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Thiamin - Georgia Southern University

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					                  Thiamin


                Laura Poenicke
               Tonileigh Bennett


Vitamin Home
Page
                     Index
• General Information     • Deficiencies Causes
• Line Structure
                          • Quiz
• 3-D Structure
• Biochemical/Metabolic   • References
• Biochemical/Metabolic
  Reactions
• Daily Recommendations
• Sources
        General Information
• Water-Soluble B-complex vitamin
• Also known as Vitamin B1 and aneurine
• Essential for carbohydrate metabolism and
  nerve and muscle function.
• Deficiencies are rare, but when they do
  occur the result is very severe.
        Line Structure




Click Boxes To Learn More About Ring Structures
3-D Structure




    Thiamin
Biochemical/Metabolic Functions

       Thiamin acts as coenzyme to produce
         acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter

          It is needed as TTP for nerve
             and muscle function.


       It is essential as TPP for metabolism of
  carbohydrates into simple sugars, such as glucose.
          Daily Recommendations
    Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Thiamin
    Life Stage Age                 Males (mg/day)          Females
    (mg/day)
•   Infants      0-6 months        0.2 (AI)     0.2 (AI)
•   Infants      7-12 months       0.3 (AI)     0.3 (AI)
•   Children     1-3 years         0.5          0.5
•   Children     4-8 years         0.6          0.6
•   Children     9-13 years        0.9          0.9
•   Adolescents 14-18 years        1.2          1.0
•   Adults        19 years and older 1.2        1.1
•   Pregnancy     all ages         -            1.4
•   Breastfeeding         all ages              -                1.4
 Dietary Sources of Thiamin

•Green peas    •Bananas
•Spinach       •Soybeans
•Liver         •Whole Grain
•Beef          •Enriched
•Pork          Cereals
•Navy Beans    •Breads
•Nuts          •Yeast
•Pinto Beans   •Legumes
             Dietary Sources of Thiamin
    Food                                         Serving          Thiamin (mg)
•   Lentils (cooked)                             1/2 cup                0.17
•   Peas (cooked)                                1/2 cup                0.21
•   Long grain brown rice (cooked)               1 cup                  0.19
•   Long grain white rice, enriched (cooked)     1 cup                  0.26
•   Long grain white rice, unenriched (cooked)   1 cup                  0.03
•   Whole wheat bread                            1 slice                0.10
•   White bread , enriched                       1 slice                0.12
•   Fortified breakfast cereal                   1 cup                  0.5-2.0
•   Wheat germ breakfast cereal                  1 cup                  1.89
•   Pork, lean (cooked)                          3 ounces*              0.74
•   Brazil nuts                                  1 ounce                0.28
•   Pecans                                       1 ounce                0.13
•   Spinach ( cooked)                            1/2 cup                0.09
•   Orange                                                   1 fruit              0.11
•   Cantaloupe                                   1/2 fruit              0.10
•   Milk                                         1 cup                  0.10
•   Egg (cooked)                                 1 large                0.03
                  Deficiencies
• Breast fed infants, whose
  mothers are thiamin
  deficient, are vulnerable to
  developing infantile
  beriberi.
• Beriberi has been termed:
  Dry, Wet, and Cerebral,
  depending on the systems
  affected by severe thiamin
  deficiency.
• Wernicke-Korsakoff
  syndrome
• Deficiency often occurs
  with alcoholics because
  the alcohol interferes with
  Thiamin absorption.
          Causes of Deficiencies
•   Thiamin deficiency may result
    from inadequate thiamin intake,
    an increased requirement for
    thiamin, excessive loss of
    thiamin from the body,
    consumption of anti-thiamin
    factors in food, or a combination
    of factors.
•   Thiamin deficiency affects the
    cardiovascular, nervous,
    muscular, and gastrointestinal
    systems.
•   Thiamin deficiency is common in
    low-income populations whose
    diets are high in carbohydrate
    and low in thiamin (e.g., milled or
    polished rice).
•   Alcoholism, which is associated
    with low intake of thiamin among
    other nutrients, is the primary
    cause of thiamin deficiency in
    industrialized countries.
•   Malnutrition
•   Foods high in thiaminase, such as
    raw freshwater fish and raw
                   Thiamin Testing
•   A positive diagnosis test for Thiamine deficiency can be ascertained
    by measuring the activity of transketolase in red blood cells .
    Thiamine can also be measured directly in whole blood following the
    conversion of thiamine to a fluorescent thiochrome derivative.
                 Genetic Diseases
•   Genetic diseases of thiamine transport are rare but serious. Thiamine
    Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia with diabetes mellitus and
    sensorineural deafness (TRMA)[2] is an autosomal recessive
    disorder caused by mutations in the gene SLC19A2,[3] a high affinity
    thiamine transporter. TRMA patients do not show signs of systemic
    thiamine deficiency, suggesting redundancy in the thiamine transport
    system. This has led to the discovery of a second high affinity
    thiamine transporter, SLC19A3.
Quiz
              Question 1
Thiamin is a B-vitamin that
A. is fat-soluble
B. aids in nerve and muscle function
C. is also known as B-3
D. is found in chocolate
               Question 2
A thiazole ring structure differs from a
    pyrimidine ring structure in that it
    contains:
A. Oxygen
B. Phosphate
C. Sulfur
D. Iodine
               Question 3
Thiamin deficiencies occur in all the
  following except:
A. Breast Fed Infants
B. Formula Fed Infants
C. Autistic Children
D. Diabetics
               Question 4
In what form is Thiamin used in the Citric
    Acid Cycle?
A. Acetylcholine
B. TPP
C. TTP
D. Transketolase
              Question 5
Which form of Beriberi results in
  cardiovascular manifestations?
A. Cerebral
B. Peripheral
C. Dry
D. Wet
                     Conclusion
 • Thiamin is very important for muscle and
   nerve function.
 • It can be found in a variety of sources so
   deficiencies are rare.
 • We hope you not only learned from this
   show but enjoyed it as well.



Vitamins Home Page
                      References
• http://chemistry.gsu.edu/glactone/vitamins/b1/
• http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/thiamin/
• http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/nutrition/factsheets/vitamin-
  b1.html
• http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002401.htm#visual
  Content
• http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000771.htm#visual
  Content

				
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posted:2/27/2012
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