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ACADEMY OF ECONOMIC STUDIES BUCHAREST SELS FACULTY TOURISM IN GREECE: PAST AND FUTURE AUTHOR: COORDINATOR PALMOU MARIA, LECT. DR. DANA SERBAN 2nd YEAR STUDENT, STATISTICS DEPT. SCIENTIFIC PROJECTS SESSION BUCHAREST, APRIL, 2003 PART 1 ‘Gods chose to live in Greece”. Greece is the home of Zeus and the Olympian gods. 1.1 General about Greece. According to this statement it’s very easy to understand why million of people every year will choose Greece for their vacation, and of course why Tourism is a very important part of our economy. Greece is a small country situated in southeast of Europe on the Mediterranean on a surface of 131,957sq km. In the last census which was in the year 2001 the population of Greece was calculated as 10,939,771 people and more than four million Greeks are estimated to live abroad, more than two million of them in America. Greece is part of the European Union and also this year it has the presidency of the union. The language is Greek and most people connected with tourism services will speak some English, German, Italian or French. 1.2 Factors of tourism attraction. There is a variety of reasons why one individual should visit Greece and this happens because Greece as a country has many totally different natural sites. Above any other reason is the undeniable fact of the beautiful islands and beaches, that because of the climate someone can enjoy almost six months every year. Scattered throughout the calm blue waters of the Aegean are the islands, each with its own special story. Visitors can go to Zakinthos island in the spring to see why it is the island of flowers or the volcanic Santorini, where the blackness of the sand accentuates the brilliant whiteness of the villages and also whiteness the most beautiful sunset in the world as those who have seen it say. The serenity of islands like Skopelos contrasts with the hedonistic party islands such as Mykonos and Paros where the worship of Dionysus the god of festivities continues to the beat of the music. The coast line of Greece, because of the 3,000 islands is bigger than the coast line of Africa. The combination of the sun and the sea is the biggest attraction for foreigners that come from cold places from the north Europe and Greece seems to be an earthly paradise. Also, the long history of Greece counting more than 3,000 years. All over Greece are reminders of the country’s glory from Athens Parthenon and Delphi’s Temple to the ruins on Crete of the Minoan city of Knossos, a civilisation reaching even further back in to history. A country which gave birth to democracy, philosophy, sports and Olympic Games, culture and art will attract tourists to visit the archaeological sites, museums, and cultural festivals that show the ancient spirit that still lives through modern Greeks and the heritage our forefathers left us all over the Greek land. From this fertile land of mythology, olive groves and retsina, sprang political, philosophical and artistic ideas that shaped the whole course of western civilisation. Greece today offers the traveller the comforts of modern Europe in close proximity to the stark beauty of the ancient world. Visitors to Greece will find the Greeks to be well aware of a strong historical and cultural heritage. Traditions and customs differ throughout Greece, but overall a strong sense of unity prevails. The Greek Orthodox Church has a strong traditional influence on the Greek way of life, especially in more rural areas. Seasonality is a very important factor in Tourism in Greece. Although summer period is more attracting for tourists, the domestic tourism is related with Greek tradition and religion and is expressed in short excursions both by older and younger generations. In different seasons you can enjoy a variety of things in Greece. For example, the last 15-20 years there is a big development in winter tourism because of the winter sports that now are more organised both from accommodation point of view and also from improvement of the actual sport conditions. A visitor can enjoy the famous Greek hospitality and warmth. It provides an experience of a lifetime. The Greek cuisine and architecture will fascinate any traveller. And you can enjoy a pleasant staying with a possible therapeutically treatment like thallasotherapy or spa in many resorts around the country. 1.3 Climate and Temperatures of Greek regions. Temperature and Humidity in Greece NOTE: Left columns reflect average temperatures in the Celcius scale and right columns average humidity January April Macedonia 05°C 76,3% 14,2°C 68,5% Corfu 9,7°C 74,8% 15.0°C 72,3% Pelion 6,5°C 74,9% 14,2°C 69,0% Northern Peloponnese 9,4°C 77,7% 14,8°C 74,8% Athens 10,3°C 68,9% 16,0°C 62,8% Samos 10,3°C 71,7% 16,1°C 65,9% Southern Peloponnese 10,3°C 72,3% 15,9°C 70,1% Santorini 11,2°C 71,6% 15,5°C 69,8% Rhodes 11,8°C 70,6% 16,6°C 66,3% Eastern Crete 12,3°C 71,3% 16,8°C 63,8% The temperatures in Greece are changing significantly from north to south. For example Crete, the biggest island of Greece, which is very close to Africa, has very hot winters compared to Thessalonica, which is close to Bulgaria, and the winters are cold. 1.4 Constructions concerning Tourism. The last years one could say whole Greece is under construction. Firstly, because of the Olympic Games Athens will host next year. Sport stadiums and accommodation is constructed. The 2004 Olympic Games will add a significant chapter to the history of the city and will leave behind a legacy if infrastructure and technology in Greece. Also, we have the Metro which is under construction and expanding through stations all over Athens but already in use the last 2-3years. The new airport which is already finished and ready to service tourists, businessmen and the domestic circulation of Greek population. Road and bridges constructions that will make safer and faster the journey of many travellers and citizens. New landscaping to add millions of trees and shrubs to the region. Though cruising and sailing have become increasingly popular in Greece, the country suffers from a shortage of marina facilities. There are fewer than 7,000 marina berths when the demand is only in Athens is estimated for over 10,000 berths. The Hellenic Tourist Organisation plans to expand the existing network of 20 marinas to 50, and to add another 24 yachts anchorages in bays on smaller islands, as well as four new marinas based at luxury hotels. The new facilities would cost a total of 150 million Euro, with private investors contributing 65% and the remainder covered through grants from EU structural funds. As Europe briefly announced, the European Commission has granted assistance worth 219,1 million Euro for a development programme in tourism and culture in Greece. This aid is comprised of 209,1 million Euro from the European Regional Development Fund and 10 million from the European Social Fund. The total cost of the programme amounts to 795,6 million Euro. Tourism is an important sector in the Greek economy, especially in the area of services. It is nonetheless faced with certain intrinsic problems, i.e. the high seasonal nature of the activity, an unequal geographical distribution, and the low quality of the housing structures. To remedy these problems, the following measures are planned: construction of marinas, modernisation of infrastructures, diversification of open forms of tourism, development of a limited number of new tourist centres, vocational training actions. The cultural measures are directly related to the development of tourism, concerning for example museums, the restoration of monuments and conference rooms. The programme is aimed at very ambitious objectives whose completion has required the establishment of a special monitoring structure. 1.5 Tourism, Greece’s biggest industry. Tourism is the biggest industry, contributing an estimated 15% of gross domestic product and more than $8bn yearly in foreign exchange. The tourist industry is Greece’s largest employer by a wide margin, although the season lasts only six months in most regions. Government policy focuses on promoting year-round tourism and improving revenues by providing more facilities for high spending visitors. Assets owned by Hellenic Tourist Organisation are being offered to international investors for development on long leases. Promoting marine tourism is also a priority, under a scheme to create a chain of marinas and yacht anchorages across the Aegean islands. Increasingly it is recognised that human resources and intellect become some of the most important assets of the tourism industry. Hence, the competitiveness of tourism destinations and organisations of the future will depend on their ability to educate and train their managers and employees continuously throughout their career. Innovation, flexibility and interactivity will be critical for satisfying tourism demand, and education and training are of paramount importance in order to develop these attributes. This is a rule that applies also for Greek tourism that is always on development and the level of services provided to the consumer should always be elevated. PART 2 2.1 Arrivals of foreign tourists. From the official recordings concerning tourism in Greece I have extracted a few information about the structural changes of the tourists arrivals per countries in 1991 compared to 2000 Arrivals of foreign tourists. YEAR Country 1991 2000 Fi/Eu 1991 Fi/Eu 2000 Eu 7,356,995 9,219,819 Other Eu 80,995 113,813 0.01 0.01 ASIA 218,618 451,816 0.02 0.04 AFRICA 51,495 60,955 0.006 0.006 AMERICA 255,770 305,261 0.03 0.03 OCEANIA 75,055 67,597 0.01 0.007 GRAND TOTAL 8,271,258 14,654,735 Rate of increase Index Eu 9,219,819 0.253204467 1.253204 Other Eu 113,813 0.405185505 1.405186 ASIA 451,816 1.066691672 2.066692 AFRICA 60,955 0.183707156 1.183707 AMERICA 305,261 0.193498065 1.193498 OCEANIA 67,597 -0.099367131 0.900633 Average Average rate = index 29%per region 1.291043 Foreign tourist structure per source in 1991 Eu Other Eu ASIA AFRICA AMERICA OCEANIA Foreign tourists structure per source in 2000 Eu Other Eu ASIA AFRICA AMERICA OCEANIA Comments: The rest of the world tourists represent between 0, 6% and 2% out of the European tourists. 91% at 1991 and 90% after 10 years. Per total the number of tourists doubled. The largest number of tourists was and remains from EU countries and compared to it the smallest number of tourists was : 1991 coming from Africa. ( A coordination ratio of 0,006) 2000 still coming from Africa, but with a constant coordination ratio of 0, 06. Still, the rate of increase is corresponding to the Asian countries (their number doubled): The largest increase is corresponding to the Asian countries (their number of tourists doubled. The smallest increase is Africa by 20%. Occupancy Number of Years Nights Capacity rate tourists 1996 54.37 47,9 mil 9.7 88.7 1997 58.37 53,3 mil 10.5 91.3 1998 61.12 56,5 mil 11.3 92.44 1999 63.46 60,2 mil 12.6 94.8 2000 64.47 61.3 13.5 94.35 2001 67.165 64.65 1/14 95.75 2.2 Occupancy rate evolution: Occupancy rate evolution inGreece betw een 1996-2001 80 70 Occupancy rate(%) 60 50 y = 2.4176x - 4770 40 30 20 10 0 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 Years Comments: The evolution is slightly increasing according to the linear trend, with an average increase from one year to another of 2, 42%. According to the linear model the accommodation capacity was in 2002 70%. 2.3 Number of nights spent evolution: Num ber of nights evolution in Greece betw een 1996-2001 80 Number of nights (mill.nights- 70 60 50 pers) 40 y = 3.1843x - 6306.5 30 20 10 0 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 years Comments: Number of nights evolution line has a large slope compared to the occupancy rate evolution. This explains the increase after each year with an average of 3, 18 mill. Nights- persons. The estimated value in 2002 is 69 million. 2.4 Number of tourists’ evolution: Num ber of tourists evolution in Greece betw een 1996-2001 16.0 Number of tourists (mill. pers) 14.0 y = 0.9729x - 1932.2 12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 Years Comments: Compared to the first two evolutions, the number of tourists evolution is even higher increasing with almost 1 million persons per year. 2.5 The capacity evolution: Accommodation capacity evolution in Greece between 1996-2001 99 Accommodation capacity (mill. 98 y = 1.336x - 2577.1 97 96 nights_pers) 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 Years Comments: The 1 million persons increase explains the high increase in the accommodation capacity with 1, 33 million nights-persons/years. This situation will provide a high capacity for the Olympic Games in 2004 when there is estimated an increase of 1 million tourists only during the one month period of the Games. 2.6 Dependent Evolution-Relation between tourists and capacity. We have the following scatter diagram displaying the correlation between the number of tourists as independent variable and the tourism capacity as the dependent variable. Regression line show ing the relation betw eeen the num ber of tourists and the capacity 97 96 95 y = 0.6369x + 54.011 94 R2 = 0.9596 Capacity 93 92 91 90 89 88 0 20 40 60 80 Num ber of tourists Comments: Capacity is the effect variable for the Number of tourists as cause we have the following highly significant causal relation: y= 75,7 + 1,44 x If the number of tourist will increase by 1 million then the investors will increase the capacity by 1, 44 million nights-persons. Ratio of correlation R2 = 0, 91 = it is showing a strong correlation The number of tourists is a significant influence factor over the capacity increase. 2.7 Dependent evolution- Correlation between occupancy rate and capacity. Relation betw een the occupancy rate and the capacity evolution 97 96 y = 0.6369x + 54.011 95 R2 = 0.9596 94 capacity 93 92 91 90 89 88 0 20 40 60 80 occupancy rate As the R2 increase then the capacity will increase. An increase in the occupancy rate with 1% is inducing and increase in the number of nights spent by foreign tourists with 0,6 million nights-persons in the typical year. The coefficient of correlation shows a very strong correlation, so these variable are extremely tight or associated. R2 = R= r = coefficient of correlation . Due to this equality we can also say that the linear function is moddeling the correlation between the variables PART 3: Olympics – the main influence factor over the next year tourism in Greece 3.1. Introduction ¨As in the daytime there is no star in the sky warmer and brighter than the sun, likewise there is no competition greater than the Olympic Games.¨ Pindar, Greek lyric poet, 5th century BC. Image depicting the 1896 Olympic Games in Athens, set at the Panathinaiko stadium. 3.2. History: This view of the Olympic Games has its roots in ancient Greece. Early historic records date the first Ancient Olympic Games to 776BC, when the core values of Olympism first began to develop into benchmarks of human creativity and excellence. In 1896, the first Modern Olympic Games were held in the country of their birth. The Greek nation and the whole world embraced their revival and once again turned them into the greatest celebration on earth. In the century to follow, the Games traveled to countries around the world, encountering a wide range of cultures and civilizations, facing new challenges, growing, and evolving. Movement began to evolve into a philosophy of life: exalting and combining the qualities of the body, will and mind in a balanced whole. Now at the dawn of the 3rd millennium, the Games are returning to the country of their birth and the city of their revival. The 2004 Olympic Games will be held from 13 to 29 August 2004. The competition schedule includes 28 Olympic sports that will be held at 37 venues. 3.3. Accommodation Plan : During the Olympic Games, the city of Athens and surrounding areas will host athletes, officials, media representatives, sponsors, IOC members, spectators and guests, The challenge of providing appropriate accommodation facilities and services to all of these client-groups is a complex undertaking that requires careful planning and cooperation between ATHENS 2004, the Greek Government and the private sector. In order to identify accommodation at reasonable prices for spectators, the ATHENS 2004 Accommodation Department, is making every possible effort to maintain control over the availability and price of hotel rooms in and around Athens, during Games time. Athletes require safe, clean and comfortable surroundings in an environment where they can focus on training, competition and relaxation with a degree of privacy. The ATHENS 2004 Olympic Village is not a venue but every athlete’s home. The Olympic Village located in Parnitha, in an area of 1,240,000 square meters, will host 16,000 athletes at team officials during the Games. The Olympic Village has developed two zones, the Residential Zone and the International Zone. The Residential Zone includes 366 blocks apartments for the athletes, as well as public utility facilities, recreational centers, halls, religious centers, the polyclinic etc. The International Zone, which is extended in the same area, includes the main entrance, showrooms centers, the Olympic museum and other administration buildings. The Olympic Village is the largest of all the Olympic works and is the most expansive project ever undertaken in Greece. Picture of the Olympic Village: 3.4. Business Opportunities: About 40% of the ATHENS 2004 budget, almost 765 million Euro, refers to goods and services that will be purchased to support the venue operations and the overall organization of the Games. Businesses and suppliers, mainly in the areas of technology, catering, accommodation, sports equipment, audiovisual facilities and Olympic overlays are invited to combine forces with ATHENS 2004. The latter will become one of the largest consumers until the Games in the year 2004. Figure 3.1Pie shows the income breakdown of the ATHENS 2004 balanced budget. 3.5. Corporate: Greece is one of the smallest countries to undertake the task of organizing and hosting Olympic Summer Games. To respond to this challenge, the country has engaged in an organizational effort with the vision of delivering unique games on a human scale, inspiring the world to celebrate Olympic values. 3.6. Mission: To organize technically excellent Olympic Games. To provide to the athletes, spectators, viewers and volunteers a unique Olympic experience, thus leaving behind a legacy for the Olympic Movement. To display the Olympic ideals in a contemporary setting through their traditional Greek Symbols. To promote and implement the Olympic Truce through the Torch Relay. To promote the cultural and natural heritage of Greece to the eyes of the world. To showcase the achievements of modern Greece and its potential for the future. Epilogue: The Olympic Games that Athens will host in 2004 have a tremendous effect on the tourism of Greece. Accommodation, hotels and resorts are built in the last years, and part of the investment is granted. In any case, Athens after the constructions will be even more a modern European capital. After each Olympic Games it is calculated every country that has been the host, to increase with at least 50% the number of tourists visiting over the next years. The important thing in the Olympic Games is not winning but taking part. The essential thing in life is not conquering but fighting well.
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