in with one staff member
• Teachers provide verbal and written
  feedback throughout the day
• Form is sent home daily
• Reinforcers provided for pre-set totals
• Monitor and adjust as needed
• (See form 5)
      Morning Check-in
• Praise student for bringing back signed
• Check student’s preparedness for class
  (materials, breakfast, emotional state)
• Review rules, expectations, reinforcers-
  get verbal commitment
• Complete student record keeping
   End of Day Check-out
• Review report card with student
  – Focus on positive reports
  – Problem solve if needed
  – Listen to student if he is frustrated

• Student earns small treat if compliant
  with program
• Complete home report if used
• Record points earned
   Reinforcers for CICO
• At least once per week, student spends points
• Provide a reinforcement menu
   – Items available for:
      • Low cost (<70% of points)
      • Medium cost (80% of points)
      • High Cost (90% of points)

• Have students help with preparing reinforcement
  menu from choices you provide
• Consider function of behaviors and tailor
  reinforcers to meet those functions
       Home Reports
• Consider having student take report
  home-give points for return of signed
• Be sure parents know to expect form
• Provide guidance to parents about
  how to discuss form with student
Monitor Effects of CICO
• General rule-80% of points
• Assess points
  – Is there a pattern?
• Evaluate program implementation
  – Are all teachers using it correctly?
• Adjust program if needed
  – More frequent check-in
  – Different reinforcers
  – Does program address function of behavior?
• Brainstorm list of students who
  might need mentors
• Tell teachers they cannot choose
  more than 2
• Give brief information about student
  needs, but do not over-disclose
• Provide mentors will feedback on
  student improvement
       One-on-One Time
• A hard sell for teachers, but very effective
• Teachers set aside 20 minutes from conference
  1-2 days per week
• During that time, they bring in one student and
  allow them time to play with special toys (younger)
  or to talk or help (older)
• Time together is non-directive, positive
  interaction without any discussion about
  classroom misbehavior
   Behavior Contracting
• Student and teacher or counselor design a
  contract for specified behavioral goals,
  time frame and rewards and consequences
• Be sure initial contract is not too
• First time a contract is broken, consider
  time frame, etc. and try again
• If student repeatedly breaks contract, it
  is not working-try something else
   Interview and Intervention
• Appropriate for minor but irritating behaviors
  (tattling, immaturity, whining, disorganization)
• Moderate misbehaviors in early stages (arguing,
  disruption, tardiness, poor quality work, poor
  compliance skills)
• Chronic behaviors as part of another plan
  (tantrums, stealing, lying, cheating, fighting,
  destruction of property, scape-goating)
• Can also be used with more than one student
  simultaneously with minor form modifications
       Why it Works

• It is quick and easy
• Documentation is built in
• It shows respect for student and
  allows input (empowers)
• Much misbehavior results from a lack
  of information
       How it Works
• Identify your MAIN concern
• Plan your discussion
• Set an appointment with the student
  at a neutral time
• Meet with the student
• Keep a written record of the
  discussion (Form 6)
    Academic Assistance
• Often, students who misbehave are simply either
  expressing their frustration with academic tasks
  or avoiding tasks that are too hard (it is easier to
  say I won’t than I can’t)
• Behaviors that often have an academic component
  are: incomplete or late work, class clown,
  attention getting or avoiding, cheating, lying,
  frequent visits to nurse or counselor, lack of
  energy, sleeping, anger, refusal to do work,
  tearing up work, withdrawal, attentional issues
• Refer student to Academic RtI team
  for assistance
• Provide explicit teaching for
  academic skills such as graphic
  organizers, mnemonics, study guides,
  partitioned work, highlighted texts,
  pre-teaching, organizational
  strategies, assignment sheets, etc.
     Targeting Behaviors
• Students may want to do better but do not know how
  to target, plan, and reach a goal
• Student may not have alternative strategies
• This is appropriate for: minor repetitive misbehaviors
  like tattling, disorganization, sloppy work,
  disorganization, absenteeism, interruption
• Habits such as pencil tapping, chair tipping, picking,
  tapping and drumming,
• Disruptive behaviors, insubordination, rudeness,
  excessive movement, negativity, bossiness, arguing,
  talking back, disrespect, excessive shyness, lack of
  assertiveness, reluctance to ask for help
• Review the student’s history
• Note previous interventions and success rates
• Note the student’s strengths
• Determine your desired outcome
• Decide if consequences should be part of the plan
• Decide if rewards should be part of the plan
• Decide if you will be collaborative or authoritative
  in setting targets (goals)
• Set up a conference with the student
    Intervention, cont.
• Meet with the student, and discuss
  the problem (behavior) that should
• Assist the student in setting a short
  range target
• Determine consequences/rewards
• Document and provide feedback (see
  form 7)
  Data Collection and Review
• This intervention is best for chronic
  misbehavior that is resistant to
• One reason for going to this model is
  that it allows you and the student to
  see incremental growth, gives the
  student feedback, and lets you know
  how your interventions are working
  Data Collection and Review
• There are many forms for data
  collection: (Form 8)
    • Student Behavioral Monitoring form
    • Basic Frequency count (hash-marks,
    • Duration Recording (for infrequent but long
      lasting behaviors)
    • Interval Recording (shows pattern)
    • Rating scale (severity)
    • Running record-written log of behavior
    • Smile/Frown for younger students
   Data Collection and Review
• Meet with the student (group) and decide
  what data you are going to collect
• Meet with the student (group) following
  collection to discuss results
• Decide whether the student will
  participate in collection (for example, a
  time goes off, student records whether
  their behavior is appropriate at that time.)
• Usually, simply recording and sharing the
  data will result in improvement
Accentuating the Positive
• This interventions is helpful for
  students with chronic attention
  getting behaviors such as disruption,
  arguing, tattling, excuses, teasing,
  lawyering, as well as the child who
  lacks self-confidence and is clingy or
Accentuating the Positive
• Make a plan for both the whole call and for
  individual students as to how you will increase
  your positive interactions
• Develop a system for monitoring your positive vs
  negative interactions (a simple way is to carry an
  index card and make tally marks on one side for
  negative and on one side for positive, or drop
  paper clips in pockets for interactions
• You may need an observer to come in and help you
  monitor yourself. Be sure to note whether you
  are “on your best behavior” for that observation
Accentuating the Positive
• Categorize misbehaviors and decide
  how you are going to react to them-
  ignoring, pre-correcting, time-owed,
  time-out, change of seat, behavior
  improvement form or questions (Form
• Mentally rehearse your interactions
  in advance, especially with challenging
    Level Three Interventions
•   Focus on individual interventions when…
     – Less than 10 students get more than 10 ODRs

     – Less than 10 students continue the same rate of ODRs following
       targeted group interventions

     – A small number of students destabilize the overall functioning of
       the school

     – Certain serious types of dangerous or antisocial behaviors

     – Students are identified as needing additional individual support by
       teachers, counselors, etc.

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