GIS and Remote Sensing (PowerPoint)

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					              Exam 01 stats
►N  = 200
► 100% = 2 people
► A’s (90% +) ~ 100 people.
► Average = 87.61%
► Min = 52%

►1   free point on the Transmigration Program
         Before you leave today …
► 2-3 things that you have learned in this
► Questions that you think you got wrong in
  the exam

     OK to say ‘NONE’
► It’s
► Do not write your name
GIS and Remote Sensing
                                                p. 2

►=  Geographic information system
► = Computerized systems for the capture,
  storage, retrieval, analysis and display of
  spatial data

► E.g.
   Mapquest
   Yahoo Map
   Google Map
                                          p. 3

             Components of GIS
► 1.   Referenced data
   Latitude/Longitude

   UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator)
       ►60 zones total
       ►Florida 16 & 17

Degrees, minutes, & seconds

Eastings (X) – 6 digits, e.g. 123456
Northings (Y) – 7 digits, e.g. 1234567

Eastings (X) – 6 digits, e.g. 123456
Northings (Y) – 7 digits, e.g. 1234567
                             p. 3

         Components of GIS
► 2. Tables
► 3. Graphs
► 4. Maps
► 5.   Layers
      Streets
      Zoning
      Vegetation
      Water bodies
      etc

                GIS layers
p. 3
► Making  maps
► Routes analysis e.g. Travel directions in
  Google Map
► Zoning maps
► Decision making e.g. where should we build
  an industrial estate, shopping center, water
    Example of GIS
 The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in a
 cooperative project with the Connecticut
    Department of Natural Resources
► AIM: to locate a potential site for a new
 water well within half a mile of the Somers
 Water Company service area

 USGS digital line graph   the Somers Water Company
  map of the State of             service area
•This buffer zone was the "window" used to view and
combine the various map coverages relevant to the well
site selection.

                 a half-mile buffer zone
                               eliminate developed areas
Land use and land cover data
Buffer zones of 100 meters are   Buffered streams shown in left
drawn around polluted stream      figure subtracted from areas
                                   previously selected with the
                                  land use and land cover data
Points sources of   Buffer zones of 500   A new map is created
    pollution        meters are drawn           in a GIS by
                                             eliminating the
                                           buffered sources of
Map of surficial   Selection areas of   combining the areas
  geology           sand and gravel      composed of sand
                                          and gravel with
                                         previous selection
                             Potential sites with
   A bedrock elevation
                            saturated thickness of
 subtracted from surface
                           sediments greater than
   elevation by a GIS to
                                   40 feet
  show the thickness of
water-saturated sediment
             Product: Potential water well sites

   shows areas
•Can be used for many common applications, including
transportation planning and waste disposal site location
   •situated outside the buffered pollution areas
•The technique is particularly useful when several physical factors
must be considered and integrated over a large area.
   •underlain by 40 feet or more of water-saturated sand
   and gravel
                                               p. 4

              Remote Sensing
► Thescience and art of obtaining information
 about an object, area, or phenomenon
 through the analysis of data acquired by a
 device that is not in contact with the object,
 area, or phenomenon under investigation.
 (Lillesand & Kiefer, 1979)

► E.g.satellite images, taking your picture,
               Remote Sensing

                               Air photo


From satellite images to photograph
         Global Positioning System
• Development of the $10 billion GPS satellite navigation
  system was begun in the 1970s by the US Department of
• Military purpose  open to public
• Works using a constellation of 24 satellites that orbit the Earth
  from which receivers read microwave symbols
February 7, 2011
              Satellite images
► The   reading list is on the e-Learning
   NASA Landsat Program
► Satellite   has sensors … using wavelengths
   Or we call bands (red, green, blue, infrared &
   Different sensors have different
    wavelengths/bands range
Long Wavelength   Short Wavelength
Low Frequency     High Frequency
Low Energy        High Energy
Landsat 7, Band 5 (MIR)

  Landsat 7, Band 4 (NIR)

Landsat 7, Band 3 (red)

       Landsat 7 – 5-4-3
DN (Digital Numbers)
           The finished product
► E.g.   on Google Earth
   Combining different sensors & air photos
Cool stuff that I do 
Examples of satellite Platforms
 Landsat (USA – government)
  ►Has   different sensors: MSS, TM, ETM

 Quickbird (USA – private)
  ►Digital   Globe

 SPOT – Satellite Pour
  l'Observation de la Terre (set up
  by France in partnership with
  Belgium and Sweden)
     $ Money, Money, Money $
► How  much does a Landsat image cost?
► You can buy/download for free Landsat
  images online at:
► You   need to tell them:
   Path & row
   Date
   % cloud cover
► Satellites   take images by paths and row

               Landsat: Path 129 Row 49
Different satellites have different paths and rows.
Lower resolution,
(30m x 30m)
Higher resolution
(2.5m x 2.5m)
e.g. Quickbird
Some areas from Google Earth has high
resolution and some has low resolution
                                                 p. 5

             Applications for RS
► Land   cover change
   E.g. Deforestation, agriculture expansion, urban

► Soil-moisture

► Crop   Change

► Flooding   analysis
Impact of logging in British Columbia

                                  • 1975-1999:
                                  Shows the impact
                                  of logging on
                                  reasonably pristine
Disturbances in forest cover in Arkhangelsk

                                 • In some places,
                                 large sections of the
                                 forest have been

                                 • Other places show a
                                 block pattern, where
                                 sections of relatively
                                 undisturbed forest are
                                 left between clear-
                                 felled sections
► Weoften use
 GIS & Remote
 Sensing together

► E.g.

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