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									Social Mobility of Muslim Cham:

               An Anthropological Study in
                  Contemporary Cambodia
            A case-study in Chong Khneas,
                      Siem Reap Province.
               Presented by: THA LEANG ANG

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Literature Review
Research Problems
Aim and Objectives

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                Social mobility:
the movement of individuals & groups
 b/w different class position as a result of
 changes in occupation, wealth or income.
 (Anthony Giddens et al, 2003)
  Intra-generational mobility:
  Inter-generational mobility:

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               Intra-generational mobility
study of how far up or
   down in the socio-
economic scale at an
     individual moves
  within the course of
his or her working life

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                     upward or downward
                   generations of a family.

            Inter-generational mobility

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Industrialism Hypothesis: societies allow
 for more mobility as they become more
 technologically advanced.
Exchange mobility: Result from an
 exchange in position on the socio-
 economic scale such that talented people
 move up the economic hierarchy while
 the less talented move down.
Social Exclusion:
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                   Social Exclusion
It refers to “the ways in which
 individuals may be cut off from full
 involvement in the wider society. Social
 exclusion can result from where one
 lives, whether that is a rural area or the
 inner city, private or public housing or
 no home whatsoever.

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                    Literature Review:
- Categories of Muslims - William Collins
1. Chvea: around Kampot, speak Khmer
2. Jahed: also called "Kom Jumat" (The
   Friday Group),
3. Cham: the trimeu modernists. √
   devoted God's ordinances, ritual &liturgy
   five specified times a day
=> “Muslim Cham” is used in the study.
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            Source: William Collins
     Historical Notes on Cham
     Migration into Cambodia
1. The First Migration(1471): Fall of Vijaya
2. The Second(1692): Nguyen expansion
3. The Third Cham Migration(1795-96):
   battleground in a Vietnamese civil war
4. The Fourth Migration(1830-35): ill-
   treatment by Minh Menh

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            Source: William Collins
               Problem Statement:
             Cham Status in different times
Sihanouk: the Khmer Islam ("Muslim
 Khmers," the Cham-Malay community).
Khmer Republic: FULRO(Front Unifié de
 Lutte des Races Oppriméesthe). Ex. Mr.
 Les Kosem to political and military.
DK: targeted for persecution
PRK-SOC: a Cham prosecutor, Mat Ly.
Hopes for the future? Are they excluded?
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1. Islamic aid: textbooks, schools,
   mosques and wells: International
     the Samakum Islam Kampuchea by Mat Ly
     The Islamic Development Bank in Jiddah
     the Committee of Association of
      Development of Islamic Culture in
      Southeast Asia in Cambodia, ....

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The Khmers have spies who watch
 Islamic religious development and
 teacher training for any political
 implications. (Collins, 2007:62a)
Every Khmer citizens shall be equal before the
law, enjoying the same rights, freedom and
fulfilling the same obligations regardless of race,
color, sex, language, religious belief, political
tendency, birth origin, social status, wealth or
other status.
            - Cambodian Constitution, Chapter III , Article 31.

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2. Education
     “... the Chams avoid sending their children to
       Khmer school for fear that the children
       would become Khmer.”
     “If the Chams learned their history, they
       would look at a map and see Champa
       engulfed by Vietnam. They would feel that
       their country had been colonised, and
       destroyed, ...make them angry... This is
       why Cambodia,...cannot allow the Chams
       to teach about their history and to develop
       feelings of unity.” (Collins, 2007:62b)

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3. Livelihood: <= Religious?
     Fishing, farming- A case of fisherwoman
     Trade? “... We deceived them ... stealing
      from them. That is why, since early times,
      we did not seek a livelihood in buying and
      selling. We feared sinning.”
have tried a lot for changes locally and
in great needs of development.
 Still, “the Chams remains poor and
 ignorant.” (Collins, 2007:62b)

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                   Ⅲ. Aim & Objectives

  aims to investigate the social mobility among
   Muslim Cham in Chong Khneas, Siem Reap
   Province, Cambodia.

  Besides, several objectives, which are more
   concise, are set to realize the aim.

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            Ⅲ. Aim & Objectives
                Ⅲ. Aim & Objectives
to explore the relationship b/w Muslim
 belief and its followers’ business
to explore the linkage between social
 mobility and physical mobility for the
 location of one’s resident
to explore the relationship between the
 educational & political factors and social
 mobility among them, the Cham.
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              Significance of the Study
To understand the nature of inequalities
 that has been concerned by many people
 or institution, but failed to reduce because
 they do not have clear ideas about factors
 which lead to such inequality, especially
 inequalities among ethnic groups.

To contribute to the academic body with
 knowledge of social mobility in Cambodia.
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              Research Questions
Is there any correlation between Islam
 religion and choice of jobs/business the
 Muslim Cham make?
What is the linkage of social mobility
 with broader economic situation of
 Cham individual/household/community?
- What is the linkage of Cham social
 mobility with education?
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               Research Questions
What is the linkage of Cham social
 mobility with political, including party
What is the linkage of Cham social
 mobility with wider kin group?
What is the linkage of Cham social
 mobility with wider language group?

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1)   Social Capital
     Language Skill       Social mobility
     Technological Skills
     Political Connection
VI. Methodology

1. “focus groups”- six groups of Chams:
  - 12 questions : to let them discuss
  what the catalysts or constraints to
  their (social) mobility are.
2. “family history” or “life history”-
  - to trace the story of 10 Cham families

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Among the questions to be examined will
 be to see if they are upward or
 downward of their social mobility
 comparing from the beginning they
 started earning a living in both sites.

3. Interview with Muslim Chams in Chong
  Khneas, southern of Phnom Krom, Siem

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Chong Khneas, a floating village, is
 located along the uttermost Northeastern
 bank of the Tonle Sap River
The area has been very busy in economy
 since its residents were working all the
There were many tourists visiting the
 villages at the time I was there.
In the whole commune, 6415 people
 living in 1193 households. On average,
 about 5 people live in each household.
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Since the villages locate on the river,
 over 55% of the population have fish-
 related occupation. Some go fishing for
 selling while others become fishing
 laborers, fish traders, and fish net/gear
 makers and fish processors. (ADB,

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            Thank you!

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