Chapter Seven

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					  Chapter Five

    Designing Task
Progressions to Achieve
  Learning Outcomes
   1. understand the definition of task
   2. Demonstrate the understanding of
    task informing, refinements, extensions,
    and applications with specific examples
Task (order them from easy to
   1. Pass and screen
   2. Pass basketballs to your partners 6
    feet apart
   3. Receive a ball in a triple-threat
   4. Pass basketballs to your partners 12
    feet apart
   Definition
    • Learning tasks that move students from less
      complex and sophisticated tasks to more
      difficult and complicated tasks by adding
      complexity and difficulty

   Examples?
How to develop progressions of
instructional tasks? (Rink, 1985)
   Informing task
     •   Underhand throwing
   Refining task
     •   The conditions of practice remain same
     •   The focus of student attention changes as different technical
         elements or strategy are emphasized
     •   Being more aware of the technical components of a good follow-
         through so that this critical aspects of throwing skill improves
         through a series of refining tasks
     •   Teachers must use information about the performance of their
         students to develop progressive refining tasks
     •   Task refinement and Learning cues
          •   The sequence of learning tasks through which students improve the
              technical quality of a skill or strategy performance
     •   Break down into pieces, then put together
How to develop progressions of
instructional tasks? (Rink, 1985)
   Extending Task
     •   Within task progressions
          •   Change the complexity of performance
                •   Increase throwing distance
                •   Using different sizes of balls
                •   Throwing at different angles
     •   Between task progression: Progressions between related tasks
          •   A three versus three strategy in soccer to a full-sided game with more
              players in a larger place
          •   To be progression, one task need to be related to another in terms of
              common critical performance elements
          •   Underhand serve in volleyball is not a progression for the overhand serve
              because the technical demands are too different.
   Application/assessment Tasks
     •   Apply skills and strategies in more authentic ways
How to modify task complexity?
   Identify factors that impact task complexity
     •   Space
     •   Equipment
     •   Number of participants
     •   Rules
     •   Conditions/tactics/problems
     •   Closed and open skills
          •   Closed skills: in a fixed environment in which the conditions are
              unchanged during the performance
          •   Open skills: in an ever-changing environment in which conditions are
          •   The more closed the skill, the more emphasis will be on refining
              technique that is performed invariably.
          •   The more open the skill, the less time will be spent on technique, and
              the more time will be spent extending tasks that cover the variety of
              situations in which the skill will be used

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