LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING

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					        LOGIC AND
         CRITICAL
        THINKING

Jonathan Dolhenty, Ph.D. Logic and Critical Thinking.
Available at
http://www.radicalacademy.com/logiccritthinking.htm
TRUTH AND THINKING
   Truth is the object of thinking.
   Some truths are obvious; others are difficult to
    acquire.
   Some judgments we make are simple; some
    judgments are complicated.
   Some arguments, whether made by us or others,
    may be straightforward and easily understood;
    other arguments may be complex and consist of a
    series of smaller arguments, each needing to be
    critically examined and evaluated.
CRITICAL THINKING AND LOGIC
   Every object of knowledge has a branch of knowledge which studies it.
   EXAMPLES:
        Planets, stars, and galaxies are studied by astronomy.
        Chemistry studies the structure, composition, and properties of material
         substances and the transformations they undergo.
        The origin, evolution, and development of human society is the object studied by
         sociology.
        Economics, biology, geography, and grammar all have objects of knowledge
         which they investigate, describe, and try to explain.
   WHAT ABOUT CRITICAL?
        Critical thinking involves knowledge of the science of logic, including the skills of
         logical analysis, correct reasoning, and understanding statistical methods.
        Critical thinking, however, involves more than just an understanding of logical
         procedures.
   A good critical thinker must also understand the sources of knowledge, the nature of
    knowledge, and the nature of truth.
THE SCIENCE OF LOGIC
   The object of knowledge involved in the science
    of logic is "thinking," but it is "thinking"
    approached in a special way.
   Generally speaking, logic is that branch of
    knowledge which reflects upon the nature of
    "thinking" itself.
   But this may confuse logic with other branches of
    knowledge which also have the nature of
    "thinking" as a part of their specific object of
    investigation.
“THINKING” AND LOGIC
   Logic doesn't just deal with "thinking" in general. Logic
    deals with "correct thinking."
       Training in logic should enable us to develop the skills
        necessary to think correctly, that is, logically.
   A very simple definition would be:
   Logic is the subject which teaches you the rules for
    correct and proper reasoning.
   A more complete and "sophisticated" definition of logic, you
    can define it this way:
   Logic is the science of those principles, laws, and
    methods, which the mind of man in its thinking must
    follow for the accurate and secure attainment of truth.
A KIND OF LOGIC: NATURAL
LOGIC
   “Natural Logic" or Common Sense
   We all have an internal sense of what is
    logical and what is not, which we generally
    refer to as "common sense."
   This "natural" logic we have learned from
    the moment of birth, through our personal
    experiences in the world and through our
    acquisition of language.
A KIND OF LOGIC: SCIENTIFIC
LOGIC
   Scientific logic is simply our natural
    logic trained and developed to
    expertness by means of well-
    established knowledge of the principles,
    laws, and methods which underlie the
    various operations of the mind in the
    pursuit of and attainment of truth.
LOGIC AS A SCIENCE
AND AN ART
   Logic as a science:
        The science part is the knowledge of the principles, laws, and methods of
         logic itself.
   Logic as an art:
        Logic must be put into action or else the knowledge provided within the
         science of logic is of little use.
        We can speak of the "art" of logic, that is, the practical application of the
         science of logic to our everyday affairs.
   Logic as a science and an art
        Logic is not intended merely to inform or instruct.
        It is also a directive and aims at assisting us in the proper use of our power
         of reasoning.
        In this sense, we can speak of logic as both a science and an art, a
         practical art meant to be applied in our ordinary affairs.
Why Study Logic?
   Aim: To develop a system of methods and
    principles that we may use as criteria for
    evaluating the arguments of others and as
    guides in constructing arguments of our
    own.
   Benefits: an increase in confidence that we
    are making sense when we criticize the
    arguments of others and when we advance
    arguments of our own.
THREE OPERATIONS OF THE
MIND
 OPERATIONS        PRODUCT          EXTERNAL
 OF THE MIND                           SIGNS
Simple          Concept / Idea   Oral / written
   Apprehension                  terms
Judgment        Mental           Oral / Written
                Proposition      Proposition or
                                 statement
Reasoning       Mental           Oral / written
                agreement /      argument
                disagreement
Simple Apprehension, Judgment,
Reason
   Simple Apprehension: an operation of the mind
    whereby we abstract from the non-essential elements
    of a thing and recognize those essential elements
    which make it to be precisely that particular thing.
   Judgment: an operation of the mind which unites two
    ideas by affirmation or separates by negation.
   Reasoning / Mediate Inference: an operation of the
    mind that involves a process whereby from certain
    truths already known, we proceed to another which is
    different from those that are given but necessarily
    following from them.

				
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posted:2/28/2012
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