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PowerPoint Presentation - School of Information

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									Computation: History and Ideas


                 IS146:
        Foundations of New Media

               Prof. Marc Davis & Prof. Peter Lyman
                        UC Berkeley SIMS
             Tuesday and Thursday 2:00 pm – 3:30 pm
                           Spring 2005
      http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/academics/courses/is146/s05/

IS 146 - S pring 2005                                   2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 1
Job Announcement
• WANTED: Research Assistant Extraordinaire
        – Be organized, responsible, resourceful, and a great
          communicator
        – Type amazingly well (able to take dictation when I talk fast)
        – Get personal satisfaction from organizing and filing paper and
          digital documents for an unrepentant archivist
        – Be meticulous about data entry (contact addresses, bibliographic
          references, etc.)
        – Be a comfortable user of MS Windows XP, Word, and Outlook
        – Able to compile expense reports using MS Excel
        – Able to carefully and cheerfully help manage my schedule and
          external communications to address the demands for my time
        – Available at least 10 hours per week
        – Pay/credit and hours negotiable
        – EMAIL: marc@sims.berkeley.edu

IS 146 - S pring 2005                                          2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 2
Lecture Overview

• Assignment Check Ins
        – Assignment 2: Group Formation
        – Assignment 3: Documenting Artifact Usage
• Review of Last Time
        – Ethnography and Design
• Today
        – Computation: History and Ideas
• Preview of Next Time
        – Computation: Programming Concepts

IS 146 - S pring 2005                         2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 3
Lecture Overview

• Assignment Check Ins
        – Assignment 2: Group Formation
        – Assignment 3: Documenting Artifact Usage
• Review of Last Time
        – Ethnography and Design
• Today
        – Computation: History and Ideas
• Preview of Next Time
        – Computation: Programming Concepts

IS 146 - S pring 2005                         2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 4
Assignment 2 Check In

• Group names?
• Group members?
• Issues in using web page content
  management system?
• Artifact choice questions?




IS 146 - S pring 2005                2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 5
Lecture Overview

• Assignment Check Ins
        – Assignment 2: Group Formation
        – Assignment 3: Documenting Artifact Usage
• Review of Last Time
        – Ethnography and Design
• Today
        – Computation: History and Ideas
• Preview of Next Time
        – Computation: Programming Concepts

IS 146 - S pring 2005                         2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 6
Assignment 3: Documenting Artifact Usage

• Objective 1. Refine your understanding of
  the artifact that will be your topic for the
  Semester: phone, camera, Web, or game

• Objective 2. Use ethnographic methods to
  develop a profile about how your artifact
  shapes the users’ life—to begin your
  investigation into how to improve the
  design of your artifact (i.e., programmable,
  communication, social organization, play)

IS 146 - S pring 2005                   2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 7
Assignment 3: Documenting Artifact Usage

•        Four questions you need to focus upon in your
         ethnographic report include:
                1. Utility. How do different people use the artifact, and what
                   are some of the features of the artifact that are not used?
                2. Image and style. How is their sense of image or style
                   expressed by the artifact?
                3. Social networks. How did they learn to use the artifact?
                   Who influences their use? How do they use the artifact to
                   relate to people?
                4. Life style. How does the artifact influence (or changes) their
                   life style?
•        Example: how might we analyze someone’s
         car?

IS 146 - S pring 2005                                                 2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 8
How To Do Ethnography

• Who? Your group could decide to watch one
  particular group to study in depth (college
  students), or two groups to compare (men and
  women, students and working people).
• How? If your artifact is the Web, you can
  observe people online, and/or ask someone if
  you can talk with them while they’re online, or
  use email or IM. Otherwise, observe in public
  spaces, or ask if people are willing to be
  interviewed.


IS 146 - S pring 2005                       2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 9
How To Do Ethnography - 2
• How long? A good idea for each of you watch at
  least two people, for at least half an hour each time,
  then write up key behaviors you think are important.
  Or, ask two people to agree to be interviewed, then
  write up at least a page of key findings. Then your
  group needs to meet to try to identify patterns.
• Working together. If you want to work together, your
  whole group could watch the same event (for
  example, how students on Telegraph Avenue use
  an artifact on campus), each of you write up your
  one page of notes, then compare findings and figure
  out patterns. Two people can interview someone
  together, but two is usually a maximum.

IS 146 - S pring 2005                          2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 10
How To Do Ethnography - 3
• Organizing the report. Your report should be
  organized around the four themes about your
  artifact, featuring two kinds of evidence
        – First, are there specific behaviors you observed or
          stories that are really interesting?
        – Second, what patterns does your group think are
          important?
• Point out issues
        – If your group doesn’t particularly agree about patterns
          or examples, set your report up as a debate with
          competing interpretations
• Example: Marketing report on Youth                              and
  Wireless devices [Reader Vol. 2, p. 69]

IS 146 - S pring 2005                                  2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 11
Peter’s Ethnographic Research

• Mimi Ito, IM usage by teens in Japan have
  created private space in social world
  almost public (future reading), new modes
  of friendship, intimacy
• Scale of social networks
        – Kids use blogging to vastly include the scope
          of social networks, creating of new
          knowledge, exchanging ideas
        – Email has created transnational research
          teams
IS 146 - S pring 2005                           2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 12
Marc’s Ethnographic Research

• Social Uses of Personal Media
        – Looking not just at what people do with digital
          imaging technology, but why they do it
• Goals
        – Identify social uses of photography to predict
          resistances and affordances of next
          generation mobile media devices and
          applications



IS 146 - S pring 2005                            2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 13
Marc’s Ethnographic Research
• Methods
        –    In depth video interviews
        –    Focus groups
        –    Surveys
        –    Usability testing
        –    Review of online photo sites
        –    Sociotechnological prototyping
• Developing new theoretical and practical frameworks for
  ethnographically informed design research
        –    Activity Theory
        –    SCOT
        –    Embodied design methods
        –    Interleaved ethnography and design teams



IS 146 - S pring 2005                                   2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 14
Ethnography of Artifacts
• Papert describes that he learned to think like a
  mathematician by figuring out how gears work
  (parts of a transmission, gearbox, differential)
        – Artifacts can be described as objects we own, but
          also things we love, or “objects to think with”
        – Sherry Turkle = children’s play with toys is how they
          learn
        – Barrie Thorne = children’s hobbies are the way they
          form strategies for learning, in their collections
        – Csikszenmihalyi = we need things to organize our
          experience, to organize memories (like architecture)
        – How can we get people to talk to us about their
          emotional and intellectual relationships to artifacts?

IS 146 - S pring 2005                                   2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 15
Lecture Overview

• Assignment Check Ins
        – Assignment 2: Group Formation
        – Assignment 3: Documenting Artifact Usage
• Review of Last Time
        – Ethnography and Design
• Today
        – Computation: History and Ideas
• Preview of Next Time
        – Computation: Programming Concepts

IS 146 - S pring 2005                         2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 16
Your Assumptions About Computing

• What are computers for?
• Do you program?
• How do you feel about learning to
  program?
• Why do you feel that way?
• What do you think learning to program
  would do for you?



IS 146 - S pring 2005               2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 17
Reading Questions

• Papert
        – What is computation? What does it enable us to do?
        – What assumptions have you had about computing
          and mathematics that Papert is challenging?
        – How do you use computing today to enhance your
          learning at Berkeley?
        – How could you use computing differently than you do
          today to enhance your learning at Berkeley?
        – Why is programming not taught in the English
          department? Should it be? If it were, how would your
          understanding of language, computation, and New
          Media change?

IS 146 - S pring 2005                                 2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 18
Computation and Learning

• Computer-aided instruction
        – The computer is being used to program the
          student


• Constructionism
        – The student programs the computer
        – Objects to think with
        – Microworlds


IS 146 - S pring 2005                         2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 19
Computers as Cognitive Tools
• It is possible to design computers so that
  learning to communicate with them can be a
  natural process
        – Like learning to speak a language
• Learning to communicate with a computer can
  change the way other learning takes place
• Computers can influence how people think, how
  they conceptualize the world
• Computers can enable children and humanists
  to participate in and shape the “computational
  cultures” of science, mathematics, and
  engineering
IS 146 - S pring 2005                         2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 20
Devin Blong on Papert

• Papert begins by characterizing an
  education system in which children are
  deprived of connection with the sciences,
  going as far as to declare the
  sophisticated elements of society to be
  “mathaphobic”. As a result, he says
  children are steered away from them. In
  your experience, is this true? Has it
  changed from the time this book was
  written?
IS 146 - S pring 2005                2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 21
Devin Blong on Papert

• Papert makes a constant comparison
  between programming and speaking. He
  repeatedly compares mathematics to a
  language that can be learned through
  programming. Do you believe this is an
  accurate comparison in terms of
  semiotics?




IS 146 - S pring 2005              2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 22
Devin Blong on Papert

• In discussing the possible ways funding
  could be provided for implanting this
  computer based learning, Papert makes
  the point that with computers in place,
  students need less individual attention. In
  an age where class size and personal
  attention are major issues, do you believe
  this is more conducive to learning?


IS 146 - S pring 2005                  2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 23
Devin Blong on Papert
• Papert repeats the idea that when children are
  taught to program, they are more self directed and
  active.
        – “By contrast, when a child learns to program, the
          process of learning is transformed. It becomes more
          active and self directed. In particular, the knowledge is
          acquired for a recognizable personal purpose […].The
          new knowledge is a source of power and is experienced
          as such from the moment it begins to form in a child’s
          mind.”
• This is juxtaposed with the idea that programming
  is a normal, rather than strange and foreign skill
  for a child to learn. Why then is this knowledge
  more powerful than other types of knowledge?
IS 146 - S pring 2005                                   2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 24
Devin Blong on Papert

• What good is a language if it is not spoken?
• How does the programming process of
  constantly debugging relate to communication
  metaphors?
• What are some of the self-imposed barriers that
  keep technology from moving forward today
  (e.g., QWERTY) ?
• How does lacking a “vocabulary” in a particular
  area affect your understanding and learning in
  that area?

IS 146 - S pring 2005                     2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 25
Lecture Overview

• Assignment Check Ins
        – Assignment 2: Group Formation
        – Assignment 3: Documenting Artifact Usage
• Review of Last Time
        – Ethnography and Design
• Today
        – Computation: History and Ideas
• Preview of Next Time
        – Computation: Programming Concepts

IS 146 - S pring 2005                         2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 26
Readings for Next Time

• W. Daniel Hillis. The Pattern on the Stone:
  The Simple Ideas That Make Computers
  Work, New York: Perseus Books, 1999, p.
  39-59.
        – Discussion Questions
                • Andrea Brown




IS 146 - S pring 2005                 2005. 02.03 - S LIDE 27

								
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