Environmental Studies 173

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES                                            of the development of environmental thought, focusing
                                                                 on the relationship between humans and the environ-
(ENV)                                                            ment. Participants then discuss alternative criteria for
                                                                 environmental decision making, including sustainability,
CORE fACULTy:                                                    equity, ecological integrity, economic efficiency, and
ProfESSorS KAhN*, CooPEr, WArrEN                                 environmental justice. The course concludes with an
ASSoCIATE ProfESSorS DrUMBL, KNAPP                               examination of contemporary environmental issues,
ASSISTANT ProfESSorS CASEY, HAMILToN                             including global warming, invasive species, energy
                                                                 and the environment, tropical deforestation, and the
   The Program in Environmental Studies is an inter-             relationship between the environment and economic
disciplinary program of study requiring an understanding         development in developing countries. (SS5; GE6: as
of the sciences, social sciences, and the humanities,            credits only, not an area.) Kahn.
designed to educate students in a broad class of issues              Fall, Winter
related to the environment and humanity’s place in the
natural world. Students are educated not as experts in any       Environmental Studies 111 (1)—Environmental
one discipline but rather are encouraged to understand               Service Learning
how insights from different disciplines complement each             Prerequisites: Environmental Studies 110 and
other. This is not only an academic experience but also          permission of the instructor. Practical application of
an expansion of the students’ capacities as citizens, al-        student knowledge of environmental issues based on
lowing them to become aware of the scientific, ethical, and      supervised volunteer work in the greater rockbridge
policy issues they will face in their local communities, their   community. Students arrange to work with teachers in
professions, and in the broader world community.                 the local school systems. The course culminates with
   The Program in Environmental Studies is not a ma-             a paper integrating students’ knowledge with practical
jor, but rather a series of related courses intended to          application throughout the term. Staff.
complement and enhance a chosen major. Interested                    Fall, Winter, Spring
students are encouraged to talk to the director of the
program early in their academic careers in order to plan         Environmental Studies 240 (3)—Global
a program best structured to their academic needs and                 Environmental Governance: Law, Policy,
career plans. Students identified by the director of the              and Economics
program as having completed the requirements will have               This seminar examines challenges to the integrity
a notation placed on their transcripts at graduation.            and well-being of the global environment. Its approach
   The program requires completion of the following 25           is interdisciplinary, drawing from economics, law, political
or 26 credits:                                                   science, and ecology. Through a series of case studies,
                                                                 this seminar unpacks the tragedy of the commons, open-
  1. Required courses: Environmental Studies 110,                access resources, the place of markets, intergenerational
     397                                                         equality, distributive ethics, environmental racism, and
  2. Social Sciences: one course from each of the                the role of “law” in promoting sustainable economic
     following two areas.                                        regimes. The case studies are introduced on a modular
      a. Economics 101; Politics 100                             basis and include, but are not limited to, climate change;
      b. Economics 255; Environmental Studies 240;               trade and globalization; biodiversity and intellectual
         Politics 233                                            property; deforestation and poverty; marine resources;
  3. Natural and Physical Sciences: one course from              and transboundary movement of hazardous substances.
     each of the following two areas.                            Throughout, an attempt is made to understand the
      a. Biology 101; Geology 100 or 101                         economic and ecological effects of extant international
      b. Biology 245, 246, 322; Geology 141, 150                 legal regimes and to explore how these can be improved.
  4. Humanities: two courses chosen from English                 Kahn, Drumbl.
     380 (when appropriate), 294; Environmental                       Winter
     Studies 395; Philosophy 108, 260; religion 224
     (Anthropology 224).                                         Environmental Studies 295 (3)—Special Topics
                                                                      in Environmental Studies
  Most of these courses fulfill certain general education            Prerequisites: Environmental Studies 110 and permis-
requirements and may be applicable to the majors in              sion of the instructor. This courses examines special
each of the departments.                                         topics in environmental studies, such as ecotourism, the
                                                                 environment and development, local environmental is-
Environmental Studies 110 (3)—Introduction to                    sues, values and the environment, global fisheries, global
    Environmental Studies                                        climate change, tropical deforestation and similar topics
  Prerequisite: Freshman or sophomore standing or                of importance, which could change from year to year.
permission of the instructor. An interdisciplinary intro-        This is a research-intensive course where the student
duction to environmental studies with an emphasis on             would be expected to write a significant paper, either
how societies organize themselves through their social,          individually or as part of a group, of sufficient quality to
political and economic institutions to respond to environ-       be made useful to the scholarly and policy communities.
mental problems. The course begins with a discussion             May be repeated for degree credit with permission and
                                                                 if the topics are different. Kahn.
*Director of the Program in Environmental Studies
174 Environmental Studies/french

Environmental Studies 395 (3)—Special Topics
    in Environmental Ethics
                                                               fRENCh (fREN)
                                                               (Department of romance Languages)
   This course explores areas of topical concern within
the field of environmental ethics. The issues explored         G. W. Custis Lee foundation
may vary from year to year. May be repeated for degree
credit with permission and if the topics are different.        ProfESSorS frALIN, rADULESCU
Cooper.                                                        ASSoCIATE ProfESSorS LAMBETh,
   Spring                                                        frÉGNAC-CLAVE
                                                               ASSISTANT ProfESSor KAMArA
Environmental Studies 397 (3)—Senior Seminar
    in Environmental Studies                                   MAJor IN frENCH
   Prerequisites: Environmental Studies 110 and comple-
tion of any two of the three remaining areas for the               A major in french leading to a Bachelor of Arts
Environmental Studies Program, or permission of the            degree requires demonstrated proficiency in listening,
instructor. An interdisciplinary capstone course intended      speaking, reading, and writing, and completion of at
                                                               least 39 credits as follows:
for students in the environmental studies program.
                                                                  1. Core courses (27 credits)
Students analyze a particular environmental issue and
                                                                     a. french 261, 273, 331, 332 and 397
attempt to integrate scientific inquiry, political and eco-          b. Two additional courses at the 200 level, including
nomic analysis and ethical implications. The particular                 one chosen from 280, 281 and 282
issue changes each year. Staff.                                      c. Two additional courses numbered 333 or
   Winter                                                               above
                                                                  2. Related courses (12 credits)—completion of one
Environmental Studies 401 (1), 402 (2), 403 (3)—                     of the following groups:
    Directed Individual Studies                                      a. At least 12 credits in a non-romance language or
    Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Students                through the intermediate level in a non-romance
undertake significant original research or creative activity            language not previously studied. Students who
in the area of Environmental Studies, under the direction               wish to work in french and another romance
of a faculty member. May be repeated for degree credit                  language are advised to see the description of
with permission and if the topics are different. Staff.                 the romance Language major below.
    Fall, Winter, Spring                                             b. 12 credits, with advance departmental approval,
                                                                        for courses in art, English, history, philosophy,
   In addition to the courses in the interdisciplinary                  politics, and literature in translation (except 258)
                                                                        or for any other courses pertinent to the french
program, several other courses on campus address
                                                                        major, including french courses numbered above
environmental subjects. for course descriptions, see
                                                                        172 and beyond the 18 credits required in the
the appropriate departmental listings.                                  core above.
   Biology 101—Environmental Biology                           MAJor IN roMANCE LANGUAGES
   Biology 245—Ecology
   Biology 246—Biological Diversity: Patterns and                  A major in Romance languages leading to a Bach-
    Processes                                                  elor of Arts degree consists of at least 33 credits as
   Biology 332—Plant functional Ecology                        follows:
   Economics 255—Environmental and Natural re-                    1. Completion of the core courses for either the french
    source Economics                                                 major or the Spanish major
   English 294—Topics in Environmental Literature                 2. Completion of the intermediate level or its equivalent
   English 380—Advanced Seminar (when appropriate,                   in a second romance language (french 162 or
    such as American Environmental Writing)                          172, or Spanish 162 or 164)
   Geology 100—General Geology with field Em-                     3. Six credits in the second language as follows:
    phasis                                                           a. if french, french 261 and one course chosen
   Geology 101—General Geology                                          from french 273, 280, 281, and 282
   Geology 135—Meteorology                                           b. if Spanish, a Peninsular course and a Spanish-
   Geology 141—Global Climate Change                                    American course, at least one of which must be a
   Geology 146—Geology of Natural resources                             literature course. Complete one of the following
                                                                        three sequences: Spanish 207 and 208; Spanish
   Geology 150—Water resources
                                                                        207 and 211; Spanish 208 and 212.
   Geology 201—oceanography
                                                                  romance languages majors need not complete the
   Geology 397—Seminar (when appropriate)                      “related courses” requirement of either the french major
   Philosophy 108—Ethics and the Environment                   or the Spanish major.
   Philosophy 260—Philosophy of Nature
   Politics 233—Environmental Policy and Law                      HONORS: An Honors Program in French is offered
                                                               for qualified students; see department head for de-
   Note that many departments offer special topics             tails.
courses and that these often have environmental studies

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