3 Self Confidence by p0hy9y9


(2 nd of the 4 C’s)

  “The most consistent difference between elite and
  less successful athletes is that elite athletes possess
  greater self-confidence”
                              (Gould et al.)
                       Self Efficacy

• Bandura put forward the notion that as people become
competent in particular skills and situations they develop
a feeling of self efficacy.

• Self efficacy is self confidence in a specific situation.
Expectations of self efficacy can effect the choice of
activity, the amount of effort expended and persistence at
the task.

 • Self efficacy is different from self confidence. Someone may
 be generally self confident in sport but when it came to playing
 golf which they weren’t particularly good at, they may have low
 self efficacy in that situation.
Bandura proposed that people with high self efficacy
  a) Seek challenges, apply effort and persevere (TAS)
  b) Attribute success to effort and ability (internally)

• People who expect to be confident in a particular
situation are more likely to choose that activity.

• Our expectations of whether or not self confidence is
going to be high or low may determine the activity we
choose, the amount of effort we put into it and whether
we stick with the task or give up easily.
  • Write down 5 situations in sport where you
  feel a low sense of self efficacy. How do you
  account for these feelings of low self

                      Some examples

In football, a midfielder having to play in goal.

A male having to play in a netball game.
        Factors Affecting Self Efficacy

• Our expectations of self efficacy depend on 4
types of information

1.    Performance accomplishments – These
probably have the strongest influence on self
confidence. If success has been experienced in
the past, then feelings of self confidence are likely
to be high
2.    Vicarious experiences – This refers to
what we have observed before. If we watch
others perform and be successful, then we are
more likely to experience high self efficacy.

3.     Verbal persuasion – If we are encouraged
to try a particular activity, our confidence in that
situation may increase.

4.    Emotional arousal – Our perceptions of
how aroused we are can effect our confidence in
a particular situation.

  experiences            Efficacy Expectations
                    Behaviour patterns
                    Choice                    Goals     Performance
                    Effort                    Worry
                    Persistence          Attributions

Verbal persuasion

Emotional arousal
• You would like a fellow student to attempt a
high jump but he has low self confidence.
Using Bandera’s four factors which influence
self-efficacy, state how you would try and raise
the athlete’s self efficacy in this situation.
1.    Try to give him initial success by lowering
the bar to start with or using some flexi rope

2.    Demonstrate how it can be done, or if you
are much better than him, use someone of a
similar ability

3.    Verbally encourage the athlete. Tell him
that he should ‘have a go’.

4.    Tell him that to be worried is a natural,
very positive response because it prepares the
body well
  Vealey’s Sport Specific Model of
         Sport Confidence

• Vealey defines sport confidence as “the belief
or degree of certainty individuals possess about
their ability to be successful in sport”.
                  Sports Specific Model of Sports Confidence

1     Trait sport                                            1
    confidence (SC-
                                          The Sport              Competitive
          trait)                          Situation              Orientation

                                           State sport
                                         confidence (SC-

5   Positive results              Performance in the sport   Positive results cause
     increase trait                situation (behavioural    the type of goal to be
      confidence                         responses)           changed for the next
                                                              6   performance

                               a)Results of Performance
                                b) Subjective Outcomes
                                  c)Perceived Success
                                d)Perceived attributions
                              e)Performance satisfactions
     Practical Example of Vealey’s Sport Specific model
                   of Sports Confidence.


The sports situation is a cricketer going into bat with the
score at 250 for 1 (very good situation).

SC-trait = High confidence due to a high score in the
previous game.
Competitive orientation = The batsman has an outcome
goal of scoring 40 runs. If he gets any less than that he
would consider it a failure.

The combination of the previous factors (1) would
determine the SC-state, which in this case would be
very high.


 The combination of 1 and 2 would determine how
 well the cricketer will perform. In this case the
 chances are that he will perform quite well
 considering the previous factors.

Depending on how well the cricketer performed (3) the
following factors will be evaluated after the match.
       a) Results of performance (was he successful or
not according to his goal)
       b) Subjective outcome (How did other people
rate the performance)
       c) Perceived Success (whether the goal was met
or not, did he feel like he succeeded?)
       d) Perceived Attribution (Why did he perform well
/ badly. Was it internal / external reasons
       e) Performance satisfaction (Was he happy with
the performance)

If the outcomes of 3 and 4 were positive then this will lead
to an increase in trait confidence.


If the goals that were set in 1 were met, the cricketer will
change the goal next time around. The cricketers last
outcome goal was to score 40 runs. If he scored 80 in the
previous innings then this goal would be increased to say 50
or 60.
If he failed to meet his 40 run target then this would stay the
same for the next innings.

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