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Skills of Interviewing

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					Skills of Interviewing
HRM

Domain




Key skill & activity for managers & HRM
Interpersonal communication
Cognition/information processing
Perception (selective)
Problem-analysis & decision-making
  (managerial behaviour)




                                           2
HRM

Interview Experience




What is the best & worst experience that you
  have had
       As an interviewer
       As an interviewee
What made these experiences – best/worst?
What would have prevented & improved the
  worst experience?



                                                3
HRM

The interview




More than just a conversation
"…. A specialist form of two-way
  communication conducted for a
  task-related purpose." (Whetton 1995)




                                          4
HRM

Expectations and propositions




Information generated via the interview process
  provides data for decision-making

Training enhances performance – both as an
  interviewer and interviewee




                                                   5
HRM

Types of interview



Research/information gathering
Selection
Counselling/support
Appraisal
Development
Complaint/grievance
Disciplinary
Exit
                                  6
HRM

Common approaches




Unstructured
Stress (validity?)
Semi-structured
Structured


                      7
HRM

Issues



 Your role as a decision-maker/actor
 Interview purposes & objectives
 Structure and content
 Environment (physical and psychological)
 The interviewer – NPower, NAch, NRelate
 Data collection and processing strategies
 The communication exchange (interviewer-
  interviewee) – explicit, implicit, verbal and non-verbal
 Organisational policy and expectations
                                                             8
HRM

The Selection Interview




Preparation and organisation
The interview process
Interviewing skills
Discrimination between candidates
Finalising the decision & "contract"


                                        9
HRM

Preparation Products


 Job descriptions & authorisation
 Job criteria - competencies
 Personnel specification (profile/model of ideal candidate)
    Essentials - desirables - disqualifiers
 Applicant information from various data sources
 Selector preparation and appreciation of
         role demands, choices, constraints, ambiguities, priorities, overloads,
          pressures/conflicts, organisational change
         the social milieu - rules and tensions
 Selector egoism, the political process of “justifying” the selection.


                                                                                10
HRM

The Psychometric-Objective Model


Assumptions
 Eternal optimism
 Smooth programmed administration
 Measured, controlled, predictable, systematic search often using
  psychometric techniques
 Match evidence of qualities to job

Compare with social process approach
 Interplay between selection events
 Social and ritual aspects. Audition. Power vetting
 Candidate & selector feelings/responses
 Intra organisational negotiation & adjustment
 Candidate - given fair opportunity or “club” scrutiny


                                                                     11
HRM

Interview Strategies


 •    Frank and friendly vs. Interrogation & stress
       • Simulate stress. Put on the spot? Validity? Spurious appeal?
 •    Strengths and weaknesses of
       • individual interview
       • sequential interviews
       • panel interviews
 •    Biographical journey
       • Critical events and experiences - what, why, how, options,
          plans, outcomes?
       • Problem-solving - “imaging yourself as ...what would you do
          if...?
 •    GASP


                                                                        12
HRM

The GASP Interview



Greeting            Interviewer Preparation

Acquiring Information
Supplying Information
Parting

                                               13
HRM

GASP – Greeting & rapport




Genuine positive regard – Move towards
Calm, neutral, no interruptions, safe.
Maintain rapport
     seating voice, eye contact, warmth and body
      posture.....NVC
   Preparation & “contract of interest & expectation”
   Smooth gear change


                                                     14
HRM

GASP - Acquiring Information


 Listen more - talk less.
 Objectivity, bias, stereotyping & premature judgement
 Not adversarial. Halo, horns and doppleganger
 Taking notes
 Question carefully (preparation)
       well-structured, open-ended questions
       probe and link
       direct, leading, trick and taboo questions
 Emphasise biography/experience, explanation/analysis
 Mental agility and hypothetical questions
 Interview flow with control: - agenda, space, time
 Summarise periodically and conclude
                                                          15
HRM

Asking questions




Open-ended, well-sequenced, well-structured
Tell me about …..Six honest serving men
Closed (pros & cons?)
Probe, link and follow-up (control)
Leading (candidate adaptation)
Intrusive

                                               16
HRM

GASP - Journey

 Recent & significant jobs/projects
       contributions, events/phases, initiatives, products, achievements,
          decisions. Strengths and gaps
 Competencies from REAL experience
       knowledge/understanding, analytical skill, written/numeric,
          specialist & technical.
         attitudes & values, drives & motivation
 Interpersonal relations – visualise with others
 Education, training, learning & development
 Personal & domestic topics - relevance/irrelevant
 Applicant’s questions about
       the organisation and the job - current & prospective
       terms of employment
                                                                       17
HRM

GASP: Supplying Information


 cutting it short (horns/halo, premature judgement)
 equal opportunity to all candidates
 intimation of acceptance (verbal + non-verbal)
 Potential for misunderstanding. No promises.
 Communicating a decision
    hints to attractive candidates (in a competitive situation)
    intra-organisational bargaining
    the decision in writing
    subject to references
 Career advice to rejected candidates? Culture?
                                                                   18
HRM

GASP: Parting



Signal closure - NVC plus
maintain concentration
clarify future steps - the selection schedule
verify
   dates - holidays and availabilities
   phone, post
stand up, move, parting courtesies
                                                 19
HRM
The Good Interviewer?



 At times
•     well-prepared
•     sharp & in focus, specific & rational
•     at times intuitive as well as systematically analytical & evaluating
        • picking up nuances and rationalisations
        • stepping back to see the whole interaction, fitting things together
           and noting the time left and areas to cover....
•     Interviewer calmness helps the candidate to relax
•     clear perception
        • Positive regard for the other
        • Aware of self and biases
        • Use productive silences & seamless asking of questions.
        • Counteracts habituated boredom in interviews

                                                                          20
HRM
Yourself as an interviewer?




 Good Points?

 Weaknesses?

 Interview exercise and analysis.


                                21
 HRM

   GASP Interview Issues


 Premature decision
       Tentative, pre-determined views seldom altered at interview
       accept/reject within 3-4 min. Gather evidence to confirm first impression
 Weak candidates make average candidates look good
 Unstructured interviews
 Propositions
    interview practice alone does not improve performance, training does
 Dramatic performance may not reflect job. Interviewees as actors.
 Panels - defer to influential. Poor correlation when choice is confidential
 Psychometric tests - weak evidence but belief/practice strong.
 Validity of the psychometric-objective model?

                                                                                    22
HRM

The Potential for Distortion




Stereotyping
       Halo, horns, doppleganger effects
       function & dysfunction
Physical environment
Psychological state
Poor listening (active vs. passive listening)
Lack of interviewer competence
Defensive uniformities
                                                 23
HRM
Stereotyping




  What is it? What form does it take?
  How does it occur?
  Common stereotypes
  Is there positive and negative value?
  Problems of signs, signifiers, interpretation.
  Body language
  Presentation of self - Front - stage and audience
  What dangers for fairness and equity?
                                                       24
HRM

Types of interviews – APPRAISAL




One member of staff (usually a manager)
    appraises aspects of the performance of
    another member of staff (usually a
    subordinate)
   Mediation and intervention mechanisms?




                                              25
HRM

Types of Appraisal Interview




Tell and listen
Tell and sell
Joint problem-solving
Mixed model interview


                               26
HRM

The appraisal process



 Establishing the agenda
 The Interview
 Action planning
 Pre-interview form filling
 Handling disagreements e.g. grand parenting



                                                27
  HRM

  Types of interviews – COUNSELLING - 1




 The manager as counsellor – equipped for the role?
 Operational vs. personal counselling
 Directive   Non-directive
 Dependency, confusion & responsibility
 Trust and genuine positive regard
 GASP: Mixed model with substantial unstructured component


                                                        28
HRM

Types of interviews – COUNSELLING - 2



 Opening up & expressing concerns (interviewee)
 Defining "the problems" – how the interviewee sees and
  defines the problem
 Testing reality
 Mirroring assumptions
 Courses of action
 Closure and follow-up


                                                       29
HRM

Types of Interviews – COMPLAINT/GRIEVANCE - 1



 Moan, gripe, complaint
 Grievance - a formal complaint made by an employee
  against a colleague or the organisation

 Problems of "policy and procedure"
 Problem perception, information and power/status
 I'm OK, You're not OK. "Now I've got you, you SOS"
 Neutral processing
 Rescue the managers and establish KARMA
                                                       30
HRM

Types of Interviews – COMPLAINT/GRIEVANCE - 2



 Verifying the claim rights
 Importance of shared, agreed information
 Safeguards in procedure
 Formality of the interviews
 Recognising "the person" - perception of self and
  acting on the problem
 Equity – the complainant and the "complained about"
  – the discrimination issue



                                                        31
HRM

Types of interview – DISCIPLINE - 1



 Rights not to be unfairly dismissed
 Natural justice & reasonableness in procedure
 Disciplinary action
       Formally sanctioned, organisational action in which an
        individual is informed that their work-related behaviour is not
        acceptable.
 Reasons & "fair" dismissal"
      Conduct, capability, redundancy, statutory rule, some
      other big reason
     Automatically unfair.


                                                                          32
HRM

Types of interview – DISCIPLINE - 2



 Informal, prior supervisory communication & guidance
 Minor conduct which runs counter to express &
  implied contractual obligations
 From irritation to substantial, non-fulfilment of
  obligations
 Gross misconduct (severed roots)



                                                         33
HRM

Types of interview – DISCIPLINE - 3



 Importance of evidence
 Defendant's rights – law & natural justice
 Equitable procedures
 Very formal, systematic interviews
 Representation
 Corrective versus punitive action
 Interview tension and reaction – the "afront"
 Recording and communication

                                                  34
HRM

Types of interview – DISCIPLINE - 4



 Stress, bullying and constructive dismissal
 Appeals
 Intra-organisational bargaining & authorisation
 Managerial powerlessness
 Consistency of supervision and communication
 The trust/separation puzzle


                                                    35

				
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