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Jennifer Collins


  • pg 1
									Example Papers. There two, one right after the other. Don't forget the paper should have
a cover page with running header and page numbering, and it is numbered 1.
Paper #1 was written by Jennifer Collins

                                                                          Elderly Driving 2

                     Elderly Citizens Should be Re-tested for Driving

       It is obvious when people turn a certain age they began to move slower, become

forgetful and should probably also be retested when it comes to driving. I am all for this

idea. There have been several times when I have been on the road and wonder what in

the world another driver is doing, and I would soon see the automobile’s driver, and it

would be a little old lady or man behind the wheel not paying attention to what was

going on anywhere but right in front of him/her. Don’t get me wrong; we are supposed to

look forward while driving, but we also have to be defensive while driving, and that

would include paying attention to what is going on all around us.

       As people age their sight does too, and so does their ability to perceive what’s

going on around them. This is one reason the number of traffic accidents among the

elderly soars. I work in an optometrists’ office, and we have several elderly people who

come in to update their prescription for eyeglasses because they have failed their driver’s

eye exam. Their eyes change quicker due to age and degeneration. There are also

several patients who pull in to our clinic’s parking lot and have totally missed the parking

places, parked sideways or had a terrible time just backing out of their parking place. I

watch this sometimes throughout the day with the people I see leaving the office who do

not look like they should be driving, much less walking.
                                                                           Elderly Driving 3

        Night driving is also difficult for elderly drivers. The headlights glare with on-

coming traffic, and the headlights blind them because of their weaker eyes (Morris, n.d.)

It is also a problem for elderly drivers when they are out during rush hour and when they

are making left hand turns across on-coming traffic at intersections where there is a lot of

activity going on at the same time.

        There have also been several fatalities due to poor responses by elderly drivers,

and this is just one of many reasons that they should at least be tested when they reach the

ages between 65 and 70. However, I don’t feel the age to be tested should be put off until

much later because some people's minds age more quickly than other people's and some

people's sight is affected sooner than others'. Maybe when a person reaches retirement

age he/she should also retake the driver’s test.

        In a article published by BNet Research Center ("Elderly Drivers", 1996), a study

published by the American Family Physician shows that, in the 50 states examined,

17,294 elderly drivers were involved in 16,840 fatal accidents over the five-year period.

The rate of fatal crashes with a driver older than 70 years of age was 18.9 per 100,000 of

population. Also as a group, older drivers drive less than younger drivers, but they have

more accidents per mile. Elderly, unsafe drivers who continue to drive despite the advice

of family and friends often do not come to the attention of the state until the inevitable

happens, the driver is stopped for erratic driving or, worse, he or she is involved in an

accident. A few states try to screen out unsafe older drivers by requiring more frequent

written tests.
                                                                            Elderly Driving 3

       All in all driver’s test should be taken more frequently among drivers in all age

divisions, but for elderly drivers there should be a law that requires a driver of certain age

to retake the driver’s test and continue to do this periodically as that person ages.
                                                                         Elderly Driving 4

Elderly drivers, car accidents and license renewal policies – Tips from other journals.

       (1996). American Family Physician. Bnet Research Center. Retrieved December

5, 2007, from

Morris J. (n.d.). Should elderly drivers be tested? CNN. Retrieved December 5, 2007,

This paper was written by Rebecca McEachern.
                                                                What's Wrong with NCLB 2

                      What is Wrong With ‘No Child Left Behind’?

       The purpose of the ‘No Child Left Behind’ Act was to reform public schools so

that no child was left behind or stuck in a failing school system. The goal was by 2014

every child in school would be proficient in both math and reading. This proficiency

would be measured through state standardized tests given to children in the third through

eighth grades and in one high school year. There has been much debate over whether or

not the program is working, and after researching the topic it is my opinion that it is not

as effective as the government originally intended (“Bush’s No Child”, 2007).

       The biggest problem with the act is that, ironically, it still leaves a group of

children behind. A study by the University of Chicago (“Bush’s No Child”, 2007)

showed that the test scores of students in the bottom 20 percentile range actually got

worse after the ‘No Child Left Behind’ Act was implemented. Those children’s test

scores have continued to decline in recent years despite the program. Those children’s

poor test scores may be attributed to administrative bodies evaluating a teacher’s

educating skills based on their student’s test scores. This form of evaluation has caused

teachers to focus on raising the average of their student’s test scores by any means

necessary. They tend to teach toward the standardized test and focus most of their

attention toward the top and middle tiers of their students who can make the most

improvement in the shortest amount of time. This type of teaching often raises the class’

average test scores and helps the middle students succeed and achieve higher test scores.

So, the program has yielded some success in helping to improve the middle scoring, or

average, students test scores. There has also been no change in the student’s test scores
                                                               What's Wrong with NCLB 3

that typically fall in the top 10% on the standardized tests. However, the significant

drawback to this teaching style is that the low scoring students or academically

challenged students are overlooked because they would take a significantly longer

amount of time to improve their scores and the average class score would fall.

       Since the ‘No Child Left Behind’ act causes teachers to be evaluated based on

their student’s performance on the standardized tests, it is also causes a teacher to be

unfairly evaluated based on her/his class make-up. It is unfair because a teacher could

have a less than average class that will not/are not able to score high on the standardized

test causing the teacher to have a lower evaluation despite her/his teaching skills. For

example, the majority of her/his students may not want to learn, or they may already be

so far behind that it would be impossible to get them all the way back up to their grade

level in one semester. If this was the case, then it would appear that the teacher was an

ineffective teacher when in reality it was not his/her teaching ability that caused the lower

test scores (“House Education Committee”, 2007).

       ‘No Child Left Behind’ creators believed that every student in every school in the

entire state/country was capable of reaching proficiency in both reading and math was too

optimistic. Some students test taking skills are not as good as others, therefore, causing

them to appear less intelligent than their peers. According to Frost (2006), another idea to

consider is that not every student is capable of scoring in the highest percentile range

regardless of teaching efforts. Some students have learning disabilities that go

undiscovered until many years into their academics. Others students are not concerned

about school and do not try to succeed; therefore, teaching them is a difficult task.
                                                               What's Wrong with NCLB 4

       A big problem with ‘No Child Left Behind’ is that it emphasizes test scores not

mastery of the subject. Because of the pressure to have high test scores, teachers tend to

teach students the material with the focus of how to take the standardized test in mind.

Emphasizing test scores causes a lack of focus on the subjects that are not on the tests.

Subjects such as history, science, and art are important parts of the educational process,

and without them students would not have a firm basis on the core of their studies. This

kind of teaching keeps students from actually learning the subjects that are necessary to

continue their education, but instead improve their scores on a particular test. This will

make it harder for students to succeed once they reach higher levels of education.

       Besides all of the other problems discussed, inadequate funding is also a big

contributor to the malfunction of the ‘No Child Left Behind’ Act. The original funding

idea was that the state was supposed to set aside a portion of the money received from the

federal government to support the ‘No Child Left Behind’ program. The problem is that

the federal government has not allotted enough money to the state’s individual programs

to ensure success. As Abramson (2007) remarks, without adequate funding, the ‘No

Child Left Behind ‘Act was destined to be unsuccessful from the commencement of the

program despite the good intentions of its creators.

       In conclusion, the ‘No Child Left Behind’ Act was meant to improve the quality

of education. Unfortunately, this goal has been undermined because of flaws in a

program designed around a single test. Although the task of creating a school system that

will truly leave no child behind is a worthy goal, the means of achieving the goal is in

need of much reform.
                                                           What's Wrong with NCLB 5


Abramson, L. (2007). Funding stagnant for No Child Left Behind Program. NPR.

       Retrieved March 21, 2009, from

Bush’s No Child Left Behind Law leaves certain children behind. (2007). Educational

       Portal. Retrieved March 21, 2009, from http://education- Child_Left_Behind_Law_Leaves_

       Certain_Children Behind.html

Frost, M. (2006). Flawed No Child Left Behind discourages teachers. Fox News.

       Retrieved March 21, 2009, from,2933,230840,00.html

House Education Committee: No Child Left Behind is not fair. (2007). Educational

       Portal. Retrieved March 21, 2009, from


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