PERMANENT COUNCIL OF THE                                  OEA/Ser.G
     ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES                              CP/CSH-430/02 rev. 1 add. 1
                                                                  10 October 2002
    COMMITTEE ON HEMISPHERIC SECURITY                             Original: Spanish


                 (Document prepared by the General Secretariat)
                                       EXPLANATORY NOTE

        To complete the preparatory work for the Special Conference on Security in accordance with
the instructions of the General Assembly as imparted in its resolutions AG/RES. 1566 (XXVIII-
O/98), AG/RES. 1795 (XXXI-O/01) and AG/RES. 1908 (XXXII-O/02), the Committee on
Hemispheric Security called upon the General Secretariat to perform an analysis of the Member
States’ replies to the Questionnaire on New Approaches to Hemispheric Security.

        In his capacity as Advisor to the Secretary General and Coordinator for Hemispheric Security
Affairs, Mr. Jorge Mario Eastman addressed the meeting of the Committee held on October 1, 2002.
This document sets forth the text of his analytical presentation on the 22 replies received to date.

        On the same occasion, the Compendium of Replies of the Member States to the
Questionnaire on New Approaches to Hemispheric Security (CP/CSH-430/02 rev. 1) was distributed.

October 1, 2002


                              (Document prepared by the General Secretariat)

Mr. Chair:

        The General Secretariat was asked to conduct an analysis of the member states’ replies to the
Questionnaire on New Approaches to Hemispheric Security [AG/RES. 1879 (XXXII-O/02) and
AG/RES. 1908 (XXXII-O/02)]. The annex to this document includes a summary of the 22 replies
received by the General Secretariat to date, namely September 30, 2002. It and the Compendium
provided today are intended to serve as analytical tools for the Committee on Hemispheric Security.

        As with any analysis, there is some measure of value judgment involved. I would therefore
beg the kind indulgence of the delegations should they note that this short document falls short of
precisely interpreting the views of each and every state that responded, and call upon the General
Secretariat to regard it as a document that is merely indicative of the overall responses provided to the
Secretariat rather than of each one considered individually.

         Five of the topics, to our way of thinking, are of the greatest relevance for the analysis of the
Committee on Hemispheric Security in anticipation of holding the Special Conference on Security
next year: (i) the definition of threats to hemispheric security; (ii) countries’ views on the Inter-
American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty); (iii) views on the Pact of Bogotá;
(iv) analysis of the relationships between the OAS, the Committee on Hemispheric Security, and the
Inter-American Defense Board; and (v) the various states’ opinions on what they believe the
outcomes of the Special Conference on Security in May 2003 should be.

           Mr. Chair, allow me to analyze each of these fundamental issues in turn:

1.         The general tendency of the replies, as may be noted in the second column of the attached
           matrix, is to include the “new threats” among the dangers and risks confronting the
           Hemisphere, this in addition to the range of traditional threats.

           In our presentation on February 27, 2002, we said that there was “agreement concerning the
           need to adapt the concept of security to the new reality in the Hemisphere. Our countries
           seem primed for a reconsideration of the traditional approach of security, defined in terms of
           the external military threat characteristic of the cold war period. In international relations
           theory, the end of bipolarity with a classical view military security, together with the process
           of the extension of democracy, and a third element–the increasingly important role of
           nongovernmental organizations and non-state actors in the definition of public affairs–makes
           it possible to question the realistic approach of Waltz or Morgenthau and consider normative
           theories like those of the “complex interdependence” of Keohane and Nye and the neo-
           institutionalists, all of which build the doctrine of re-evaluation of the concept of security.”1/

      1.   Presentation by Jorge M. Eastman to the Committee on Hemispheric Security, document CP/CSH-

          In addition, the significant evolution in security-related topics at the regional level is paving
          the way for transnational threats to be added to the public agenda. The “Framework Treaty
          on Democratic Security in Central America” of 1995 places emphasis, for obvious historical
          reasons, on the supremacy of civil power, the reasonable balance of forces, the security of
          persons and of their property, the elimination of poverty, the promotion of sustainable
          development, the elimination of violence, corruption, impunity, terrorism, drug trafficking,
          and arms trafficking, as its priority objectives.

          For its part, the 1996 Treaty Establishing the Regional Security System in the Caribbean
          accords priority to cooperation in the prevention of traffic in illegal narcotic drugs, search and
          rescue, in national emergencies, immigration control, fisheries protection, customs and excise
          control maritime policing duties, natural disasters, pollution control, the prevention of

          In July 1999, MERCOSUR, Bolivia, and Chile declared themselves to be a Zone of Peace
          and agreed to become an area free of weapons of mass destruction and antipersonnel
          landmines, to strengthen mechanisms for cooperation in the area of security, particularly as
          regards confidence- and security-building measures, and to achieve the objective of nuclear
          disarmament and the exclusively peaceful and secure use of nuclear energy and space
          technology and science.

          Finally, the June 17, 2002, signature in Lima of the “Andean Charter for Peace and Security”
          establishes the principles of a “community security policy” based on cooperation,
          fundamental themes of which include the reduction of defense spending, as clearly stated by
          the Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of Peru, Ambassador Manuel Rodríguez, as well as the
          peaceful settlement of disputes, the establishment of a Peace Zone, and many others.

          This vision was eloquently expressed by Jorge Castañeda, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of
          Mexico: “We know that there can be no single concept of security in our Hemisphere.
          Countries have legitimate concerns that are not necessarily shared by all countries in the
          Hemisphere, but which are amenable to common, coordinated efforts based on a spirit of

          Accordingly, topics such as drug trafficking, terrorism, illegal arms trafficking,
          environmental degradation, and corruption are systematically included in the replies received.
          The responses of fully 100 percent of States include “new threats” among the major current
          aims of hemispheric security. This does not mean that the time has come to prepare the
          obituary of the concept of traditional threats: 54.5 percent of the replies make specific
          reference to the need to incorporate traditional threats into the new approach to hemispheric

2.        The majority of countries consider the Rio Treaty to be an important instrument for
          hemispheric security, and at the same time deem it advisable to make the necessary
          adjustments to it to include the “new threats” to which we have alluded (see the third column)

     2.   Statement by Jorge Castañeda, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico, at the XXXII Regular
          Session of the OAS General Assembly, Bridgetown, Barbados, June 2-4, 2002.

          within its jurisdiction. This tendency was expressed with great clarity by Osmar Chohfi,
          Secretary General of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, in Barbados: “With the broad endorsement of
          the other states party, Brazil took the initiative of invoking the Inter-American Treaty of
          Reciprocal Assistance because the exceptional gravity of the attacks justified the use of the
          collective hemispheric security mechanism in place…. In this context, the Rio Treaty
          demonstrated its validity as a hemispheric legal framework for frank discussion and the
          definition of common lines of action and the expression of solidarity in response to
          aggression, and as such should be preserved. To this (document) should be added the
          advances and updates deemed advisable by the States with a view to meeting the security
          demands of modern times” (unofficial translation).

          However, it is also evident from the replies, representing nine percent of the total, that some
          are expressly not in agreement with that instrument. The percentage of states that are in
          agreement with the Rio Treaty but support its amendment is 68 percent, representing the
          majority view.

3.        The Pact of Bogotá is regarded with the same analytical perspective as the Treaty of Rio:
          countries made an effort to match their replies in both cases. The Pact is looked upon as a
          useful tool but one that is limited, in particular owing to the small number of ratifications. As
          stated by the authorized spokesman of the Ambassador of Colombia, Huberto De la Calle,
          “As regards the Pact of Bogotá, there is also the view among the representatives of the
          Americas that it is excessively rigid and insufficiently functional. The low ratification level
          signals and clearly validates the generalized perception.”3/ In general, there is a tendency to
          advocate its revision or reform. Ninety percent support its revision or reform, while nine
          percent of states espouse its elimination.

4.        A clear definition of the relationships between the IADB and the CHS of the OAS is regarded
          as necessary (see fifth column). Among the various arguments put forward, particularly
          prominent is the one expressed by several countries which consider that the Board should be
          a specialized organization of the OAS. Such a decision is supported by 56 percent of the
          states. As a specialized body, “…the Board would have extensive technical and
          administrative autonomy and it would be able to adopt its own administrative and operational
          regulations, within the framework of the agreement that it would have to sign with the
          Organization of American States. In this capacity, the Inter-American Defense Board would
          be in the same category as, for example, the Pan-American Health Organization, the Inter-
          American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, the Inter-American Children’s Institute
          and the Inter-American Commission of Women.”4/

5.        It is not possible to identify a majority view on the desirable outcome of the Special
          Conference (final column). Some countries see a Declaration of Principles as an optimal
          outcome. As recently stated by Colin Powell, the U.S. Secretary of State, “...the OAS should
          work to develop an inter-American declaration on hemispheric security, to be adopted at the

     3.   Humberto De la Calle Lombana, La dimensión política de la seguridad en Latinoamérica y el Caribe
          [The Political Dimension of Security in Latin America and the Caribbean], Washington, D.C.,
          September 20, 2002.
     4.   The Organization of American States and the Inter-American Defense Board, document CP/CSH-
          264/00 rev. 1.

     special conference to be held on security.”5/ Others support a revision of the instruments and
     mechanisms for collective action, namely the Rio Treaty and Pact of Bogotá. A final group
     maintains that the final product should be a new framework of conceptual definitions, in
     particular with a view to including the “new threats” within the hemispheric security
     architecture. Support for a new declaration of principles was expressed by 43 percent of

5.   Colin L. Powell, Remarks at the Organization of American States General Assembly, Bridgetown,
     Barbados, June 3, 2002.



 COUNTRY                DEFINITION OF THREATS                       RIO TREATY             PACT OF BOGOTA                 IADB                 CONFERENCE
Argentina        New challenges that are transnational in      The Treaty is adequate      Cannot be viewed as      The tie between the It should define a new
(Jan 15, 2002)   character require cooperation. Drug           for tackling external       a success or a failure   IADB and OAS         framework for the
                 trafficking, terrorism, organized crime,      armed aggression,           because of the           needs to be defined. continent’s security
                 corruption, the illegal trade of weapons,     efforts should be made      number of                It should advise the
                 illegal immigration, extreme poverty,         to ensure that all          ratifications. The       CHS on military
                 environmental damage, economic instability    countries are part of it,   imperfections of the     matters
                                                               and other or                text are not a cause
                                                               complementary               for questioning its
                                                               instruments should be       effectiveness
                                                               established to
                                                               incorporate “new

Belize           Transnational threats such as terrorism,      The Rio Treaty has a        Workable but             The IADB should
(Jun 18, 2001)   narcotics trafficking, natural disasters,     historical value, but       requires revision        be a specialized
                 environmental degradation, transnational      does not possess                                     organ of the OAS.
                 organized crime, child pornography, human     universal adherence,
                 smuggling and illegal immigration. Conflict   has had limited use and
                 arising among states such as territorial      is presently inactive.
                 disputes, accumulations of conventional
                 weapons and the proliferation of weapons of
                 mass destruction.

 COUNTRY                DEFINITION OF THREATS                        RIO TREATY             PACT OF BOGOTA                  IADB                  CONFERENCE
Bolivia          The nature of conflicts has changed. Now        Should be reformed so      Has not been applied     The advisory          Evaluation of the situation
(Sep 16, 2002)   they are mainly confined to one state           that it can respond to     as expected owing to     relationship that     of hemispheric security and
                 (ethnic, cultural, or religions) or             the new challenges and     the large number of      currently exists is   the progress made in
                 transnational (terrorism, guerrilla             threats                    reservations             adequate and          fulfilling the various
                 movements, or drug trafficking). These are                                                          should be             mandates, meetings, and
                 the “new threats”                                                                                   maintained            conventions
Brazil           “New threats” such as drug trafficking and      The importance of the      Its effectiveness is     The IADB should       Formulation of a more
(Sep 6, 2001)    related criminal activity, and terrorism        Rio Treaty has             limited owing to the     be a specialized      updated concept of security,
                                                                 diminished owing to        number of accessions     organization of the   defining the powers of the
                                                                 the reduced incidence                               OAS                   IADB, and evaluating
                                                                 of traditional threats                                                    decisions of the decisions
                                                                                                                                           emanating from the
                                                                                                                                           Regional Conferences on
                                                                                                                                           Confidence- and Security-
                                                                                                                                           Building Measures
Canada           Evolution of defense issues into security       Canada joined the OAS      Canada will not          The IADB should       Declaration of Principles
(Jun 7, 2001)    issues, where there is a wide range of actors   on the specific            accede to the Pact of    be fully integrated   that would de facto
                 such as narco-traffickers, terrorists, arms     condition of not having    Bogotá                   into the OAS          supersede the Rio Treaty
                 traffickers                                     to join the Rio Treaty
Chile            “New threats” to security such as illegal       The Rio Treaty remains     The scant number of      The IADB might        Conclusion of a Declaration
(Jul 1, 2002)    mass migration, drug trafficking, terrorism,    effective. Mechanisms      ratifications is an      become a              of Principles and Program
                 illicit arms trafficking, cyber crime and       should be sought to        indication of the need   specialized           of Action
                 corruption, pandemic disease, catastrophes      ensure that the Protocol   for its reform           organization of the
                 and natural disasters, and transportation of    of Amendment adopted                                OAS
                 hazardous substances                            in San José in 1975
                                                                 obtains the necessary
                                                                 ratifications to enter
                                                                 into force

 COUNTRY               DEFINITION OF THREATS                      RIO TREATY             PACT OF BOGOTA                   IADB                  CONFERENCE
Colombia        To the traditional items on the security      The Rio Treaty is the      Supports revision of      The IADB could         Review of existing security
(Sep 4, 2002)   agenda, the “new threats” have been added:    only instrument we         the Treaty or             become a               instruments and proposing
                disarmament and transparency in military      have at the present time   preparation of a new      specialized agency     new tools to consolidate the
                spending, illicit arms trafficking,           to adopt legitimate        instrument that is less   of the OAS,            system. Establishing the
                environmental deterioration and the           defense measures.          rigid and includes        pursuant to the        principle of shared
                shortage of resources, natural disasters,     A new treaty would         mechanisms such as        provisions of          responsibility to counter
                poverty and discrimination, human rights      have to include            processes of              Chapter XVIII of       threats, especially terrorism
                violations, illegal immigration, infectious   measures to counter        consultations, early-     the OAS Charter        and the worldwide problem
                diseases, corruption and money laundering,    economic, social, or       warning systems,                                 of drugs and related
                international criminal cartels, terrorist     technological threats,     involvement of the                               offenses
                organizations, drug trafficking and related   and should take a more     political bodies of the
                crimes                                        preventive more than a     OAS in conflict
                                                              reactive approach to       prevention
                                                              defense issues
Costa Rica      Among the new threats are terrorism,          The Rio Treaty remains     The Pact remains          The IADB could         Revision of the instruments
(Aug 9, 2002)   organized crime, drug trafficking, natural    a valid instrument for     valid, but its possible   form part, as a        and mechanisms of
                disasters, financial and economic problems,   those that have ratified   modification to           specialized support    collective action to
                and the illegal trafficking of arms           it. It could be adapted    attract greater support   agency, of the         incorporate the new threats
                                                              to the real needs of the   could be included in      CHS, and provide       to security, emphasizing the
                                                              times so as to be          the Agenda of the         secretariat services   fight against poverty and
                                                              adhered to by a greater    Summit                    for Conferences of     the promotion of human
                                                              number of States                                     Ministers of           development

 COUNTRY                DEFINITION OF THREATS                        RIO TREATY             PACT OF BOGOTA                  IADB                  CONFERENCE
Ecuador          Traditional threats and “new threats” such      Recognizes the             It is essential to fill   The IADB should       Broadening the definition,
(Jan 17, 2002)   as terrorism, transnational organized crime,    qualitative value of the   the legal gap             report to the         corresponding measures,
                 drugs, drug trafficking, drug-related           Rio Treaty but             represented by the        General Secretariat   new collective defense
                 criminal activity, money laundering, the        considers it necessary     lack of acceptance of     on administrative     mechanisms, mechanism
                 illicit traffic in or diversion of chemical     to update it               the instrument so that    matters and be        for monitoring previous
                 precursors, and the illegal traffic in                                     the new instrument        subordinated to the   Declarations
                 weapons, which are closely tied to terrorism                               may be binding on all     political organs of
                                                                                            members                   the OAS
United States    Two major categories: traditional, state-       Both the OAS Charter       The Treaty has            Supports the          Adoption of a Declaration
(May 21, 2002)   centered threats and transnational threats.     and the Rio Treaty are     certain deficiencies,     establishment of a    on hemispheric security
                 The first include armed attack by one state     very valid and should      in particular relating    permanent advisory    that would complement the
                 against another state, whether the attacking    be complemented with       to the role of the        defense and           institutions, mechanisms,
                 state lies within or outside the hemisphere.    an Inter-American          International Court of    security body,        and legal instruments of the
                 Transnational threats such as terrorism, drug   Declaration on             Justice and its           preferably under      Inter-American system. The
                 trafficking, organized crime, illicit arms      Hemispheric Security       jurisdiction, the         Articles 66-69 of     Declaration should reaffirm
                 trafficking, the proliferation of weapons of                               arbitration               the OAS Charter.      and complement the Rio
                 mass destruction, and uncontrolled mass                                    procedures, and           The OAS should        Treaty, the OAS Charter,
                 migration.                                                                 Article VIII of the       broaden the           sub-regional arrangements,
                                                                                            Pact                      membership of the     and the OAS work on
                 There are other risks and challenges such as                                                         IADB                  hemispheric security.
                 the fragility of democratic governments,                                                                                   Priority to transnational
                 human rights abuses, natural disasters,                                                                                    threats and a plan for the
                 environmental degradation, economic                                                                                        maintenance and
                 instability, corruption, diseases such as                                                                                  advancement of democracy
                 HIV/AIDS, and extreme poverty                                                                                              through measures that
                                                                                                                                            strengthen transparency in
                                                                                                                                            military affairs and
                                                                                                                                            cooperative security
Nicaragua        “New threats” such as drug trafficking,         Pending                    Valid, and having the     Pending               Expansion of the concept of
(Dec 1, 2001)    organized crime, money laundering, and                                     capacity to settle                              security
                 arms trafficking                                                           disputes

 COUNTRY                DEFINITION OF THREATS                          RIO TREATY            PACT OF BOGOTA                   IADB                  CONFERENCE
Panama           Threats affecting human security and              Respect and observance    Should be adapted to      The relationship      Reform of the architecture of
(Dec 5,2001)     democratic institutions: transnational            of the Rio Treaty as a    current realities and     between OAS           security institutions, social
                 organized crime, drug trafficking, illicit        Member State.             needs, and to             institutions should   dialogue, a culture of peace
                 arms trafficking, natural disasters, terrorism,   Incorporating a human     introduce                 be strengthened,      and justice, the subordination
                 money laundering, flows of illegal                security model requires   mechanisms that may       and their mission     of police and military
                 immigrants, job insecurity, disparate income      substantial reform or     facilitate negotiations   redesigned in terms sectors, decreased
                 levels, and inadequate access to health care,     replacement of the        in conflicts involving    of functional         expenditure on traditional
                 education, and housing.                           Treaty                    more than two parties     relations             defense systems, interaction
                                                                                                                                             between the security system
                                                                                                                                             and the human rights system
Peru             Security has not just a military aspect, but      Overall reform of the     Requires reevaluation     Full integration into Specific policies on drug
(Dec 1, 2001)    also economic, social, and cultural. “New         Rio Treaty should be                                the OAS,              trafficking, immigration,
                 threats” should be classified, some as            weighed so as to ensure                             subordinated to the natural disasters, terrorism,
                 planetary, others hemispheric, and others         more democratic                                     decisions of the      human rights, transnational
                 regional and subregional                          decision-making                                     political organs      crime, poverty, education,
                                                                                                                                             strengthening democracy
                                                                                                                                             and justice
Dominican        “New threats” such as drug trafficking and        The Rio Treaty should     An excellent              The IADB’s            Refinement of the existing
Republic         consumption, money laundering, terrorism,         establish an              instrument that           relationship with     instruments
(Jun 21, 2001)   proliferation of weapons of mass                  organization that         should be developed       the OAS might
                 destruction, stockpiling of weapons,              focuses on meeting the    by strengthening the      contribute to the
                 environmental degradation, population             “new threats”             Inter-American            formation of a
                 growth, illegal immigration, extreme                                        Justice System, as the    homogeneous
                 poverty, natural disasters, social                                          European Union has        hemispheric block
                 discrimination                                                              done with its system
                                                                                  - 10 -

 COUNTRY                 DEFINITION OF THREATS                        RIO TREATY             PACT OF BOGOTA                  IADB                   CONFERENCE
Antigua and       Risks: terrorism, nuclear and/or biological     The Rio Treaty is an       The Pact is a useful     The IADB is a           A more up-to-date and
Barbuda,          accidents, environmental degradation,           important instrument       instrument but           useful instrument       expanded definition of
Dominica,         pandemics, illiteracy and poverty. Threats:     and requires               requires modification    for peace and           hemispheric security which
Grenada, St.      trafficking in drugs and firearms, the          modification to meet       in the context of a      security, and, in       includes the “new threats”
Kitts and         transshipment of nuclear waste,                 the responses required     reformed security        particular, for         and refinement of the
Nevis, St.        environmental disasters. Challenges: weak       by the “new threats”       agenda                   advance planning        instruments which result in
Lucia, St.        institutional structures, asymmetrical power                                                        for natural disasters   greater coordination and
Vincent and the   relations, collapsing economies and weak                                                                                    cooperation between
Grenadines        financial systems, including high debt                                                                                      security forces
(Aug 13, 2002)    burdens and unfair trade, social and
                  technological barriers to development
Uruguay           Traditional threats and “new threats” such      The Rio Treaty             The Pact has the       The IADB should
(Dec 1, 2001)     as poverty, drug trafficking and related        addresses traditional      virtue of containing   be strengthened
                  offenses, economic inequality,                  threats. It is necessary   all the known
                  environmental threats, transnational crime,     to implement a             mechanisms for
                  mass migratory movements                        complementary              peaceful settlement of
                                                                  instrument that            disputes
                                                                  addresses the new
Venezuela         Violations of the principles of the Charter,    The Rio Treaty shows       The Pact has given       The IADB should
(Jun 18,2001)     poverty, internal political turmoil,            signs of being obsolete    signs of being           become a
                  population growth, environmental                and non-operational. It    obsolete and non-        specialized
                  degradation, drug trafficking, international    should be replaced by      operational. It should   organization of the
                  mafias, terrorism, corruption, political        tools that guarantee       be replaced by tools     OAS, with
                  instability, demands by indigenous              decision-making based      that guarantee           responsibility for
                  communities, the illegal arms trade, and        on equality among the      decision-making          security and
                  nuclear, chemical, toxic, and bacteriological   States                     based on equality        defense matters,
                  weapons                                                                    among the States         and its functions
                                                                                                                      could be expanded


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