The Endocrine System

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					        The Endocrine System
• Structure and Function
  – Chemical communication system in body
  – Consists of numerous small glands found throughout
    the body
  – Secrete chemicals known as hormones
• Hormones
  – Chemicals produced and released by endocrine glands,
    travel through the blood and elicit certain responses
  The
Endocrine
 System
Five Areas of Hormone Function

• Homeostasis
• Growth and Development
• Reproduction
• Energy production, storage and use
• Behavior
Homeostasis the story of a really hot
              guy….
• http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/med
  ia/ch17/hot_guy.html
Negative feedback loops
Growth & Development
Reproduction
Reproduction
Energy production, storage and use
Energy production, storage and use
Behavior
Behavior
   Characteristics of
    the Endocrine
       System
• Has access to every cell
• Each hormone acts only on
  certain cells
   – Target cells
           Characteristics of
         the Endocrine System
• Has access to every cell
• Each hormone acts only on certain cells
  – Target cells
• Target cells have the correct receptors
• Endocrine control slower than Nervous control
• Endocrine and Nervous systems can interact
  with each other.
  Not all hormones are the same
• Steroid hormones
• Non-steroid hormones
          Steroid Hormones
• Lipid-based hormones
• Non-polar - can diffuse through phospholipid
  layer of cell membrane
• Binds to receptors inside the cell
• Attaches to cell’s DNA
• Control’s gene function - can turn on/off
  genes
• Alters protein production
• Examples: Testosterone, Estrogen
 Steroid
Hormones
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       Non-Steroid Hormones
• Amino acid-based hormones
• Lipid insoluble - cannot diffuse through
  phospholipid layer of cell membrane
• Binds to receptors on the cell membrane
• Can activate enzymes within the cell to cause
  change
• Can open or close ion channels to affect
  permeability of cell membrane
• Examples:Epinephrine, Insulin
Non-Steroid
 Hormones
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Pituitary Gland
              Pituitary Gland
• Antidiuretic Hormone
  (ADH)
• Growth Hormone
  (GH)
• Oxytocin
• Prolactin
• Follicle Stimulating
  Hormone (FSH)
   Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
• Increases reabsorption
  of water in kidneys
• Monitors solutes in
  blood stream
• Regulates blood
  volume & blood
  pressure
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
       Growth Hormone (GH)
• Controls growth of
  bones & muscles
• Increases protein
  synthesis
• St Adipose to release
  energy stores
• St liver to break down
  glycogen
Growth Hormone (GH)
                  Oxytocin
• Stimulates contraction
  of uterus during
  childbirth
• Stimulates release of
  milk
• Promotes bonding
   Cuddle & Bonding Hormone
• Encouraging bonding
• Oxytocin released by
  mom during breast
  feeding
• Released during
  sexual arousal and
  orgasm
                   Prolactin
• Stimulates milk
  production in female
• Stimulates testosterone
  production in male
Hormones work together…
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
• Stimulates
  development of
  gametes in both males
  and females
          Endocrine Glands
• Pineal Gland
  – Melatonin


• Thyroid Gland
  – Thyroxine


• Thymus Gland
  – Thymosin
               Pineal Gland
• Secretes melatonin
• Regulates reproductive
  development
• Regulates circadian
  rhythm
• Antioxidant in brain
                      Thyroid
• Produces Thyroxine
• Regulates metabolic rates
• Regulates amount of
  glucose used in cellular
  respiration
   – mitochondria
• Promotes growth
• Regulates body
  temperature
• Parathyroid regulates
  calcium
                     Thymus
• Produces Thymosin
• Stimulates production
  and maturation of
  white blood cells
Adrenal Glands
            Adrenal Glands
• Produces Epinephrine
  and Norepinephrine
• Prepares body for
  emergencies
• Fight or flight
  response
• Regulates sodium &
  potassium & glucose
  metabolism
Fight or Flight Response
                          Pancreas
• Produces Insulin &
  Glucagon
• Regulates blood sugar
  levels
                       Insulin
• Promotes uptake and
  storage of blood
  sugars into tissues
• Converts excess
  sugars into glycogen
   – Stored in liver
                Glucagon

• Converts Glycogen
  back into glucose
            Endocrine Glands

• Testes
  – Androgens (i.e. testosterone)

• Ovaries
  – Estrogens
  – Progesterone
                   Testes
• Produces androgens
• Testosterone
• Regulates sperm
  production &
  secondary sexual
  characteristics
                    Behavior

  Growth



Reproduction
               Homeostasis
Ovary
• Produces estrogen &
  progesterone
• Controls reproduction
  & secondary sexual
  characteristics
  The
Endocrine
 System

				
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posted:2/28/2012
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