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					   Catholic Social Teaching

On the Development of Peoples ~ 1967
           Populorum Progression

      On Social Concerns ~ 1987
           Sollicitudo Rei Socialis

Loyola University New Orleans
School of Law
February 20, 2004
           Facts on Hunger & Poverty
      840 million are malnourished - 799 million are
 from developing world. More than 153 million are under
                       the age of 5

   6 million children under the age of 5 die every year as
                     a result of hunger.

         Of the 6.2 billion people in today’s world,
          1.2 billion live on less than $1 per day.

The richest 5% of the world’s people have incomes 114 times
                  that of the poorest 5%.
               Hunger and Health
 91 children out of 1,000 die before their 5th birthday.
In the U.S., 8 children out of 1,000 will die before age 5.

   30,000 children die from mostly preventable and
 treatable causes such as, diarrhea, acute respiratory
            infections, measles and malaria.

  12 million people die each year from lack of water,
including 3 million children from waterborne diseases

         1.1 billion lack access to clean water,
        2.4 billion live without decent sanitation
The overall percentage of people living below the
   poverty line increased from 11.7% in 2001
               to 12.1% in 2002.

                 Poverty Rate
               Children - 16.7%
           African Americans - 24%
               Hispanics - 21.8%
         Female headed families - 27%
      “…the problem of world hunger is rooted
     in the inequitable structures of the world’s
       social, political and economic systems.”
Dr. Martin McLaughlin - former vice-president of the Overseas Development Council
                where he specialized in world hunger problems.
       Bedrock Principle of Catholic Social Teaching
Every person - regardless of race, sex, age, national origin,
religion, sexual orientation, employment, economic status,
      health, intelligence, achievement or any other
   differentiating characteristic - is worthy of respect.
     It is not what I do or what I have that gives me a
        claim on respect; it is simply being human
                that establishes my dignity.
                    Given this dignity,
                    ALWAYS AN END.
     Vision Statement, Millennium Forum
     United Nations, New York, May 2000
We are one human family, in all our diversity,
 living on one common homeland and sharing
    a just, sustainable and peaceful world,
 guided by universal principles of democracy,
     equality, inclusion, voluntarism, non-
discrimination and participation by all persons,
       men and women, young and old,
   regardless of race, faith, disability, sexual
      orientation, ethnicity or nationality.
                  Populorum Progressio

                    Three Major Duties

       Mutual Solidarity - aid to developing nations.
    St. James, “…faith that does nothing in practice is
               throughly lifeless.” (2:17) #45

Social Justice - the rectification of trade relations between
                  strong and weak nations.

Universal Charity - the effort to build a more humane world
community, where all can give and receive, and where the
 progress of some is not bought at the expense of others.
#50 On the Development of Peoples
The times call for coordinated
planning of projects and programs,
which are much more effective than
occasional efforts promoted
by individual goodwill.
United Nations Millennium Development Goals

         Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

          Achieve universal primary education

     Promote gender equality and empower women

                 Reduce child mortality

               Improve maternal health

     Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

          Ensure environmental sustainability

      Develop a global partnership for development
How do you build peace
when warring tribes
lay down their guns?

   We know 3 outstanding keys in peace building are:
   ~ role women play in decision making.
   ~ peace education for youth.
   ~ economic development.
“Development is the
  new name for
      -Pope Paul VI, 1967

“Development is the
 engine that drives
  - Bush Administration, 2001
#47 On the Development of Peoples
It is not just a question of eliminating hunger
and poverty. It involves building a human
community where men can live truly human lives,
free from discrimination on account of race,
religion or nationality, free from servitude to other
men or to natural forces which they cannot
yet control satisfactorily.
#48 On the Development of Peoples
The duty of promoting human solidarity
also falls upon the shoulders of nations.
It is very important duty of the advanced
nations to help the developing nations.
#51 On the Development of Peoples
We asked world leaders to set aside
part of their military expenditures for
a world fund to relieve the needs
of impoverished peoples.

#52 On the Development of Peoples
Such agreements would be free of all
suspicion if they were integrated into
an overall policy of worldwide cooperation.
#56 On the Development of Peoples
Efforts are being made to help the developing nations
  financially and technologically. Yet all these efforts
  will prove to be vain and useless, if their results are
    nullified to a large extent by the unstable trade
  relations between rich and poor nations. The latter
will have no grounds for hope or trust if they fear that
what is being given them with one hand is being taken
                     away with the other.
#58 On the Development of Peoples
It is evident that the principle of free trade, by itself,
is no longer adequate for regulating international
agreements. It certainly can work when both
parties are about equal economically; in such cases
it stimulates progress and rewards efforts. That is
why industrially developed nations see an element of
justice in this principle.

But the case is quite different when the nations
involved are far from equal. Market prices that are
freely agreed upon can turn out to be most unfair.
#59 On the Development of Peoples
The teaching set forth by Leo XIII in Rerum Novarum
 is still valid today: when 2 parties are in very unequal
 positions, their mutual consent does not guarantee a
     fair contract; the rule of free consent remains
    subservient to the demands of the natural law.
#59 continued
In Rerum Novarum this principle was set down with
regard to a just wage for the individual worker; but
it should be applied with equal force to contracts
made between nations: trade relations can no longer
be based solely on the principle of free, unchecked
competition, for it very often creates an economic
dictatorship. Free trade can be called just only when
it conforms to the demands of social justice.
#61 On the Development of Peoples
   What applies to national economies and to high
developed nations must also apply to trade relations
between rich and poor nations. Indeed, competition
  should not be eliminated from trade transactions;
 but it must be kept within limits so that it operates
  justly and fairly, and thus becomes a truly human
#61 On the Development of Peoples
In order that international trade be human and
moral, social justice requires that it restore to the
participants a certain equality of opportunity. To be
sure, this equality will not be attained at once, but we
must begin to work toward it now by injecting a
certain amount of equality into discussions and price
#66 On the Development of Peoples
Human society is sorely ill. The cause is not
so much the depletion of natural resources,
nor their monopolistic control by a
privileged few; it is rather the
weakening of brotherly ties between
individuals and nations.
#73 On the Development of Peoples
     Sincere dialogue between cultures, as between
  individuals, paves the way for ties of brotherhood.
       This dialogue will be fruitful if it shows the
participants how to make economic progress and how
 to achieve spiritual growth as well; if the technicians
take the role of teachers and educators; if the training
  provided is characterized by a concern for spiritual
and moral values, so that it ensures human betterment
                as well as economic growth.
#76 On the Development of Peoples
    When we fight poverty and oppose the unfair
 conditions of the present, we are not just promoting
   human well-being; we are also furthering man’s
 spiritual and moral development, and hence we are
 benefiting the whole human race. For peace is not
simply the absence of warfare, based on a precarious
 balance of power; it is fashioned by efforts directed
    day after day toward the establishment of the
ordered universe willed by God, with a more perfect
                form of justice among men.
#77 On the Development of Peoples
Nations are the architects of their own development,
and they must bear the burden of this work;
but they cannot accomplish it if they live in
isolation from others.
#78 On the Development of Peoples
As we told the United Nations General Assembly
In New York: “Your vocation is to bring
not just some peoples but all peoples
together as brothers…Who can fail to see
the need and importance of thus gradually
coming to the establishment of a world
authority capable of taking effective action
on the juridical and political planes.”
#83 On the Development of Peoples
Finally, we look to all men of good will,
reminding them that civil progress and economic
development are the only road to peace.
         On Social Concerns
First ~ document issued by the highest authority
 Of the Catholic Church addressed to Church
        And “to all people of good will.”
Second ~ worldwide dimension of social question
Third ~ contributes to the social doctrine of the
   Church in its totality and to the concept of
#7 On Social Concerns
…the encyclical presents itself as an application
of the Council’s teaching in social matters
to the specific problem of the development
and the underdevelopment of peoples.
 Economic development must…not be left to the
  sole judgment of a few individuals or groups,
  possessing excessive economic power, or of the
political community alone, or of certain powerful
nations. It is proper, on the contrary, that at every
 level the largest number of people have an active
       share in directing that development.
                    The Church in the Modern World, #65
#8 On Social Concerns
In continuity with the Encyclical of Leo XIII, it must
be recognized that the document of Paul VI possesses
the merit of having emphasized the ethical and
cultural character of the problems connected with
development, and likewise the legitimacy and
necessity of the Church’s intervention in this field.
#8 continued
The social doctrine of the Church has once more
demonstrated its character as an application of the
word of God to people’s lives and the life of society
as well as to the earthly realities connected with
them, offering “principles for reflection,” “criteria
of judgment” and “directives for action.” Here,
in the document of Paul IV, one finds these
three elements with a prevalently practical
orientation, that is, directed towards moral conduct.
#10 On Social Concerns
The encyclical provides a very original contribution
to the social doctrine of the Church in its totality
and to the very concept of development.

If the social question has acquired a worldwide
dimension, this is because the demand for
justice can only be satisfied on that level.
#42 On Human Concerns
The option or love of preference for the poor. This
is an option, or a special form of primacy in the
exercise of Christian charity, to which the whole
tradition of the Church bears witness. It affects
the life of each Christian inasmuch as he or she
seeks to imitate the life of Christ, but it applies
equally to our social responsibilities and hence
to our manner of living, and to the logical decisions
to be made concerning the ownership and use
of goods.
#46 On Social Concerns
Development which is merely economic is incapable
Of setting man free, on the contrary, it will end by
Enslaving him further…Human beings are totally
Free only when they are completely themselves,
In the fullness of their rights and duties. The same
Can be said about society as a whole.

The principle obstacle to be overcome on the way
To authentic liberation is sin and the structures
Produced by sin as it multiplies and spreads.
   It is not just individuals who are called
   to practice justice. Every society must
  also practice it. Justice must find formal
 embodiment in the institutional structures
 of society. The failure of society to embody
             justice is social sin.

    Social sin is present when there are:
       Growing economic disparities,
Increasing concentrations of economic power,
     Accelerating environmental abuse.

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