Preindustrial Societies

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					Preindustrial Societies

  Unit 3: Social Structure
  Types of Societies
• Societies meet the basic needs of their people in
  different ways
    The different ways people’s needs are met is how
     societies are classified
    Preindustrial
    Industrial
    Postindustrial
• In theory, a society is independent of outsiders. It
  contains enough smaller social structures to meets the
  needs of its members
• All societies have social structures
      Preindustrial Societies
• There are several types of preindustrial societies.
    Hunting & Gathering
   Horticultural
   Pastoral
   Agricultural
   Members in these societies know what is expected of
    them and what they can expect from others
   Members of a particular types of society engage in the
    same basic social patterns time after time because they
    share patterned and predictable social relationships that
    are passed from generation to generation.
   Hunting and Gathering Societies
• Hunting & Gathering: a society that meets its basic
  needs (subsistence) by hunting animals and gathering
  wild fruits and vegetables
• Hunting & Gathering societies are usually nomadic,
  moving as the food supply and seasons change
    Because of their mobility they have few material
            Institutions in Hunting &
               Gathering Societies
• Family is the only institution in H & G societies, and
  therefore tends to all needs of its members
• Economics is based on cooperation – sharing with out
  worry of payment.
    Generosity and hospitality are valued
    Thrift is selfishness
    Because everything is based on sharing, there is little
     understanding of private property or ownership of
    They lack social classes or status differences
    Division of labor is based on sex and age
    There are few hunting & gathering societies around
           Horticultural Societies
• Horticultural: a society that survives primarily
  through the growing of plants
   This society came about when people learned that they
    could do more than just gather crops
   This type of society led to more permanent settlements,
    people didn’t need to move to find food
   This stability brought about the growth of
    multicommunity societies (about 1000-2000 people)
Institutions in Horticultural Societies
 • Family
    Family is more basic in this society
    There is a switch from “survival of the group”
     to “providing for household members”
    Food production is a family job. Labor is
     divided among the family not the whole group
               Pastoral Societies
• A society in which food is obtained primarily by raising
  animals and taking care of them
• The people in this society are herders who raise sheep,
  cattle, goats or camels/ all of which provide milk and
    To feed the animals, herders trade with farmers who
     raise grain or grow grain on their own
• There are semi-permanent settlements in these societies
  with men going out and moving the herd when needed.
• Women remain at home with very low status, men are
  responsible for bringing home the food
  Horticultural & Pastoral Societies
• Because they can produce a surplus of goods there
  is the ability to create a more complex division of
   There are people who can become religious and
    political leaders, create clothing, pottery and spears.
   This creates an incentive to trade among people
   Because there is a “surplus” in some cases, this creates
    a limited difference in social status, where some
    people have more wealth than others
   Agricultural Societies
• Agricultural Societies: a society that uses plows and
  animals to grow food
    The invention of the plow led to movement from
     horticultural to agricultural societies
    Plows allow them to access more rich soil, which
     results in more food production
    Because of the use of the plow and animals, there is
     less need for people to work in the fields.
      • This frees people to pursue non-economic
        activities: education, politics, occupations not tied
        to agriculture
Institutions in Agricultural Societies
 • New institutions emerge: political, religion,

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