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FOCUS ON THE KIDNEYS

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FOCUS ON THE KIDNEYS Powered By Docstoc
					FOCUS ON THE KIDNEYS
                      Functions:
• Filter wastes: Every day, kidneys process about 200
    quarts of blood to filter out about 2 quarts of waste
    products and extra water
•   Regulate composition of electrolytes: The
    kidneys measure out chemicals like sodium, phosphorus,
    and potassium and release them back to the blood to
    return to the body. In this way, the kidneys regulate the
    body’s level of these substances.
•   Maintain pH: filter H+ ions
•   Secrete hormones:
    -erythropoietin: stimulates the bone marrow to make red
    blood cells
    -calcitriol: helps maintain calcium for bones
•   Regulates blood pressure- by secreting the enzyme
    renin
       How the kidneys work
1. Blood
  enters the
  kidney
  through the
  renal artery
2. Blood enters the
   functional unit of
   the kidney called
   the nephron.

   One kidney contains
   about one million
   nephrons.
• 3 Filtration of the
  blood takes place
  in the renal
  corpuscle which
  is made of a
  glomerulus and a
  glomerular
  capsule.

(The kidney filters 7.5 L
  of water per hour and
  in the same time
  excretes .08 L of
  urine)
The filtrate goes into the glomerular capsule and
includes water, amino acids, small proteins, vitamins,
glucose, and nitrogenous wastes. Cells and large
proteins are left in the arteriole.
4. Tubular reabsorption

   The blood reabsorbs
   needed substances from
   the proximal convoluted
   tubule
   -sometime water
   -small proteins, amino acids
   -glucose
   -ions: Na, Cl, Ca, K
   -bicarbonate
   -some urea
                                  The glomeruli and
                                  tubules together
                                  make up long and
                                  extremely fine
                                  tubes which, if
                                  connected, would
                                  run for 50 miles.
5. Tubular
  Secretion

 Additional items
 are added to the
 forming urine.
 -H+
 -ammonia
 -urea
 -potassium

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6. Filtered
  blood
  exits the
  kidneys
  by way of
  the renal
  vein
7. Wastes
   removed by
   the kidney
   pass through
   collecting
   ducts then
   the ureter to
   the bladder.

  About 65g/hour of
   NaCl is filetered,
   while as little as
   2 g/hour might
   be excreted.
8. When the bladder
  is full, the urine
  passes out of the
  body through the
  urethra.



 Summary
      Breaching homeostasis
1. Diabetic Kidney Disease
  If glucose stays in the blood instead of
  breaking down, it can act like a poison,
  damaging the nephrons.
2. High Blood Pressure
  -can damage the small blood vessels in
  the kidneys so they can’t filter wastes.
3. Glomerular Diseases
  -attack the tiny blood vessels,
  glomeruli, within the kidney.
  The first sign of a glomerular disease is
  often too much protein in the urine.
  Another common sign is blood in the urine.
  Glomerular diseases can slowly destroy
  kidney function.
4. Inherited and Congenital Kidney
   Diseases
   Example: Polycystic kidney disease
   (PKD), for example, is a genetic disorder
   in which many cysts grow in the kidneys.
5. Trauma, such as a direct and forceful
   blow to the kidneys, can lead to kidney
   disease
6. Ingestions of poisons.
  What happens when kidneys fail
          completely?
1. The body fills with extra water and waste
   products (uremia). Hands or feet may swell.
   A person will feel tired and weak because the
   body needs clean blood to function properly.
2. Untreated uremia may lead to seizures or
   coma and will ultimately result in death.
3. A person whose kidneys stop working
   completely will need to undergo dialysis or
   kidney transplantation.
                      Treatment
• Dialysis

   Home dialysis



• Transplant
    Preview to transplant

				
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posted:2/27/2012
language:English
pages:19